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GREAT BRITAIN, with 15 Maps, 30 Plans, and a Panorama 

Second Edition. 1890. 10 marks. 

LONDON and its ENVIRONS, with 3 Maps and 15 Plans. 

Seventh Edition. 1889. 6 marks. 

BELGIUM and HOLLAND, with 13 Maps and 20 Plans. 

Tenth Edition. 1891. 6 marks. 

THE RHINE from Rotterdam to Constance (the Seven 

Mountains, Moselle, Volcanic Eifel, Vosges Mtb., Black Forest, 
etc.), w : *^ sfi™-™ -«^ io di„„= ■c'-'—'h Edition. J889. 6 marks. 


Tenth ] 


30 Plan 


12 Plan; 




etc., wi 





Maps and 54 Plans. 

8 marks. 

IA, with 15 Maps and 

8 marks. 

:he Bavarian High- 

, etc. With 33 Maps, 
ion. 1891. 8 marks. 

a Panorama of Athens. 

10 marks. 


ugh France, Switzerland, 

ition. 1889. 6 marks. 

10 Maps, 31 Plans, a 

Forum Romanum. Tenth 
6 marks. 

Excursions to the 
.,, Sardinia, Malta, and 

6 marks. 

CORFU, with 26 Maps and 16 Plans. Tenth Edition. 1890. 

NORWAY and SWEDEN, with 23 Maps and 13 Plans. 

Fourth Edition. 1889. 9 marks. 

PARIS and its ENVIRONS, with Routes from London 

to Paris. With 11 Maps and 31 Plans. Tenth Edition. 1891. 6 marks. 

NORTHERN FRANCE, with 9 Maps and 25 Plans. 1889. 

7 marks. 

SOUTHERN FRANCE, with 14 Maps and 19 Plans. 1891. 

9 marks. 

SWITZERLAND, and the adjacent Parts of Italy, 

SAVOY, and the TYROL, with 39 Maps, ll Plans, and 12 Panoramas. 
Fourteenth Edition. 1891. 8 marks. 

LOWER EGYPT, with the Fayum and the Peninsula of 

SlNAI, with 16 Maps, 30 Plans, 7 Views, and 76 Vignettes. Second 
Edition. 1885. 16 marks. 

PALESTINE and SYRIA, with 18 Maps, 43 Plans, a Pano- 
rama of Jerusalem, and 10 Views. 1876. 20 marks. 

CONVERSATION DICTIONARY in four languages: Eng- 

lish, French, German, Italian. 3 marks. 


English, German, French, and Italian. 3 marks. 




(Comp. p. xiii.) 

Approximate Equivalents. 





























2>| 2 





































71 4 




















2i| 2 

















































2i| 2 


























7" [i 




















2ij a 




















9 3 (4 




























2i |' 2 


































Distances. Since the consolidation of the Kingdom of Italy the 
French mHre system has been in use throughout the country, but the old 
Italian miglio (pi. le miglia) is 'still sometimes preferred to the new kilo- 
milre. One kilometre is equal to 0.62138, or nearly 5 /sths, of an English 
mile (S kil. = 5 31.). The Tuscan miglio ia equal to 1.65 kilometre or 1 M. 
44 yds.; the Roman miglio is equal to 1.49 kilometre or 1630 yds. 

Geograjih..Anst von. "Wagner iDebes.Xeipzi^ 







With 10 Maps, 31 Plans, a Panorama of Rome, and a View of the 
Forum Romanum. 

Tenth revised Edition. 




All rightt reserved. 

"Go, little book, God send good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee 'will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all." 


T.he objects of the Handbook for Italy, which consists 
of three volumes, each complete in itself, are to supply the 
traveller with some information regarding the progress of 
civilisation and art among the people he is about to visit, 
to render him as independent as possible of the services of 
guides and valets-de-place, to protect him against extortion, 
and in every way to aid him in deriving enjoyment and 
instruction from his tour in one of the most fascinating coun- 
tries in the world. The Handbook will also, it is hoped, be 
the means of saving the traveller many a trial of temper; 
for there is probably no country in Europe where the patience 
is more severely taxed than in some parts of Italy. 

The Handbook is based on the Editor's personal ac- 
quaintance with the places described, most of which he has 
repeatedly and carefully explored. As, however, changes 
are constantly taking place, he will highly appreciate any 
communications with which travellers may favour him, if the 
result of their own observation. The information already re- 
ceived from numerous correspondents, which he gratefully 
acknowledges , has in many cases proved most serviceable. 
Hotel-bills, with annotations showing the traveller's opinion as 
to his treatment and accommodation, are particularly useful. 

The tenth edition of Central Italy and Rome, like its pre- 
decessors, has been carefully revised and brought down to 
date. The iatroductory articles on art by Prof. _K. KekuU of 
Bonn and Prof. A. Springer of Leipsic have been adapted for 
the use of English travellers with the kind assistance of Mr. 
J. A. Crowe, the eminent historian of art. Professor Springer 
has also contributed many valuable incidental remarks on 
modern art. 


The Maps and Plans, on which special care has been 
bestowed , will abundantly suffice for the use of the ordinary 
traveller. The Plan of Rome (scale 1 : 15,000) is divided 
into three sections with a view to obviate the necessity of 
unfolding a large sheet of paper at every consultation , and 
its use will be further facilitated by reference to the small 
clue-plan inside the cover at the end of the volume. 

Heights are given in English feet (1 Engl. ft. = 0,3048 
metre), and Distances in English miles (comp. p. ii). 

Hotels (comp. p. xxi). In no country does the treat- 
ment which the traveller experiences at hotels vary more 
than in Italy, and attempts at extortion are perhaps no- 
where so outrageous. Besides the modern palatial and ex- 
pensive establishments, the Handbook also contains a selec- 
tion of modest, old-fashioned inns, where gentlemen trav- 
elling alone will not unfrequently find good accommodation 
at moderate charges. The asterisks indicate those hotels 
which the Editor has reason to believe from his own ex- 
perience, as well as from information supplied by numerous 
travellers, to be respectable, clean, and reasonable. The 
value of these asterisks, it need hardly be observed, varies 
according to circumstances, those prefixed to town-hotels 
and village-inns signifying respectively that the establish- 
ments are good of their kind. At the same time the Editor 
does not doubt that comfortable quarters may occasionally 
be obtained at inns which he has not recommended or even 
mentioned. Although changes frequently take place, and 
prices generally have an upward tendency, the average 
charges stated in the Handbook will enable the traveller to 
form a fair estimate of his probable expenditure. 

To hotel-proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing and cour- 
tesy towards travellers forms the sole passport to his com- 
mendation, and that advertisements of every kind are strictly 
excluded from his Handbooks. 


Introduction. Page 

I. Travelling Expenses. Money xiii 

II. Season and Plan of Tour xiv 

III. Language xv 

IV. Passports. Custom House. Luggage .... xvi 
V. Public Safety. Begging xvi 

VI. Intercourse with Italians xvii 

VII. Conveyances xviii 

VIII. Hotels xxi 

IX. Restaurants, Cafes, etc xxii 

X. Sights, Theatres, etc xxiv 

XI. Post Office. Telegraph xxv 

XII. Climate. Health ... xxv 

XIII. Dates of Recent Events xxvii 

Ancient Art, by Prof. R. Kekule xxix 

Mediaeval and Modern Roman Art, by Prof. A. 

Springer xliii 

Fibst Section. 

S. Tuscany. Umbria. The Marches. 


1. From Leghorn or Pisa to Rome by the Maremme ... 1 

1. From Leghorn to Civita Vecchia by sea 1 

2. Piombino and Populonia 2 

3. From Grosseto to Rusellse 3 

4. Monte Argentario. Cosa 3, 4 

5. From Montalto to Vulci 4 

6. From Corneto to Toscanella 6 

7. From Civita Vecchia to La Tolfa 7 

2. From Leghorn to Volterra and Colle 7 

1. From Volterra to Monte Cerboli 8 

2. From Volterra to S. Girolamo 11 

3. From Volterra to the copper-mines of Monte Catini . . 11 

3. Elba and the Tuscan Islands 11 

4. From Florence to Siena and Chiusi via Empoli .... 13 

1. From Poggibonsi to San Gimignano 14 

2. From Asciano to Grosseto. Monte Amiata . . . . 17, 18 

3. From Montepulciano to Pienza 20 

5. Siena 20 

Excursions from Siena. L'Osservanza, S. Colomba, etc. . 38 

6. From Florence to Perugia via Arezzo and Terontola (Chiusi, 

Rome) 37 

1. From Arezzo to Stia and Pratovecchio 42 

2. From Arezzo to Monte Sansavino, Fojano, and Betolle . 42 

7. Perugia 46 

From Perugia to Narni via Todi 55 

8. From Arezzo to Fossato. Borgo S. Sepolcro. Citta di 

Castello. Gubbio 56 


Route Page 

9. From Florence to Rome via (Arezzo) Terontola and Chiusi 59 

1. From Chiusi to Citta della Pieve. Cetona 61 

2. Orvieto 61 

3. Bolsena 65 

4. From Borghetto to Civita Castellana. Falerii. Mount 
Soracte 67, 68 

10. From Attigliano to Viterbo 69 

1. Excursions from Viterbo. Toscanella. Castel d'Asso. Ve- 

tralla. Norchia. Caprarola. Sutri. Nepi. Castel S. Elia 72-74 

11. From Perugia to Foligno and Orte (Rome). Assisi. Spo- 

leto. "Waterfalls of Terni. Narni 74 

12. From Bologna to Rimini, Falconara (Rome), and Ancona 87 

1. From Rimini to San Marino 94 

2. From Pesaro to Urbino 96 

3. From Fano to Fossato via, Fossombrone and the Furlo Pass 100 

13. Ancona and its Environs. Osirno. Loreto 102 

From Porto Civitanova to Fabriano 107 

14. From Ancona to Foligno (Orte, Rome) 108 

From Fabriano to Sassoferrato 109 

Second Section. 

Preliminary Information : — 

Arrival. Police. Embassies and Consulates .... 110 
Hotels. Pensions. Private Apartments. Restaurants . 110, 111 
Osterie. Cafes. Confectioners. Gratuities .... 113, 114 
Baths. Climate. Physicians. Chemists. Bankers . . 114, 115 
Booksellers. Libraries. Reading Rooms. Newspapers 115, 11B 
Guides. Teachers of Italian. Music. Studios. Goods Agents 116,117 

Shops 117 

Theatres 118 

Carriages. Porters. Post Office. Telegraph Office . . 119 
English Churches. Italian Protestant Churches. Clubs . 119 
Church Festivals. Popular Festivals. Street Scenes . 119-122 

Garrison 122 

Collections, Villas, etc 122 

Diary. Summary of Attractions 125, 126 

Bibliography 127 

History of the City of Pome 129 

Chronological Table of Roman Emperors and Popes . 139 

Topography , . . . 143 

Strangers' Quarter and Corso ... 146 

Piazza del Popolo. S. Maria del Popolo .... 146, 147 

The Pincio 148 

Villa Medici. S. Trinita de' Monti 149 

Casa Zuccari-Bartholdy. Piazza di Spagna. Propaganda . 150 

S. Andrea delle Fratte. Fontana di Trevi 151 

The Corso 152 

S. Carlo al Corso. S. Lorenzo in Lucina 153 

Post and Telegraph Office. Pal. Chigi. Piazza Colonna. 
Column of Marcus Aurelius. Piazza di Monte Citorio. 

Camera de' Deputati 154 

Dogana di Terra. Palazzo Sciarra-Colonna. S. Ignazio . 155 

Collegio Romano. Museo Kircheriano 156 

S. Marcello. S. Maria in Via Lata. Palazzo Doria . . 157, 158 


(Rome) Page 

Palazzo di Venezia. Palazzo Torlonia. S. Marco . . . 162 

Palazzo Colonna. Galeria Colonna. Tomb of Bibulus . . 163 

SS. Apostoli 165 

II. The Eastern Quarter. Quirinal, Viminal, Esquiline . 166 
Piazza delle Terme. Railway Station. Thermae of Dio- 
cletian. S. Maria degli Angeli 166, 167 

Via Venti Settembre. S. Maria della Vittoria .... 168 

Wall of Servius. Campo Militare. Via Nazionale . . . 169 
Palazzo and Galleria Barberini. Piazza Barberini . . 170, 171 

S. Maria della Concezione. Villa Ludovisi 172 

Piazza del Quirinale 173 

Palazzo Regio al Quirinale. Palazzo Kospigliosi . . . 174 

S. Silvestro al Quirinale. S. Pudenziana 175 

S. Lorenzo in Panisperna. S. Maria Maggiore .... 176 

S. Prassede 178 

Arch of Gallienus. Aquarium. Piazza Vitt. Emanuele. S. 

Bibiana 179 

Temple of Minerva Medica. Porta Maggiore .... 180 

S. Croce in Gerusalemme. Sette Sale IS! 

Gardens of Maecenas. S. Martino ai Monti. S. Pietro in Vincoli 182 

III. Rome on the Tiber (Left Bank) 183 

Via di Eipetta. Mausoleum of Augustus .... 183, 184 

Palazzo and Galleria Borghese 184, 185 

S. Agostino 189 

Palazzo Lancelotti. Piazza Navona. S. Agnese . . . 190 

S. Maria dell' Anima. S. Maria della Pace 191 

Palazzo Madama 192 

S. Luigi de' Francesi. Pantheon 193 

S. Maria sopra Minerva 195 

Universita della Sapienza. Corso Vittorio Emanuele. Gesii 197 

Palazzo Vidoni. S. Andrea della Valle 198 

Pal. Massimi alle Colonne. Palazzo della Cancelleria. S. Lo- 
renzo in Damaso 199 

Chiesa Nuova 200 

Palazzo Braschi. Piazza del Pasquino. S. Carlo a' Catinari. 

Piazza Tartaruga 201 

Palazzo Mattei. S. Caterina de 1 Funari. S. Maria in Cam- 

pitelli 202 

Theatre of Marcellus. Ghetto. Portico of Octavia . . . 203 

Ponte de 1 Quattro Capi. Isola Tiberina. S. Bartolommeo . 204 
Theatre of Pompey. Palazzo Fainese. Palazzo Spada alia 

Regola 205 

S. Giovanni de' Fiorentini 207 

IV. Ancient Rome 207 

The Capitol 208 

S. Maria in Aracoeli 209 

Piazza del Campidoglio 210 

Palazzo del Senatore 211 

Collections of the Capitol. Palace of the Conservatori . 211 

Capitoline Museum 216 

Tarpeian Rock. Tabularium 221 

Forum Roinanuin 222 

Colonnade of the Twelve Gods. Temple of Vespasian . . 225 
Temple of Concordia. Temple of Castor and Pollux. Bas- 
ilica Julia 226 

Temple of Saturn 227 

Arch of Septimius Severus. Rostra. Column of Phocas . 228 

Temple of Csesar 229 

Atrium VestEe 230 

Temple of Faustina. SS. Cosma e Damiano .... 231 


(Some) Page 

Basilica of Constantine. S. Francesca Romana .... 232 

, Triumphal Arch of Titus. Temple of Venus and Roma . 233 

Colosseum 234 

Triumphal Arch of Constantine 236 

Thermse of Titus 237 

Fora of the Empeiors. Academy of St. Luke . . . 237 

Career Mamertinus 237 

Accademia di S. Luca 238 

Forum of Caesar. Forum of Augustus. Forum of Nerva . 239 

Forum of Trajan. Trajan's Column 240 

The Palatine 241 

Lupercal. House of Livia 243 

Palace of Tiberius. Palace of the Flavii 244 

Palace of Septimius Severus . 246 

Psedagogium 247 

Velabrum and Forum Boarium 247 

S. Teodoro. S. Giorgio in Velabro. Janus Quadrifrons. 

Cloaca Maxima 248 

S. Maria in Cosmedin. Round Temple. S. Maria Egiziaca. 

House of Crescentius or Rienzi 249 

Ponte Eotto. S. Nicola in Carcere. Via de' Cerchi (Circus 

Maximus) 250 

The Aventine Monte Testaccio 250 

Marmorata. Monte Testaccio. Protestant Cemetery . . . 251 

Pyramid of Cestius. S. Sabina 252 

S. Alessio. S. Maria Aventina 253 

S. Prisca. S. Saba 254 

The Via Appia within the City 254 

S. Balbina 254 

Thermae of Caracalla 255 

SS. Nereo ed Achilleo. S. Cesareo. Via Latina ... . 256 

Tomb of the Scipios. Columbaria 257 

Arch of Drusus 258 

The Cselius 258 

S. Gregorio Magno . 258 

SS. Giovanni e Paolo. S. Maria in Domnica. Villa Mattei 259 

S. Stefano Rotondo 260 

S. Olemente. The Lateran 260 

SS. Quattro Coronati 264 

Piazza S. Giovanni in Laterano. Baptistery. S. Giovanni 

in Laterano 265 

Palazzo del Laterano 267 

Gregorian Museum. Museo Profano . 268 

Christian Museum. Picture Gallery 270 

Villa Massimi. Scala Santa. Villa Wolkonsky .... 272 

Amphitheatrum Castrense 273 

Quarters of the City on the Right Bank 273 

The Borgo 273 

Ponte S. Angelo. Castello S. Angelo 274 

Palazzo Giraud . 276 

Piazza di S. Pietro 277 

S. Pietro in Vaticano 277 

Cimitero dei Tedeschi 285 

The Vatican . 286 

A. Paintings: — 
Sistine Chapel. Scala Regia. Sala Ducale. Pauline Chapel 287-292 
Raphael's Stanze and Loggie. Cappella Niccolina . . 292-301 
Picture Gallery. Raphael's Tapestry 301-303 


(Rome) Page 

B. Antiquities : — 

Museo Pio. Clementine Museo Chiaramonti. Braccio Nuovo 304-316 
Egyptian Museum. Museo Etrusco 316-319 

C. Library of the Vatican 319 

The Lungara 322 

S. Onofrio. Villa Farnesina 322,323 

Palazzo Corsini. Museo Torlonia . . ' . . . . 324, 325 

Trastevere 327 

Ponte Sisto 327 

S. Pietro in Montorio 328 

Acqua Pabla. Passeggiata Margherita. Ponte Garibaldi. S. 

Crisogono. S. Maria in Trastevere 329, 330 

S. Cecilia in Trastevere 331 

S. Francesco a Ripa 332 

Third Section. 

Environs of Rome. 

1. Short Excursions in the Campagna 333 

From the Porta del Popolo : Villa Borghese. Parco Regina 

Margherita. Ponte Molle. Via Flaminia. Villa of Livia. 

Acqua Acetosa. Villa di Papa Giulio. Villa Madama. 

Monte Mario 334 

From the Porta Salara: Villa Albani. Antemnse. Ponte 

Salaro. Fidense 338 

From the Porta Pia: Villa Torlonia. S. Agnese Fuori. S. Cos- 

tanza. Ponte Nomentano. Mons Sacer 341 

From the Porta S. Lorenzo: Via Tiburtina. S. Lorenzo Fuori. 

Campo Verano " 343 

From the Porta Maggiore : Tor de' Schiavi. Torre Pignattara 345 

From the Porta S. Giovanni: Via Latina. Porta Furba . . 346 
From the Porta S. Sebastiano : Via Appia. Domine Quo Va- 

dis. S. Sebastiano. Circus of Maxentius. Tomb of Csecilia 

Metella. Deus Rediculus. Grotto of Egeria. S. Urbano 347 

From the Porta S. Paolo: S. Paolo Fuori. Tre Fontane . 352 

From the Porta S. Pancrazio: Villa Doria Pamphilj . . 355 

The Catacombs 356 

2. The Alban Mountains 363 

Frascati 364 

Grotta Ferrata. Marino 367 

Albano. Castel Gandolfo. Lake of Albano. The Emissarium 368-370 
Ariccia. Genzano. Lake of Nemi. Nemi .... 370, 371 

Palazzuola. Alba Longa. Rocca di Papa. Monte Cavo . 372 

3. The Sabine Mountains 373 

From Rome to Tivoli. Acque Albule. Hadrian's Villa 373, 374 

Tivoli 377 

Monte Gennaro 379 

From Tivoli to Subiaco 379 

Valley of the Licenza. Mandela. Subiaco .... 380, 3S1 

From Rome to Palestrina 382 

From Palestrina to Subiaco via, Olevano 384 

4. The Volscian Mountains 385 

Cori. Norma. Ninfa. Sezze. Piperno. Segni . . 386-388 

5. Etruscan Towns 389 

Veil 389 

Galera 390 

Bracciano 391 

Cervetri (Ceere) 392 


6. The Sea- Coast of Latium 393 

Porto. Fiumicino 393 

Ostia 394 

Anzio. Nettuno 397, 39S 

List of the Artists mentioned in the Handbook .... 399 

Index 404 

Omnibus and Tramway Routes and Cab Tariff in Rome, and List of Streets 
in the Plan of Rome, in the Appendix at the end of the volume. 


1. Map of Italy (1 : 1,350,000), facing title-page. 

2. The Roman Campagna (1:400,000), p. 332. 

3. Environs of Rome (1:60,000), p. 334. 

4. The Alban Mountains (1 : 100,000), p. 364. 

5. Environs of Tivoli (1:12,500), p. 376. 

6. The Sabine Mountains (1 : 100,000) : Plate I. : Tivoli and Valley 
of the Teverone, p. 378. 

7. The Sabine Mountains: Plate II. Roviano, Subiaco, Capranica, 
p. 380. 

8. The Sabine Mountains: Plate III.: Tivoli, Palestrina, Olevano, 
p. 382. 

9. The Volscian Mountains (1 : 150,000) : p. 386. 

10. Railway Map of Italy (1 : 7,000,000), at the end of the Handbook. 


1. Volteeea, p. 9. — 2. Siena, p. 20. — 3. Akezzo, p. 39. — 4. Coetona, 
p. 39. — 5. Jeeugia, p. 46. — 6. Oevieto, p. 62. — 7. Assisi, p. 78. —8. 
Tekni and its Environs, p. 79. — 9. Forli, p. 90. — 10. Rimini, p. 91. — 
11. Ancona, p. 102. — 12. Large Plan of Rome, and — 13. Clue Plan of Rome, 
both at the end of the book. — 14. Ancient Rome, p. 207. — 15. Palace 
of the Conseevatoei , p. 216. — 16. Capitoline Museum, p. 217. — 17. 
Foeum RoMANua, p. 222. — 18. Foka of the Emperors, p. 238. — 19. Palaces 
of the Empeeoes on the Palatine, p. 241. — 20. Thermae of Cakacalla, 
p. 255. — 21. Section, and — 22. Ground-plan of S. Clemente , p. 261. — 
23. S. Giovanni in Lateeano, and Latekan Museum, p. 265. — 24. S. Pie- 
teo in Vaticano and the Vatican Palace (survey-plan), p. 276. — 25. 
Ground-plan of S. Pietko in Vaticano in its present state, p. 278. — 26. 
S. Pieteo in Vaticano (Bramante's ground-plan), p. 279. — 27. Vatican 
Palace, S. Wing (Sistine Chapel, Raphael's Loggie and Stanze), p. 289. — 
28. Vatican Palace, N. Wing (Museum of Antiquities), p. 306. — 29. Hadrian's 
Villa, p. 377. — 30. Ostia, p. 395. — 31. Poeto hAnzio and Nettuno, p. 397. 

Aems of the Popes, from 1417 to the present day, p. 142. 

View of the Foeum I!omanum in its former and present condition, p. 226. 

Panoeama of Rome (from S. Pietro in Montorio), p. 328. 

The best maps of Central and Southern Italy are the Carta Coro- 
graflea ed Archeologica delV Italia Centrule (1 : 250,000; 4 sheets; price 
10«., on linen 135.) and the Nuova Carta Generate delV Italia Meridionale 
(1 : 800,000; price 6*., on linen 8s.), both executed under the superinten- 
dence of Professor Kiepert of Berlin (lbSl-S2). 


R. = Room, B. = Breakfast, D. = Dinner, A. = Attendance, L. = 
Light. — r. = right, 1. = left; applied to the banks of a river with 
reference to the traveller looking down the stream. — N., S., B., W., the 
points of the compass and adjectives derived from them. — M. = English 
miles ; ft. = English feet. 

Asterisks are employed as marks of commendation. 


'Thou art the garden of the world, the home 
Of all Art yields, and Nature can decree; 
E'en in thy desert, what is like to thee? 
Thy very weeds are beautiful, thy waste 
More rich than other climes' fertility, 
Thy wreck a glory, and thy ruin graced 
With an immaculate charm which cannot he defaced.' 


I. Travelling Expenses. Money. 

Expenses. The cost of a tour in Italy depends of course on the 
traveller's resources and habits , but , as already stated in the first 
part of this Handbook , it need not exceed that incurred in the 
more frequented parts of the continent. The average expenditure of 
a single traveller may be estimated at 20-30 francs per day, or at 12- 
15 francs when a prolonged stay is made at one place ; but persons 
acquainted with the language and habits of the country may easily 
restrict their expenses to still narrower limits. Those who travel as 
members of a party effect a considerable saving by sharing the ex- 
pense of guides, carriages, and other items. When ladies are of the 
party, the expenses are generally greater. 

Money. The French monetary system is now in use throughout 
the whole of Italy. The franc (lira or franco) contains 100 centesimi; 
1 fr. 25c. = Is. = 1 German mark (comp. p. ii). In copper (bronzo 
or rame) there are coins of 1, 2, 5, and 10 centesimi. A piece of 5 c. 
is called a soldo, or sou , and as the lower classes often keep their 
accounts in soldi, the traveller will find it useful to accustom himself 
to this mode of reckoning. The gold and silver coins of France, 
Switzerland, Greece, and Belgium circulate freely, but the traveller 
should be on his guard against old coins from the papal mint, -which 
cannot be parted with except at a loss, and should also refuse Greek 
copper coins. The recognized paper currency consists of the bank- 
notes of the Biglietti di Stato and the Banca Nazionale ; those of the 
Banca di Toscana are legal tender in Tuscany, and those of the 
Banca di Roma in Rome. Other notes should be refused, though 
those of all the large Italian banks are generally accepted at Rome 
without demur. 

Best Money toe. the Tour. Circular Notes or Letters of Cre- 
dit, obtainable at the principal English and American banks, form 
the proper medium for the transport of large sums, and realise the 
most favourable exchange. English and German banknotes also 
realise their nominal value. A moderate supply of French Gold may 


prove useful. Sovereigns are almost everywhere received as the equi- 
valent of 25 fr., and sometimes a little more. 

Exchange. Foreign money is most advantageously changed in 
the larger towns, either at one of the English bankers or at a re- 
spectable money-changer's ('cambiavalutd'J. As a rule, those money- 
changers are the most satisfactory who publicly exhibit a list of the 
current rates of exchange. The traveller should always take care to 
obtain an abundant supply of small notes (1, 2, and 5 fr.), as it is 
often difficult to change those of large amount. When a railway- 
fare has to be paid it is a wise precaution to be provided with the 
exact sum beforehand, in order that mistakes or imposition may be 
prevented. Besides the small notes, l-l^fr- in copper should also 
be carried in a separate pocket or pouch. 

Money Orders payable in Italy, for sums not exceeding 101., are now 
granted by the English Post Office at the following rates : not exceeding 
21., 6d.; 51., Is.; 11., U. 6d.; 101., 2s. These are paid in gold. The 
identity of the receiver must be guaranteed by two well-known residents, 
or by a Libretto di Ricognizione (1 fr. ; with 10 coupons) obtained beforehand 
in the central post-oflice at Rome ; an exhibition of the passport, however, 
often suffices. The charge for money-orders granted in Italy and payable 
in England is 40 c. per ll. sterling. 

A convenient and safe method of carrying money for a journey in Italy 
is afforded by the Titoli di Credito, which may be procured at the post- 
offices of the principal Italian towns for any sum not exceeding 10,000 fr. 
(400J.) The holder of one of these orders may then draw what sum 
(from 50 fr. upwards) he requires at any post-office in the kingdom, until 
the amount for which it is issued has been exhausted. At small places 
the sum drawable at once is limited to 200 fr., in provincial capitals to 
1000 fr., and in Rome and the nine chief towns to 2000 fr. It is necessary 
to state the post-office at which the first payment is desired. A charge 
of 50 c. is made for each 100 fr. up to 1000 fr., and 25 c. for each additional 
100 fr. ; thus an order for 10,000 fr. costs 27V2 fr. In case of loss the 
traveller should immediately inform the postal authorities, giving his name 
and the number of his Hitolo'. 

II. Season and Plan of Tour. 

Season. The season selected for the tour must of course depend 
on the traveller himself, but the colder months are those usually 
preferred. Most travellers bound for the South cross the Alps in 
September and October, and arrive in Rome about the beginning of 
November. Rome is the favourite winter-residence of strangers till 
the Carnival, but most of them leave it in Lent for the gayer scenes 
of Naples , and at Easter it is comparatively deserted , as the chief 
attractions of the festival are now gone. As summer approaches 
most travellers prepare to quit the country , but even during the 
hot season tourists are not unfrequently met with. In this vast and 
ever-varying influx of travellers the Anglo-American element is al- 
ways greatly predominant. 

No month in the year can be pronounced absolutely unfavourable 
for travelling in Italy, but the seasons recommended are from 15th 
Sept. to 15th Nov., and the months of April and May. The rainy 
winter months should, if possible , be spent in one of the larger 


cities, of which Rome is unquestionably the most interesting. June, 
July, and August are hardly suitable for a tour. The scenery indeed 
is then in perfection, and the long days are hailed with satisfaction 
by the active traveller ; but the fierce rays of an Italian sun seldom 
fail to sap the physical and mental energies. This result is not 
occasioned so much by the intensity, as by the protracted duration 
of the heat, the sky being frequently cloudless, and not a drop of 
rain falling for many weeks in succession. The heat generally mod- 
erates about tb.e end of August, when the first showers of autumn 
begin to refresh the parched atmosphere. 

Plan. The plan of a tour in Italy must of course be framed in 
accordance with the object which the traveller has in view. In 
Central Italy the principal attraction is Rome itself, and of the 
other towns described in the present volume the next in importance 
are Siena and Perugia, both of which afford good summer-quarters 
owing to their elevated situations. Two other places of great in- 
terest are Orvieto and Assisi, a short visit to which should not be 
omitted. Arezzo, Cortona, Spoleto, Terni, with its imposing water- 
falls, and Chiusi and Cometo, with their Etruscan antiquities, are 
also interesting points, situated near the railway. Volterra, S. Gi- 
mignano , Montepulciano , and Viterbo , though less conveniently 
situated, are also well worthy of a visit. With regard to the towns 
lying on the coast of the Adriatic, comp. p. 87. Besides these 
points of attraction there are many others in the less-1'requented 
districts of the interior, which the traveller who desires more than 
a superficial acquaintance with Italy should not fail to explore ; and 
the farther he diverges from the beaten track , the more he will 
learn of the characteristics of this delightful country. 

III. Language. 

The time and labour which the traveller has bestowed on the 
study of Italian at home will be amply repaid as he proceeds on his 
journey. It is quite possible for persons entirely ignorant of Italian 
and French to travel through Italy with tolerable comfort ; but such 
travellers cannot conveniently deviate from the ordinary track, and 
are moreover invariably made to pay 'alia Inglese' by hotel-keepers 
and others, i. e. considerably more than the ordinary charges. French 
is very useful, as the Italians are very partial to that language, and 
it may suffice for Rome and some of the main routes; but for those 
who desire the utmost possible freedom, combined with the lowest 
possible expenditure, a slight acquaintance with the language of the 
country is indispensable. + 

+ '■Baedeker's Manual of Conversation in English, French, German, and 
Italian, with Vocabulary, etc.'' (Stereotype Edit., Baedeker, Leipsic), which is 
specially adapted for the use of travellers, with the addition of Baedeker's 
Conversation Dictionary (in the same four languages ; Leipsic, 1889 ; price 
3 marks), will soon enable the beginner to make himself understood. — 
A few words on the pronunciation may be acceptable to persons unac- 


IV. Passports. Custom House. Luggage. 

Passports, though not required in Italy, are occasionally useful. 
Registered letters, for example, will not be delivered to strangers 
unless they exhibit a passport to prove their identity. The counte- 
nance and help of the British and American consuls can, of course, 
be extended to those persons only who can prove their nationality. 
The Italian police authorities are generally civil and obliging. 

Foreign Office passports may be obtained in London through E. Stan- 
ford, 26 Cockspur Street, Charing Cross, W. J. Adams, 59 Fleet Street, or 
Lee and Carter, MO West Strand. 

Custom House. The examination of luggage at the Italian 
custom-houses is usually lenient. Tobacco and cigars are the articles 
chiefly sought for. At the gates of most of the Italian towns a tax 
(dazio consurno) is levied on comestibles, but travellers' luggage is 
passed at the barriers (limite daziario) on a simple declaration that 
it contains no such articles. 

Luggage. If possible, luggage should never be sent to Italy by 
goods-train, as it is liable to damage, pilferage, and undue custom- 
house detention. If the traveller is obliged to forward it in this 
way, he should employ a trustworthy agent at the frontier and send 
him the keys. As a rule it is advisable , and often in the end less 
expensive, never to part from one's luggage, and to superintend the 
custom-house examination in person. Coiup. p. xviii. 

V. Public Safety. Begging. 
Brigandage. Italy is still sometimes regarded as the land of 
Fra Diavolo's and Rinaldo Rinaldini's, and the impression is fostered 
by tales of travellers, and sensational letters to newspapers; but 
the fact is , that travelling in Northern and Central Italy is hardly 
attended with greater hazard than in any of the northern European 
countries, while Southern Italy is unsafe in its more remote recesses 
only. Even the Roman Campagna can now scarcely be looked on as 
less safe than lonely districts in the neighbourhood of other large 
cities. For information as to the safety of the roads the traveller 
should apply to the Carabinieri, or gensdarmes (who wear a black 
uniform, with red facings and white shoulder-straps, and cocked 
hats) , a respectable and trustworthy corps. The traveller should 
avoid, the poorer and less frequented parts of Rome and other towns 
after night-fall. 

qnainted with the language. C before e and i is pronounced like the 
English ch; g before e and i like j. Before other vowels c and g are 
hard. Ch and gh, which generally precede e or i, are hard. Sc before e 
or i is pronounced like sh ; gn and gl between vowels like nyi and lyi. 
The vowels a, e, t, o, u are pronounced ah, a , ee, o, oo. — In ad- 
dressing persons of the educated classes 'Ella'' or 'Lei', with the 3rd pers. 
sing., should always be employed (addressing several at once, 'loro* with 
the 3rd pers. pi.). 'Voi' is used in addressing waiters, drivers, etc., 'tu' by 
those only who are proficient in the language. 'Voi' is the usual mode of 
address among the Neapolitans , but is elsewhere generally regarded as 
inelegant or discourteous. 


Weapons, which for the ordinary traveller are a mere burden, 
cannot legally be carried without a license, obtainable through the 
traveller's consul or ambassador. Those of a secret character, such 
as sword-sticks and stick-guns, are entirely prohibited, and the 
bearer is liable to imprisonment without the option of a fine. 

Begging, which was countenanced and even encouraged under 
the old system of Italian politics, still continues to be one of those 
national nuisances to which the traveller must habituate himself. 
The present government has adopted energetic measures for its sup- 
pression, but hitherto with only partial success. The average Italian 
beggar is a mere speculator, and not a deserving object of charity. 
The traveller should therefore decline to give anything, with the 
words, 'non c'e niente', or a gesture of disapproval. If a donation 
be bestowed, it should consist of one of the smallest possible copper 
coins. A beggar, who on one occasion was presented with 2c. and 
thanked the donor with the usual benedictions, was on another pre- 
sented with 50 c. ; but this act of liberality, instead of being grate- 
fully accepted, only called forth the remark in a half-offended tone : 
— 'Ma, signore, e molto poco!' 

VI. Intercourse with Italians. 

In Italy the pernicious custom of demanding considerably more 
than will ultimately be accepted has long been prevalent; but 
a knowledge of the custom, which is based on the presumed igno- 
rance of one of the contracting parties, tends greatly to mitigate the 
evil. Where tariffs and fixed charges exist, they should be carefully 
consulted. In other cases, where a certain average price is establish- 
ed by custom, the traveller should make a distinct bargain as to 
the article to be bought or service to be rendered, and never rely on 
the equity of the other party. Nor should any weight be attached to 
the representations of waiters , drivers , and guides in matters in 
which they have an interest, and with whom even the inhabitants 
of the place often appear to act in concert. 

Individuals who appeal to the generosity of the stranger, or to 
their own honesty, or who, as Tarely happens, are offended by the 
traveller's manifestation of distrust, may well be answered in the 
words of the proverb, 'patti chiari, amicizia lunge? . The equanimity 
of the traveller's own temper will greatly assist him if involved in 
a dispute or bargain , and he should pay no attention whatever to 
vehement gesticulations or an offensive demeanour. The slighter 
his knowledge of the Italian language is, the more careful should he 
be not to involve himself in a war of words , in which he must ne- 
cessarily be at a great disadvantage. In Rome and the larger towns 
of Tuscany the traveller will now meet comparatively few causes for 
complaint, and even in smaller places he will find a little tact and 
good-temper all that is necessary to avoid disputes. 

In a country where trifling donations are in constant demand, Uie 

Baedeilek. Italv II. 10th TCH;t;n„ jj 


traveller should always tie provided with an abundant supply of 
copper coins. Drivers, guides, porters, donkey-attendants, etc., in- 
variably expect, and often demand as their right a gratuity (buona 
mano, mancia, da here, bottiglia, caffe, fumata), in addition to the 
hire agreed on, varying according to circumstances from 2-3 sous to 
a franc or more. The traveller need not scruple to limit his dona- 
tions to the smallest possible sums, as liberality is often a source 
of annoyance and embarrassment. Thus if half-a-franc is bestowed 
where two sous would have sufficed , the fact speedily becomes 
known, and the donor is sure to be besieged by numerous other 
applicants whose demands it is impossible to satisfy. 

VII. Conveyances. 

Bailways. The remarks made in the first volume of the Hand- 
book are also applicable to the railways of Central Italy. The rate 
of travelling is very moderate, and the trains are often behind time. 
The first-class carriages are tolerably comfortable , the second are 
inferior to those of the German railways, and resemble the Eng- 
lish and French., while the third class is chiefly frequented by the 
lower orders. Among the expressions with which the railway-tra- 
veller will soon become familiar are — 'pronto (ready), 'partenza 1 
(departure), 'si cambia convoglio 1 (change carriages), and 'uscita 1 
(egress), which are shouted by the officials with characteristic vigour. 
The station-master is called 'capo stazione'. Smoking compartments 
are labelled 'pei fumatori', those for non-smokers 'e vietato di fu- 
mare. Separate first and second-class compartments are reserved 
for ladies. Sleeping-carriages (coupe a letti) are provided on all the 
main lines at a small extra charge. Railway time is that of the 
meridian of Rome, 52 min. ahead of that of Greenwich and 40 min. 
before Paris. 

When about to start from a crowded station, the traveller will 
find it convenient to have as nearly as possible the exact fare ready 
before taking tickets ('fare il biglietto'). In addition to the fare a 
tax of 5 c. is payable on each ticket, and the express fares are about 
10 per cent higher than the ordinary. It is also important to be at 
the station early. The booking-office at large stations is open 1 hr., 
at small stations V4 -1 /2 ^ T - before the departure of the trains. Hold- 
ers of tickets are alone entitled to enter the waiting-rooms. At the 
end of the journey tickets are given up at the uscita, except in the 
case of the very large stations, where they are collected before the 
passengers alight. 

The traveller is recommended to ascertain the weight of his lug- 
gage, if possible, before going to the station, in order to guard 
against imposition (1 kilogramme = about 21/5 lbs.). No luggage is 
allowed free except small articles (which must not exceed 20x10 
Xl2 inches) taken by the passenger into his carriage. Porters who 
convey luggage to and from the carriages are sufficiently paid with 


a few sous, where there is no fixed tariff. Those who intend to make 
only a short stay at a place, especially when the town or village lies 
at a distance from the railway, should leave their heavier luggage at 
the station till their return [dare in deposito, or depositare, 10 c. per 
day per cwt. or fraction of a cwt.). 

In crossing the frontier travellers should travel with the same train 
as their luggage and superintend the custom-house examination in person. 
During the last few years an extraordinary number of robberies of pass- 
engers' luggage have been perpetrated in Italy without detection, and ar- 
ticles of great value should not be entrusted to the safe-keeping of any 
trunk or portmanteau, however strong and secure it may seem. 

The enormous weight of the trunks used by some travellers not un- 
frequently causes serious and even lifelong injury to the hotel and railway 
porters who have to handle them. Travellers are therefore urged to place 
their heavy articles in the smaller packages and thus minimize the evil 
as far as possible. 

The best collections of time-tables are the 'Indicatore Ufficiale 
delle Strade Ferrate 1 (published monthly by the Fratelli Pozzo at 
Turin; price 1 fr.) and the Orario del Movimento Trent e Plroscafi 
(published by Arnaboldi at Florence ; 1 fr.). It is advisable, how- 
ever, not to trust implicitly to their accuracy but to consult the lo- 
cal time-tables as well. 

Through Tickets to different parts of Italy are issued in London 
(at the principal railway-stations; by Messrs. Cook & Son, Ludgate 
Circus, Messrs. Gaze, 142 Strand, etc.), in Paris, and at many of 
the principal towns in Germany and Switzerland. They are generally 
available for 30 days, and each passenger is allowed 56 Engl. lbs. of 
luggage free. 

Those with whom economy is an object may save a good deal by buy- 
ing return-tickets to the Swiss frontier, travelling third-class through 
Switzerland, and then taking circular tour tickets in Italy. 

Circular Tickets (viaggi circolari) to the principal towns in 
Italy, available for 20-60 days , may be purchased in London, in 
France, and in Germany, as well as in Italy, at a reduction of 4;> 
per cent (but usually without a free allowance of luggage). Farther 
particulars will be found in the time-tables. These tickets require 
to be stamped at each fresh starting-point with the name of the 
next station at which the traveller intends to halt. If, therefore, 
the traveller leaves the train before the station for which his 
ticket has been stamped he must at once apply to the capo stazione 
for recognition of the break in the journey ( l accertare il cambia- 
mento di destinazione' ). When the traveller quits the prescribed 
route, intending to rejoin it at a point farther on, he has also to 
procure an 'annotazione' at the station where he alights, enabling 
him to resume his circular tour after his digression {'vale per ri- 
prendere alia stazione . . . il viaggio interrotto a . . .). If this 
ceremony be neglected the holder of the ticket is required to pay 
treble fare for the omitted portion of the route for which the ticket 
is issued. 

Return Tickets (Biglietti d'andata e ritorno) may often be ad- 


vantageously used for short excursions, but they are generally 
available for one day only. It should also be observed that if the 
traveller alights at a station short of his destination he forfeits the 
rest of his ticket for the direction in which he is proceeding. In 
returning the ticket is not available unless he starts from the 
end-station for which the ticket was issued. 

Steam Tramways. The system of Tramvia a Vapore, with which 
the traveller in Northern Italy has become familiar, has also extend- 
ed to Central Italy. The rate of speed attained by them is about 
half that of the ordinary railways. 

Steamboats. There are now so many different railway-routes 
from N. Italy to Rome that few travellers will care to travel by 
steamer from Genoa or Leghorn to Civita Vecchia, or from Trieste 
to Ancona , although many will still prefer the sea-voyage to the 
long railway-journey if bound for Naples direct (see vol. iii. of the 
Handbook). In fine weather , especially in summer , when sea- 
sickness need rarely be apprehended, a voyage on the Mediterranean 
is very enjoyable , but as the steamers generally ply at night the 
finest parts of the scenery are often missed. The boatmen charge 
1 fr. for embarkation or disembarkation. 

Diligences. As several of the most interesting places described 
in the following pages lie at some distance from the railway (such 
as Urbino, Gubbio, Viterbo, and S. Gimignano), the traveller must 
visit them by carriage or by diligence. The Corriere , which carries 
the mails, has seats for 2-3 passengers only, and the fares are high. 
The Diligenza , or ordinary stage-coach , conveys travellers with tol- 
erable speed, and generally at the same fares as similar vehicles in 
other parts of the continent. They are in the hands of private specu- 
lators, and where several run in competition, the more expensive are 
to be preferred. When ladies are of the party the coupe (fare one- 
third higher) should if possible be secured. The drivers and ostlers 
generally expect a few soldi at the end of each stage. — For a 
party of three or four persons the expense of a carriage with one or 
two horses hardly exceeds the diligence fares , while the travellers 
are far more independent. A carriage with one horse may generally 
be hired for 50-75 c. per kilometre, and a single seat in a carriage 
('un posto') may often be obtained. 

Walking Tours. The ordinary Italian rarely walks if he can pos- 
sibly drive ; and how walking can afford pleasure is to him an inex- 
plicable mystery. The remark has frequently been made to the Edi- 
tor : 'Lei e signore e va a piedi ? / ' In the more frequented districts, 
however, such as the vicinity of Rome, the natives are accustomed 
to this mania of foreigners, and are no longer surprised to find them 
\ring the Oampagna and the Sabine and Alban Mts. on foot. 
p seems, moreover, to be a growing taste for walking among 
Italians themselves , as a great many stations of the Italian 
Alpino have recently been established for the purpose of ren- 

HOTELS. xxi 

dering the Apennines more accessible to travellers. Cool and clear 
weather should if possible be selected , and the scirocco carefully 
avoided. The height of summer is of course unsuitable for tours of 
this kind. 

Biding. A horse (cavallo) or donkey (sommaro), between which 
the difference of expense is slight , will often be found serviceable, 
especially in mountainous districts. The attendant (pedone) acts as 
a guide and servant for the time being. Riding is now common 
among the Alban and Sabine Mts. , where animals are provided for 
the use of ladies also. A previous bargain should be made , tutto 
compreso, a gratuity being added if the traveller is satisfied. The 
donkey-drivers have an unpleasant habit of inciting their animals 
to the top of their speed when passing through a town or village, 
and it is as well to warn them beforehand that their 'mancia' will 
suffer if they do not go quietly through the streets. 

VIII. Hotels. 

First Class Hotels , comfortably fitted up , are to be found at 
Rome, Siena , Perugia , and at most of the principal resorts of tra- 
vellers in Central Italy. Several of those at Rome are kept by Swiss 
and German landlords. Room 2 1 / 2 -5fr., bougie 75 c. to 1 fr., atten- 
dance 1 fr. (exclusive of the 'facchino' and porter), table d'hote 
4-6 fr., and so on. The charge for dinner does not include wine, 
which is generally poor and dear. For a prolonged stay an agree- 
ment may generally be made with the landlord for pension at a 
more moderate rate. Visitors are expected to dine at the table 
d'hote ; otherwise the charge for rooms is apt to be raised. The 
cuisine is a mixture of French and Italian. The charge for the use 
of the hotel-omnibus from the station to the hotel is so high (1- 
l'/2 f r 0> tnat i* * s °f ten cheaper to take a cab. It is also easier for 
those who use a cab to proceed to another hotel, should they dislike 
the rooms offered to them. Rooms on the ground-floor should be 

The Second Class Hotels are thoroughly Italian in their ar- 
rangements , and they are rarely very clean or comfortable. The 
charges are little more than one-half of the above. There is no 
table d'hote, but there is generally a trattoria connected with the 
house , where refreshments a la carte or a dinner a prezzo fisso 
may be procured at any hour. These inns will often be found con- 
venient and economical by the voyageur en garfon, and the better 
houses of this class may even be visited by ladies ; but the new-comer 
should, perhaps, frequent first-class hotels only. As a rule, it is 
advisable to make enquiries as to charges beforehand. A dinner, 
for example at 2-3 fr., may be stipulated for, and in bargaining as 
to the charge for a room the 'servizio e candela' should not be for- 
gotten. If no previous agreement has been made an extortionate 
bill can seldom be reduced without a great deal of trouble. At the 


smaller inns a fee of 1 fr. per day is usually divided between the 
waiter and the faeohino, or less for a prolonged stay. Copper coins 
are never despised by such recipients. 

Hotels Garnis and Private Apartments are recommended 
for a prolonged residence. A distinct agreement as to rent should 
be made beforehand. When a whole suite of apartments is hired, a 
written contract on stamped paper should be drawn up with the aid 
of some one acquainted with the language and customs of the place 
[e.g. a banker), in order that 'misunderstandings' may be prevented. 
For single travellers a verbal agreement with regard to attendance, 
linen, stoves and carpets in winter, a receptacle for coal, and other 
details will generally suffice. Cornp. p. xxvi. 

Money and other valuables should either be carried on the per- 
son or entrusted to the landlord in exchange for a receipt. 

The popular idea of cleanliness in Italy is behind the age, dirt being 
perhaps neutralised in the opinion of the natives by the brilliancy of their 
climate. The traveller will rarely suffer from this shortcoming in hotels 
and lodgings of the best class; but those who quit the beaten track must 
be prepared for privations. Iron bedsteads should if possible be selected, 
as they are less likely to harbour the enemies of repose. Insect-powder 
(polvere di Persia, or Keating's) or camphor somewhat repels their ad- 
vances. The zanzare, or gnats, are a source of great annoyance, and often 
of suffering, during the autumn months. Windows should always be care- 
fully closed before a light is introduced into the room. Light muslin 
curtains (zanzarieri) round the beds, masks for the face, and gloves are 
employed to ward off the attacks of these pertinacious intruders. The 
burning of insect powder over a spirit-lamp is also recommended, and 
pastilles may be purchased at the principal chemists' for the same purpose. 
A weak dilution of carbolic acid in water is efficacious in allaying the dis- 
comfort occasioned by the bites. 

A list of the Italian names of the ordinary articles of underclothing 
(la biancheria) will be useful in dealing with the washerwoman: Shirt 
(linen, cotton, woollen), la camicia (di tela, di cotone, di lana); collar, il 
solino, il colletto; cuff, ilpolsino; drawers, le mutande ; woollen undershirt, 
una Jlanella or giuba di jlanella; petticoat, la sottana; stocking, lacalza; 
sock, la caUetta; handkerchief (silk), il fazolelto (di seta). To give out to 
wash, dare a bucato (di bucalo , newly washed); washing-list, la nota; 
washerwoman, laundress, la stiratrice, la lavandaja; buttons, i bottoni. 

IX. Restaurants, Cafes, Osterie. 

Restaurants (trattone) are chiefly frequented by Italians and 
gentlemen travelling alone , but those of the better class may be 
visited by ladies also. They are generally open from 12 to 8, but 
are frequented chiefly between 5 and 7. Dinner may be obtained 
a la carte (iy 2 -3 fr.), and sometimes a prezzo flsso (tin pranzo da 
2, 3, 4, 5 fr.). The waiters expect a gratuity of 2-5 soldi. The 
diner who wishes to confine his expenses within reasonable limits, 
should refrain from ordering dishes not mentioned in the bill of fare. 
Besides the old-fashioned trattorie, a number of 'restaurants' of a 
better class have recently been opened in Rome. The cookery is 
generally French, and the charges and arrangements are similar to 
those in the other European capitals. The waiter is called cameriere 


(or bottega), but the approved way of attracting his attention is by 
knocking on the table. 

A late hour for the chief repast of the day should be chosen in 
winter, in order that the daylight may be profitably employed, but 
an early dinner is preferable in summer when the midday heat pre- 
cludes exertion. 

List of the ordinary dishes at the Italian restaurants : — 

Minestra or Zuppa, soup. 

Consume, broth or bouillon. 

Zuppa alia Sdnte, soup with green 

vegetables and bread. 
Gnocchi, small puddings. 
Riso con piselli, rice-soup with peas. 
Risotto (alia Milanese), a kind of rice 

pudding (rich). 
Maccaroni al burro, with butter; al 

pomidoro, with tomatoes. 
Lesso or Bollito, boiled meat. 
Manzo, boiled beef. 
Fritto, fried meat. 
Frittura rnista, a mixture of fried 

liver, brains, and artichokes. 
Frittata, omelette. 
Arrosto, roasted meat. 
Arrosto di vitello, or di mongana, 

Bistecca, beefsteak. 
Coscetto , loin. 

Testa di vitello, calf's head. 
Figato di vitello, calf's liver. 
Braccioletta di vitello, veal-cutlet. 
Costoletta alia minuta, veal -cutlet 

with calves' ears and truffles. 
Esgaloppe, veal-cutlet with bread- 
Palate, potatoes. 
Quaglia, quail. 
Tordo, field-fare. 
Lodola, lark. 
Sfoglia, a kind of sole. 
Principi alia tavola, or piattini, hot 

Funghi, mushrooms (often too rich). 

Presciutto, ham. 

SalUmi, sausage. 

Polio, or pollastro, fowl. 

Potaggio di polio, chieken-fricas 

Gallinaccio, Gallotta, turkey. 
Umido, meat with sauce. 
Stufatino, ragout. 
Erie, vegetables. 
Carciofi, artichokes. 
Piselli, peas. 
Lenticchie, lentils. 
Cavoli fiori, cauliflower. 
Fave, beans. 

Fagiuolini, Corneti, French beans. 
Sale, salt. 
Pepe, pepper. 
Mostarda, simple mustard. 
Sendpe, hot mustard. 
Ostriche, oysters (good in winter 

Giardinelto or frulta, fruit-desert. 
Crostata di frutti, fruit-tart. 
Crostata di pasta sfoglia , a kind of 

Fragole, strawberries. 
Pera, pear. 
Mela or porno, apple. 
Pirsici, peaches. 
Uva, bunch of grapes. 
Limone, lemon. 

Arancio or portogallo, orange. 
Finocchio, root of fennel. 
Pane francese, bread made with yeast 

(the Italian is made without). 
Formaggio, cacio, cheese. 

Wihe (nero, red; bianco, white; dolce, sweet; asciutto , dry; del paese 
or nostrale, wine of the country) is usually placed on the table in large 
bottles at the Tuscan restaurants and charged for according to the quantity 
drunk. At Rome and some other places the visitor is asked if he wishes 
un mezzo litro or un quinto (Vsth litre; also called bicchiere). Wines of a 
better quality are sold in ordinary quarts and pints. 

Cafes are frequented for breakfast and luncheon, and in the even- 
ing by numerous consumers of ices. 

Caffe nero, or coffee without milk, is usually drunk (20-25c. per 
cup). Caffe latte is coffee mixed with milk before being served (20-30c.) ; 
or caffe e latte, i.e. with the milk served separately, may be preferred 
(30-40c). Mischio or Aura is a mixture of coffee and chocolate (20-30c), con- 
sidered wholesome and nutritious. Cioccolata, or chocolate, 30-50 c. Pane 
(a roll) 5 c; pasta (cake) 10 c. ; bread and butter (pane al burro) 20 c. 

The usual viands for lunch are ham, sausages, cutlets, beefsteaks, and 
eggs (nova da bere, soft ; toste, hard ; uova al piatto, fried). 


Ices (sorbetto or gelalo) of every possible variety are supplied at the 
cafes at 50 c. per portion ; or a half portion (mezza) may be ordered. 
Qranila , or half-frozen ice (limonata, of lemons ; aranciala of oranges) , is 
much in vogue in the forenoon. The waiter, who expects a sou or more, 
according to the amount of the payment, is sometimes inaccurate in chang- 
ing money if not narrowly watched. 

The principal Parisian newspapers are to be found at all the larger 
cafes, English rarely. — Roman newspapers, see p. 116. 

Wine Shops (osterle), especially at Rome, are a favourite haunt 
of the lower classes. The rooms are generally dirty and uninviting, 
but the wine is often good. Bread and cheese may he obtained at 
some of the osterie and cooked dishes at a few (Osteria con cuclna). 
As a rule, however, those who sup at a wine-shop must bring their 
own eatables from a pizzicarolo, or dealer in comestibles. 

Cigars in Italy are a monopoly of Government, and bad. The price 
of the home-made cigars (Scelti Romani, Virginias, Toscani, Jfapoletani, 
Cavours, Mingheiti, etc.) vary from V/i to 18 c. Good Havanna Cigars 
(25-60 c.) and foreign Cigarettes may be bought at the 'Regia dei Tabacchi' 
(p. 114) and other large shops in Rome. Passers-by are at liberty to avail 
themselves of the light burning in every tobacconist's, without making 
any purchase. 

X. Sights, Theatres, etc. 

Churches are open in the morning till 12or 12.30, and generally 
again from 4 to 7 p.m. , while some of the most important remain 
open the whole day. Visitors may inspect the works of art even 
during divine service, provided they move about noiselessly, and 
keep aloof from the altar where the clergy are officiating. On the 
occasion of festivals the works of art are often entirely concealed 
by the temporary decorations. The verger (sagrestano , or nonzolo) 
receives a fee of 30-50 c. or upwards, if his services are required. 

Museums , picture-galleries , and other collections are usually 
open from 10 to 3 o'clock. By a law passed in 1875 all the col- 
lections which belong to government are open on week-days at a 
charge of 1 fr., and on Sundays gratis. The attendants are forbidden 
to accept gratuities. 

In Rome the collections of the Vatican and the private galleries are 
closed on Sundays and on ecclesiastical festivals. The national collections 
are closed only on the holidays recognized by government, vie. Easter 
Day, Sept. 20th (anniversary of the entry of the Italian troops in 1870, 
see p. 341), Nov. 1st (All Saints Day), and Christmas Day. In smaller 
towns museums and galleries are also often closed on New Year's Day, 
during the Carnival , on Palm Sunday, Ascension Day, Whitsunday and 
Whitmonday, Fete de Dieu (Corpus Domini), the Festa dello Statuto (flrst 
Sunday in June) , and the Assumption of the Virgin (15th Aug.). The 
day sacred to the local patron saint is often observed as a holiday. 

Theatres. Performances in the large theatres begin at 8, 8.30, 
or 9, and terminate at midnight or later, operas and ballets being 
exclusively performed. The flrst act of an opera is usually succeeded 
by a ballet of three acts or more. The pit (platea) is the usual re- 
sort of the men, while the boxes and sometimes the stalls (poltrone 
or posti distinti) are frequented by ladies. A box (palco) must al- 
ways be secured in advance. — The theatre is the usual evening- 


resort of the Italians, who seldom observe strict silence during the 
performance of the music. 

Valets de Place (servitori di piazza) may be hired at 6-7 fr. per day. 
They are generally respectable and trustworthy, but, as they are seldom 
good judges of what is really worth seeing, the traveller should specify 
to them the places he desires to visit. Their services may generally well 
be dispensed with by those who are not pressed for time. Purchases should 
never be made, nor contracts with vetturini or other persons drawn up, 
in presence or with the aid of a commissionnaire, as any such intervention 
tends considerably to increase the prices. Comp. p. 116. 

XI. Post Office. Telegraph. 

Letters (whether 'poste restante', Italian 'ferma in posta\ or to 
the traveller's hotel) should be addressed very distinctly, and the 
name of the place should be in Italian. "When asking for letters the 
traveller should present his visiting card instead of pronouncing his 
name. Postage-stamps (francoboll) are sold at the post-offices and 
at many of the tobacco-shops. — Letters of 15 grammes (!/2 oz., 
about the weight of three sous) to any of the states included in the 
postal union (now comprising the whole of Europe) 25 c; post-card 
(cartolina postale; for foreign countries, per I'estero) 10 c, with 
prepaid answer (con risposta pagata) 20 c. ; book-packets (stampe 
sotto fascia) per 50 grammes 5 c. ; registration-fee (raccomanda- 
zione) 25 c. — Post Office Orders, see p. xiv. 

Letters by town-post 5c; throughout the kingdom of Italy 20c 
prepaid, or 30 c. unpaid. Post-card 10c, with prepaid answer 15 c. 
Book-packets 2 c per 40 grammes (l 1 /^ oz.). 

Parcels, not exceeding 3 kil. (7lbs.) in weight or 2 ft. in length, 
may be sent from one part of Italy to another for 50 c. 

In Rome the ] ost-offlce is open daily from 8 a.m. to 8 or 9.30 
p.m. (also on Sundays and holidays); in smaller places it is gener- 
ally closed in the middle of the day for two or three hours. 

Telegrams. For telegrams to foreign countries the following 
rate per word is charged, in addition to an initial payment of 1 fr. : 
Great Britain 39 c, France 14, Germany 18, Switzerland 6-14, 
Austria 6-14, Holland 23, Belgium 19, Denmark 23, Russia 49, 
Sweden 38, Norway 36 c. — To America from 3 3 /4 fr. per word up- 
wards, according to the state. — Within the kingdom of Italy, 15 
words 1 fr. , each additional word 5 c — Telegrams with special haste 
(telegram-mi urgenti, which take precedence of all others) may be 
sent at thrice the above rates. 

XII. Climate. Health. 

The climate of Rome is determined by its situation in the Cam- 
pagna, almost equidistant from the Apennines and the sea (14 M.), 
and about 100 ft. above the level of the latter. During winter the 
prevalent wind is the Tramontana , a term applied not only to the 
N. wind but also to the N.N.E. wind (Greco); it blows more and 


more frequently from October to December, then becomes gradually 
rarer, and by April or May ceases altogether. This dry and cool 
(sometimes even cold) wind is generally accompanied by a clear 
sky, and except when unusually violent (in -which case it irritates 
the mucous membrane) is not found trying even by invalids. The 
Scirocco, a general name for the S.E., S., and S.W. winds, is 
especially prevalent in October and April. It has an alleviating 
effect upon colds and coughs , but is apt to take away the appetite 
and impair the nervous energy. 

The most favourable month for a visit to Rome is October, dur- 
ing which the average temperature is about 63° Fahr. The rain that 
then falls is dnink in greedily by the parched earih, and all nature 
seems to awaken to a second spring. November, with a mean tem- 
perature of 54° and an average of 12^2 days of rain, is also often a 
pleasant month. In December the N. and S. winds contend for 
mastery, and wet weather alternates with cold, the mean tempera- 
ture being 47° and the average number of rainy days eleven. Jan- 
uary (mean temp. 45 1 / / 2°, wet days ll 1 /^), and February (mean temp. 
46Y2 , wet days 10), during which the N. wind prevails, are the two 
coldest months. Travellers arriving at this season from the Riviera, 
where the mean temperature in these months is from 48° to 54°, 
should be careful to guard against the sudden change by warmer 
clothing. March (mean temp. 50^2 °, rainy days 10), though often 
cold, and as usual in the S. the windiest month of the year, seldom 
passes without some charming spring days. After October April and 
the first half of May form the pleasantest time for visiting Rome. 
The heat then rapidly increases, and from the end of May till Octo- 
ber it is almost insufferable {June 72 °, July 76 °, August 75 °, Sept- 
ember 69y 2 °F.). 

Health. Malaria or Roman fever is, of course, most prevalent 
in summer, particularly from the middle of August till the begin- 
ning of September, but also occurs in spring and even in the milder 
and damper months of winter. Large parts of the city, however, 
enjoy an almost perfect immunity from it. The most conspicuous 
of these is the central district bounded towards the W. by the Via 
del Babuino, the Via Sistina, and the Via del Quirinale, extending 
on the S. to S. Pietro in Vincoli and the Capitol, and on the E. al- 
most reaching the Tiber. The streets on the Esquiline, Palatine, 
and Caelius are, on the other hand, all dangerous in summer, 
and few of the inhabitants of the S. E. district between the 
Colosseum and the Monte Testaccio escape an annual visitation 
of fever. Some of the suburban districts, such as the "W. slopes 
of the Pincio, and many of the streets on the Viminal, are now com- 
paratively healthy, while on the right bank of the Tiber the neigh- 
bourhood of the Piazza 8. Pietro and the quarter between the Ponte 
Sisto and the Ponte Rotto are almost exempt from the scourge. 

The visitor should exercise some care in choosing his apartments 


and in seeing that tliey are supplied with all needful comforts. Car- 
pets and stoves are indispensable. A southern aspect is absolutely 
essential for the delicate, and highly desirable for the robust. An 
Italian proverb says : 'Dove non va il sole, va il medico' '. Rooms on 
the upper floor are drier than those on the ground-floor. Windows 
should be closed at night. 

Inhabitants of more northern countries generally become unusu- 
ally susceptible to cold in Italy, and therefore should not omit to be 
well supplied with warm clothing for the winter. Even in summer 
it is advisable not to wear too light clothing. Flannel is strongly 
recommended. — The Pincio is the safest promenade in Rome, but 
a prolonged sojourn in the somewhat damp gardens of the Villa 
Borghese is not advisable. The visitor should be careful not to drive 
in an open carriage after dark, or to sit in the evening in such 
malarial places as the Colosseum. In visiting picture-galleries or 
churches on warm days , it is advisable to drive thither and walk 
back, as otherwise the visitor enters the chilly building in a heated 
state and has afterwards no opportunity of regaining the desirable 
temperature through exercise. Exposure to the summer-sun should 
be avoided as much as possible. According to a Roman proverb, only 
dogs and foreigners (Inglesi) walk in the sun, Christians in the shade. 
Umbrellas or spectacles of coloured glass (grey, concave glasses to 
protect the whole eye are best) may be used with advantage when a 
walk in the sun is unavoidable. Blue veils are recommended to 
ladies. Repose during the hottest hours is advisable, and a siesta of 
moderate length is often refreshing. 

The drinking-water -of Rome is very palatable, but strongly impreg- 
nated with lime, which makes it unsuitable for those suffering from gout, 
and sometimes causes constipation. Persons with delicate chests often find 
a winter in Rome very beneficial. It is less dusty than the Riviera, and 
not so windy as the Sicilian health-resorts. — Typlmt Fever does not occur 
in Rome as an epidemic. 

There are several good English and German doctors in Rome, but it 
is sometimes wise, in the case of maladies arising from local causes, to 
employ native skill. German and English chemists are preferable to the 
Italian. Foreigners frequently suffer from diarrhcea in Italy, which is gener- 
ally occasioned by the unwonted heat. Ice and rice are two of the com- 
monest remedies. The homoeopathic tincture of camphor may also be 
mentioned. In such cases, however, thorough repose is the chief desid- 
eratum. A small portable medicine-case, such as those prepared and 
stocked with tabloid drugs by Messrs. Burroughs, Wellcome, <fc Co., Holborn 
Viaduct, London, will often be found useful. 

XIII. Chronological Table of Eecent Events. 

1846. June 16. Election of Pius IX. 

1848. March 18. Insurrection at Milan. — March 22. Charles Al- 
bert enters Milan. Republic proclaimed at Venice. — May 15. 
Insurrection at Naples quelled by Ferdinand II. ('Re Bomba'). 
— May 29. Radetsky's victory at Curtatone. — May 30. Ra- 
detsky defeated at Goito; capitulation of Peschiera. — July 25. 


Radetsky's victory at Custozza. — Aug. 6. Radetsky's -victory 
at Milan. — Aug. 9. Armistice. — Nov. 15. Murder of Count 
Rossi at Rome. — Nov. 25. Flight of the Pope to Gaeta. 

1849. Feb. 5. Republic proclaimed at Rome. — Feb. 17. Republic 
proclaimed in Tuscany, under Guerazzi. — March 16. Charles 
Albert terminates the armistice (ten days' campaign). — 
March 23. Radetsky's victory atNovara. — March 24. Charles 
Albert abdicates (d. at Oporto, July 26th) ; accession of Victor 
Emmanuel II. — March 26. Armistice ; Alessandria occupied 
by the Austrians. — March 31. Haynau captures Brescia. — 
April 5. Republic at Genoa overthrown by La Marmora. = 
April 11. Reaction at Florence. — April 30. Garibaldi de- 
feats the French under Oudinot. — May 11. Leghorn stormed 
by the Austrians. — May 15. Subjugation of Sicily. — May 
16. Bologna stormed by the Austrians. — July 4. Rome ca- 
pitulates. — Aug. 6. Peace concluded between Austria and 
Sardinia. — Aug. 22. Venice capitulates. 

1850. April 4. Pius IX. returns to Rome. 

1855. Sardinia takes part in the Crimean War. 

1856. Congress at Paris. Cavour raises the Italian question. 

1859. May 20. Battle of Montebello. — June 4. Battle of Magenta. 
June 24. Battle of Solferino. — July 11. Meeting of the em- 
perors at Villafranca. — Nov. 10. Peace of Zurich. 

1860. March 18. Annexation of the Emilia (Parma, Modena, Ro- 
magna). — March 22. Annexation of Tuscany. — March 24. 
Cession of Savoy and Nice. — May 11. Garibaldi lands at 
Marsila. — May 27. Taking of Palermo. — July 20. Battle 
of Melazzo. — Sept. 7. Garibaldi enters Naples. — Sept. 18. 
Battle of Castelfldardo. — Sept. 29. Ancona capitulates. — 
Oct. 1. Battle of the Volturno. — Oct. 21. Plebiscite at 
Naples. — Dec. 17. Annexation of the principalities, Umbria, 
and the two Sicilies. 

1861. Feb. 13. Gaeta capitulates after a four months' siege. — 
March 17. Victor Emmanuel proclaimed King of Italy. 

1864. Sept. 15. Convention between France and Italy. 

1866. June 20. Battle of Custozza. — July 5. Cession of Venetia. 
July 20. Naval battle of Lissa. 

1867. Nov. 3. Battle of Mentana. 

1870. Sept. 12. Occupation of the States of the Church by Italian 
troops. — Sept. 20. Occupation of Rome. 

1878. Jan. 9. Death of Victor Emmanuel II. ; accession of Hum- 
bert I. — Feb. 7. Death of Pius IX. — Feb. 20. Election 
of Leo XIII. 

Ancient Art. 

A Historical Sketch, 

from the German of 
Frof. Reinhard Kekule. 

"As the streams lose themselves in 
the mightier Ocean , so the history of 
the peoples once distributed along the 
Mediterranean shores is absorbed in that 
of the mighty Mistress of the World". 

The traveller who would not wander through the galleries of 
Rome in mere vacant wonderment may bear in mind these words of 
Niebuhr. As a preface to the following pages, they will not only 
help the intelligent observer to a worthy appreciation of the master- 
pieces presented to him, but enable him to invest them with appro- 
priate historical associations. 

Amongst the crowd of statues which fill the galleries and cham- 
bers of the Vatican and Capitol of Rome are to be seen the noblest 
examples of Antique Sculpture. These do not, however, stand in the 
same relation to Imperial Rome as, for example, the frescoes of Fra 
Angelico in the Cloisters of St. Mark, or those of Andrea del Sarto 
in the Church of the Annunziata to Florence, or as the masterpieces 
of Raphael and Michael Angelo to mediaeval and pontifical Rome. 
These latter originated, so to speak , with her, were her peculiar 
attributes, the fitting emblems of her ecclesiastical supremacy. The 
genius which created them, she inspired, fostered, and rewarded. 
On the other hand, Rome, the mistress of the World, the Rome 
of ancient history, though attracting to herself the accumulated 
treasures of entire epochs of Greek art, though through her inter- 
position names , which otherwise must have remained mere phan- 
tom sounds , survive to receive individually the homage due to 
their transcendent genius, had nevertheless as little influence 
on the marvellous development of Greek art , as L ondon had upon 
the Italian Renaissance, on Giotto and Masaccio , on Raphael and 
Michael Angelo. In fact, those particular works, which, while they 
fill the mind with a wonder akin to awe, minister to our noblest 
gratification, and in the presence of whose marvellous perfection all 
subsequent efforts are dwarfed into insignificance, occupied in Rome 
ages ago, and still occupy, a place corresponding to that which 


the masterpieces of the Italian and other schools of painting fill in 
the galleries of London, Paris, and Dresden. Winckelmann was the 
first to trace in hold and comprehensive outline the history of Art 
amongst the Ancients , from its infancy and earlier growth to its 
maturity and gradual decline. Following in the wake of Winckel- 
mann, unceasing research, patiently and persistently pursued, has 
served to confirm and extend his survey, and to supply, in addition, 
a host of particulars pregnant with interest. Those indeed, who have 
conducted this laborious quest , stimulated and directed by the for- 
tunate recovery of monuments and various relics of antiquity, have 
been the means of determining the history of Antique Art, so far at 
least as Sculpture and Architecture are concerned ; and this not only 
in its more salient features , but with an elaboration of detail , so 
careful and so well authenticated, that the authorship of numerous 
works is clearly established , and the interest and value of their 
discoveries in so far unspeakably enhanced. Much indeed remains 
to be done, and the path of the explorer is beset with doubt and 
difficulty; but the future promises farther encouragement, if not 
complete solution. 

In Art, the Greeks were content to learn from nations whose 
civilisation preceded theirs. Long before the first image was graven 
by Grecian hands, the Egyptians, as far as history acquaints us, had 
been the first to overcome those difficulties in the choice of a suitable 
form of expression inseparable from every fresh manifestation of Art. 
They had established a well-defined system , a traditional style, 
which was exemplified as well in their Sculpture as in their Archi- 
tecture. On the other hand the richly-elaborated Art of the Baby- 
lonians and Assyrians, with its sumptuous wealth of decoration, must 
also of necessity have had its influence on the Greeks of Asia Minor. 
Grecian Art had, to begin with, not only adopted the method, 
implements, and workmanship of their predecessors ; it had possess- 
ed itself of their forms and not unfrequently of the motives of 
their imagery. Greece did not, however, accept this heritage of 
art in the spirit of slavish imitation. Architectural models were not 
adopted in their entirety. Each part separately, each ornament in 
itself, became the centre of a new conception, and this conception 
once embodied became a distinct type , the expression of a taste 
purely Greek. In like manner they treated the conventional render- 
ing of the human form transmitted to them. This, by constant 
reference to the living model, they continued to manipulate and 
modify until they attained to that profound and comprehensive 
grasp of nature, which to this day remains the subject of wonder 
and delight to our greatest artists. The way thus traversed was 
long and wearisome. It carries us back through an incalculable suc- 
cession of ages into the impenetrable past. The oldest Ionic and 
Doric temples, although well-nigh of prehistoric antiquity, exhibit 
in all essential particulars a clearly-defined architectural system ; 


and, let it be borne in mind, the architecture of the Greeks did not 
start into being as Athena from the head of Jupiter, fully armed 
and equipped. Careful observation will detect in the Orders associ- 
ated in name with the two principal Hellenic races evidences of a 
very gradual development. Subsequently, to these two orders was 
added a third, known as the Corinthian. It was inevitable that in 
the practice of Sculpture as well as Architecture divergences arose 
which may be characterised as provincialisms ; and it is equally 
intelligible that as Art in Greece assumed more and more majes- 
tic proportions , these provincialisms should have become less and 
less observable. 

They were finally obliterated by the glories of what may be distin- 
guished , in reference to art , as the Age op Pebicles ; glories 
associated with the talismanic names of Phidias, Myron, and Poly- 
cletus in Sculpture, and of Ictinus and Mnesicles in Architecture. 
The golden age of the Italian Renaissance, when Raphael filled the 
world with rapturous wonder, can alone be compared to a time 
which witnessed the surpassing achievements of art in Greece. Of 
the painters of this period, oiPolygnotus for example, who flourished 
somewhat earlier, little can be ascertained. Their works have 
perished ; and all that we can learn of them is at best too hypothe- 
tical to be worthy of record. 

The name of Polycletus belongs to the Peloponnesus. The con- 
noisseur of his day claimed for him the merit of having presented 
the human form complete in its minutest details, correct in pro- 
portion, perfect in symmetry. One of his works in particular, the 
figure of a powerful youth armed with a spear (Doryphorus), 
was upheld as an example of the master's peculiar excellence, 
and hence was surnamed the Canon. As a counterpart to the Dory- 
phorus, and in like manner regarded as a type or model, is the figure 
of a youth of distinguished beauty, who with both hands folds a 
band Tound his head (Diadumenus). Of one of his Amazons it was 
said, that it surpassed even the Amazon of Phidias in beauty. 
Finally, especial glory was claimed for his statue of Hera placed 
in a temple dedicated to this goddess at Delphi. — Myron's chief 
delight was to portray the human form in action, but his success 
was, to say the least of it, partial. Thus he represents his Disco- 
bolus actually doubled up in the act of throwing the discus. In 
a group on the Acropolis at Athens the same artist has chosen for 
his subject the incident of Marsyas in the act of seizing the pipes 
which the Goddess Athena has rejected, and on which he plays 
while dancing with delight. He recoils in terror and bewilderment 
as the Goddess, suddenly appearing, dashes the pipes from his hand. 
Finally the Cow of Myron was especially popular. It was boasted 
of her that so lifelike was she that she deceived both man and beast : 
nay imposed even on a living calf. But mightiest amidst this 
6culptor band was Phidias. His colossal Statue of Zeus excited 


wonder even in Olympia. It was accounted a reproach not to have 
seen it. His principal works were, however, devoted to the adorn- 
ment of his native city Athens. The colossal figure of Athens' tute- 
lary deity, the virgin goddess Athena in the Parthenon, was from 
the hand of Phidias. "With him, we may assume , originated those 
plastic decorations of her temple the remains of which are preserved 
in Athens and in London ; and in all that his friend Pericles under- 
took with a view to enhance the beauty and glory of their native 
city, the creative genius , if not always the hand of Phidias was 
active. So completely indeed had he subjected to his irresistible 
will the resources of his art, so far had he distanced all competi- 
tors, whether in the present or past, that the force of his genius, 
overstepping the narrow confines of Attica, imposed its sway upon 
successive generations of artists. Alcamenes and his favourite Ago- 
racritus were his most distinguished and successful pupils. The 
Statue of a Victor in the pentathlon by Alcamenes was, in a simi- 
lar way to the Doryphorus of Polycletus , distinguished by the title 
of 'Enkrinomenus', or 'the classical'. 

In the history of Art, as in the history of Poetry, there usually 
succeeds to what Wlnckelmann terms the 'lofty style', which 
delights rather in depicting the sublime and majestic, a reaction in 
favour of a vein of sentiment more tender, more expressive of beauty 
in her gentler and more graceful aspects ; while at the same 
time freer and more forcible utterance is given to joy and anguish, 
and generally to the emotions and passions. Tenderness and grace 
were the divine attributes of Praxiteles and the family of whom he 
was chief. At this time when Athens , weary of conflict with the 
Hellenic confederacy, longed for peace , one of the family, Cephiso- 
dotus (the Elder) , produced his Irene and Plutus , the Goddess of 
Peace bearing in her arms the infantine god of riches, of which there 
is a copy in the Glyptothek in Munich. Praxiteles himself belongs 
to a succeeding generation. Above all his Eros in Thespia, his Satyr 
and the Aphrodite in Cnidus , were the wonder and delight of anti- 
quity. His sons Cephisodotus (the Younger) and Timarchides had 
also considerable repute. Scopas is usually regarded as the re- 
presentative of the more pathetic and impassioned expression in 
Art ; and amongst his numerous works a Oroup of Sea Deities and 
fantastical Sea Monsters is accounted particularly impressive. — 
The Niobe and her Children, afterwards carried to Rome, was at- 
tributed variously to Praxiteles and Scopas. Leochares, another 
contemporary of Scopas, is believed to be the author of a group re- 
presenting Oanymede borne to Olympus on the wings of an eagle. 

It is said that Alexander the Great would entrust the execu- 
tion of his portrait to none other than Lysippus of Sycium in the Pe- 
loponnesus : and with the name of Lysippus is associated a revolution 
in taste which culminated in this period. The painter and sculptor 
Euphranor, a contemporary of Lysippus, but older than he, whose 

ANCIENT ART. xxxiii 

especial delight it was to celebrate heroic exploit , had already 
with purpose and deliberation modified the recognised rules of pro- 
portion. Lysippus moulded the head smaller, and the figure rela- 
tively taller than had hitherto been the practice. In posing the 
figures too, either standing or in movement, as well as in the entire 
conception and rendering of Nature, he appears to have developed 
anew and with dazzling effect what hitherto had not been more 
than suggested. His forms, though of unmistakably Greek charac- 
ter, are more in. conformity with modern taste than those of eaTlier 
artists. Among the best known works ofLysippus is the Apoxyomenus, 
the figure of a youth fresh from a struggle in the Palaestra, in the 
act of using the scraping iron. Gods and heroes, scenes of war and 
the chase, furnished him with subjects for a host of other works. 
Among his sons and pupils Laippus, Bo'edas, and Euthycrates, the 
last is most highly esteemed. Not only those of their generation but 
posterity agreed that Lysippus and the painter Apelles had reached 
the highest attainable point in the truthful rendering of nature, 
as well as in the more technical mastery of their art. The influence 
of Lysippus endured throughout and beyond the end of the follow- 
ing century. His method sufficed for the schools which succeeded 
him because the new spirit in which they worked had already 
triumphed in Lysippus. 

The conquests of Alexander and all that followed in their train 
— the glories and treasures of the East unfolded, mighty monarchies 
founded , stately cities built, and growing into centres of wealth and 
luxury, new forms of worship consequent upon a more intelligent 
study of nature — afforded conditions both material and other, 
which stimulated afresh the arts of Architecture and Sculpture. 
Henceforward Greek art vied , in the splendour of its colossal pro- 
portions, with that of the East. The deeds of victorious monarchs 
were her favourite theme : she was indefatigable in the contrivance 
of new forms of luxury and fresh splendour for city, mansion, and 
palace. Meanwhile, however, the Past was losing its hold upon her. 
The traditions of the Periclean age, which told how art was content 
to serve the household Gods with simple piety and to adorn domestic 
life, were but feebly remembered. Places once instinct with art 
life were lost in the new and overwhelming growth of cities, now 
the emporiums of the world's commerce : Alexandria in Egypt, 
Antioch on the Orontes in Syria, Pergamum, and Rhodes. — As an 
example of what Greek art was doing about this time in Egypt, we 
may mention the reclining figure of the River-god of the Nile. Around 
this colossal personage , so benignant in aspect , play, with true in- 
fantine grace, sixteen cherub-like children. These are symbols of 
the 16 cubits , the measure of that periodical rise in the Nile's 
waters which annually submerges the land and endows Egypt with 
perennial fruitfulness. — A pupil of Lysippus, one Eutyehides, re- 
presented the city of Antioch in a group of considerable grace. The 

Baedekeb. Italv II. 10th Editinn- ,, 


tutelaiy deity (Tyche) of the city is seated on a rock. In her right 
hand she holds ears of corn , and on her head she wears a mural 
crown ; while at her feet appears, in the shape of a youth rising out 
of the earth, the river-god Orontes (the river actually flows under- 
ground for some distance). 

The sculptors of Pergamum celebrated the victories of their kings 
over the Celts. The statue of the Dying Gaul (the so called 'dying 
gladiator') in the museum of the Capitol, and the Oroup of Oauls 
in the Villa Ludovisi are most impressive examples of the manner 
in which they were inspired by the theme. The northern barbarian, 
differing widely as he did in configuration, costume, and habit from 
the Greek, was a study of engrossing interest to the sculptor, and 
was reproduced with physiological accuracy. At the same time, 
that the fame of the victor might be magnified to the utmost, the 
sculptor sought to embody all that was admirable in the character 
of the vanquished: his ill-trained but chivalrous valour, his 
inflexible determination to die rather than suffer disgrace. So late 
as the 4th century A.D. there was still to be seen on the Acropolis 
a votive offering of King Attalus in the shape of a group with 
numerous figures representing the struggles of the gods with the 
giants, of the Athenians with the Amazons, of the Athenians with 
the Persians, and Attalus himself with the Celts. Quite recently, 
figures have been recognised as belonging to these groups in the 
collections of Venice, Rome, and Naples. — Of the Rhodian School 
we have examples in the so-called Farnese Bull in the museum of 
Naples, and in the Laocoon. The date of the Laocoon has not been 
established. Since the days of Winckelmann, who assigned it to 
the time of Alexander , and of Lessing, who maintained that it 
belonged rather to that of Titus, there has been a constantly 
recurring controversy on the subject. It is, however, highly im- 
probable that the Rhodian School retained, as late as the reign of 
Titus, the vitality necessary for the production of so considerable 
a work. 

From the preceding pages it will be gathered how many crises 
and how varied a development had been experienced by Greek art 
down to the time when Borne herself came to be included within 
the charmed circle of Greek culture. Transplanted to strange lands, 
and subjected to new influences and associations, Greek art ex- 
changed its distinctive Greek character for one universal and cos- 
mopolitan. Rome had not been, it may be remarked, without an art 
she could call her own. The old City- Walls raised in the time of 
the Kings, the Career Mamertinus , and the Cloaca Maxima prove 
that the Romans could in times comparatively remote carry out 
architectural works on a grand scale, although principally for utili- 
tarian purposes. The rudiments of Sculpture they probably acquired 
from Etruscan artists , whose earliest attempts would be the exe- 
cution of images of the gods in wood and clay. In Etruria, 


where Greek influence had long been active, considerable proficiency 
as well as activity prevailed in the pursuit of art. although but 
scanty traces of the purity and elevation of Greek taste are dis- 
cernible. In Rome, however, the Greeks of Southern Italy grafted 
their art on that of the Etruscans. A bronze toilet casket (the so 
called Ficoronian Cistd) found in Palestrina, which was executed in 
the workshop of Novius Plautius in the 3rd century B.C. , exhibits 
in its tracery a purity of design unmistakably Greek , although 
differing little in shape and plastic accessories from the very ordin- 
ary and often rude vessels of the period. The Romans highly esteem- 
ed faithful Portraits. Likenesses of ancestors were preserved in wax 
masks, and displayed on occasions of ceremony. The plastic art of 
the Etruscans gives evidence of a certain grasp of portraiture, which, 
though not profound, was still effective. As Roman rule extended 
itself over Southern Italy and Sicily , and later to Greece and the 
Asiatic continent, a constantly increasing number of works by Greek 
artists found their way to Rome, for the most part, probably, as spoil 
of war. Presently, too, the wealthy patrician, following the bent of 
his individual taste or the prevailing fashion, gave commissions for 
works to be executed in Greece, or in Rome itself, to which ne- 
cessity had brought many artists. Rome thus became the recognised 
centre of a taste and fashion which she could call her own. Both 
stood in close relation, not only in point of time, but in a community 
of idea and aspiration , to the art of a period immediately following 
the reign of Alexander. There is no doubt, however, that a vast 
number of works are accepted as specifically IJoman only because all 
traces of the Greek models have been lost. From these, it may be 
taken for granted, the artists of Imperial Rome derived the designs 
or at least the suggestion of works of utility, as well as of buildings 
devoted to mere display , such as temples , palaces , triumphal 
arches, and tombs. 

The student familiar with the three orders of Architecture, viz. 
the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, as they are to be seen in Athens, 
and comparing these examples with their reproductions in Rome, 
will have little difficulty in detecting a divergence which cannot 
be explained by differences either in forms of worship or in the 
general scope of the design (a conspicuous basement with flights of 
steps in front). The delicate modelling of the best period of Greek 
art was in Roman hands either simplified, and so denuded of its true 
artistic significance — looking in short like the work of the handi- 
craftsman — or so overloaded as to become hopelessly confused. 
Even in their most admirable buildings a mere profusion of super- 
ficial decoration is substituted for that perfect harmony pervading 
and animating the Greek structure, whether as a whole or in its 
minutest detail, which we find in the Parthenon for example. The 
Doric and Ionic orders found comparatively little favour with the 
Romans , and where they appear , it is rather in the form of mural 



columns than entire shafts. The exquisite taper of the shaft was 
thus sacrificed, the capitals were not happily disposed, -and the 
Doric column instead of springing, as with the Greeks, direct from 
the flooring received a separate base. The favourite style was the 
more ornate Corinthian ; and the Romans thought yet to add to the 
wealth of ornament by superimposing upon the capital already 
veiled with the graceful form of the acanthus leaf, the volute and 
abacus of the Ionic capital. The entablature of the earlier orders 
is easily distinguished. In the Doric the architrave rests on the 
column and is un articulated, while the frieze above the architrave 
receives the triglyphs at short, regular intervals. The Ionic archi- 
trave on the other hand is divided into three horizontal courses, 
the frieze being without triglyphs. The Corinthian entablature re- 
sembles the Ionic, but the cornice is more richly articulated, cor- 
bels are substituted for the indentations , and the whole is richly 
wreathed with acanthus leaves and other ornamentation. 

The noblest, happily also the best-preserved building of old Rome 
is unquestionably the Pantheon of Agrippa, built in the time of Au- 
gustus. In spite of much disfigurement received in later times, this 
vast edifice, comprised in its interior within the precincts of one 
majestic circle, and obtaining the light of heaven from the centre 
of its wondrous dome , continues to impress the beholder with un- 
failing, overwhelming effect. Therefore it is that the Pantheon, hav- 
ing survived the period of art's extinction and revival, better re- 
presents the solidity, the daring, and the splendour of Roman archi- 
tecture than the stupendous remains of palace, bath, and circus. 

An important innovation which Plastic Art experiences in the 
latter days of the Roman republic remains to be mentioned. The 
introduction of Eclecticism may be attributed to Pasiteles,. a native 
of Southern Italy. It would appear that he had striven, by way of 
protest against the unrest and violence apparent in the works of 
his predecessors of the Rhodian School, to restore to art something 
of her primitive simplicity, and to combine the excellences of the 
older schools while he avoided their errors. His aim was to revert 
to the stern simplicity and thoroughness of the earliest sculptors. 
At the same time he studied nature independently and carefully; 
while he was not neglectful of the minor graces of his art. Ste- 
phanus was his pupil , whose pupil again was Menelaus, from 
whose chisel we have a group now in the Villa Ludovisi, com- 
monly known as Electra and Orestes. Though the real intention 
of the author will probably never be known , this work serves to 
teach us how earnest was the endeavour, and how happy the result of 
art-studyintheschoolof Pasiteles. ltisnot, however, given to eclectic 
schools to exercise a powerful or enduring influence. Accordingly 
we find a comparatively small number of works belonging to the 
school of Pasiteles. 

That school of art, too, which was especially encouraged by the 

ANCIENT ART. xxxvii 

Emperor Hadrian, adopting as it did not only Greek but also Egyp- 
tian models, was eclectic in the most extended sense of the word. 
Amongst its better known works is the figure of Hadrian's favourite 
Antinous, in which with undoubted beauty of form is combined a 
somewhat lugubrious solemnity together with a smooth glossy and 
superficial elegance little to the taste of the modern connoisseur. 
Far more attractive are the basreliefs on various public monuments 
— such as the Arch of Titus and Trajan's Column — celebrating 
the triumphs of Roman arms. With Greek artists a characteristic 
mode of representing in relief the triumphs, actual or mythical, 
of their heroes was to express battle by means of isolated groups 
of single combatants. And not only are the more stirring incidents 
of the battle thus signalised. Appeal is made to the gentler emo- 
tions : a dying warrior is carried off the field ; or the victor spares 
the life of a prostrate adversary. For plastic purposes this was 
found to be the most effective mode of representation, serving as 
it does to awaken the interest and rivet the attention of beholders. 
The Assyrians had , however , already executed reliefs in which 
the effect of pitched battle was rendered with more literal accuracy ; 
and that the Greeks, too, oould on occasion meet the requirements 
of this more arbitrary taste, we learn from the friezes of the so- 
called Nereid monument discovered in Lycia , where the con- 
tending hosts close with each other in elaborate order of battle. 
The painter, favoured by conditions more submissive to his will, had 
already grouped the combatants in larger and denser masses. How 
admirably they contrived along with the crowd and confusion of 
battle, to give effect to traits of individual heroism and to give to 
single and central figures their approrjriate expression , is exem- 
plified in the celebrated mosaic to be seen in Naples of the Battle 
of Alexander, which, there is no doubt, was copied from a painting of 
the period. It may be premised therefore that this condensed and 
elaborated treatment in relief — obviously akin to painting — in 
which the marches, battles, and triumphs, the operations of Roman 
armies and their imperial chiefs, were set forth with the utmost 
attainable accuracy, with all detail of equipment and armament of 
camp and battle-field, was not the newly gathered fruit of Roman in- 
ventiveness , but must rather be ascribed to the age of Alexander 
and his successors. And the same may be assumed of the archi- 
tectural form of these monuments. In Portraits, too, whether of full 
length or only busts, of emperors and empresses, warriors and states- 
men, as of persons of less exalted position, there were not wanting 
impressive examples in Greek art; and here again Roman taste 
coincides with that of the Diadochan age. It may be conceded, 
however, that owing to the interest long taken in portraiture by the 
Romans and to the attention which this branch of art had so long 
received in Rome and Etruria, it had acquired a more distinctly 
Roman and Italian character , and so had a perceptible influence 

xxxviii ANCIENT ART. 

on Greek artists lesident in Rome. Thus is it that portraits of the 
Emperors exhibit a degree of power in execution and expression 
scarcely to be looked for at so late a period. Not unfrequently the 
Emperors were represented in the costume proper to religious cere- 
monies ; or in fashion like to the gods themselves, and invested with 
their attributes. Most commonly, however, they appear in the 
costume and character of a general in the act of haranguing his 
cohorts. We have striking examples of these imperial portraits in 
the equestrian statue in bronze of Marcus Aurelius on the Capitol, 
and in the marble statue of Augustus in the Vatican. This latter 
gives unmistakable evidence of having been painted. From the 
reliefs on the richly ornamented armour which set forth with due 
regard to historical accuracy the more conspicuous and familiar in- 
cidents of a reign especially favoured by the gods, we are justified 
in the conclusion that this figure was executed about the year 17 
B.C. In his treatment of the female figure, too, whether seated or 
standing , the sculptor knew how to impart a distinguished and 
imposing view by a sumptuous arrangement of the drapery. There is 
a peculiar gratification in finding, after a careful study of these 
portraits — many of them of personages famous in history — an exterior 
so closely corresponding to the picture of the historian. Many of the 
heads, indeed, which thus impress the beholder have not been identi- 
fied. In portraiture, the Greek sculptor adopted the Hermean form, 
while the work of the Roman is recognised almost infallibly in the bust 
form . The latter largely preponderate, although amongst the collective 
works of sculpture preserved, the Greek element is considerably in 
excess of the Roman. An attentive observer will not fail to mark 
this distinction , and learn also to detect the handiwork of the 
modern restorer which too often disfigures these antique marbles. 

The same tendency which led the wealthy citizens of Rome to 
adopt the literature and culture of Greece was observable in the taste 
displayed in the works of art they chose for the decoration of their 
palaces and villas, whether executed in Rome itself or in Greece. 
In other respects they appear to have been attracted by the same 
objects of interest as English collectors of the present day. Antique 
art taken as a whole would probably fail to interest the average 
man of rank, unless it were associated with some historical inci- 
dent, some names of renown, or some startling anecdote. Rut of 
such works as the figures of the Three Graces in bas-relief (though 
rigid in execution) which the ciceroni of the Acropolis shew as the 
work of Socrates , and the group of Harmodius and Aristogiton, the 
Tyrant slayers, in the market place of Athens, of archaic antiquity, 
which had been carried off by Xerxes and restored to its wonted place 
by Alexander : — of works such as these copies at least would be in 
request. The powerful development displayed in the figures of Po- 
lyoletus, and the action expressed in those of Myron, appear to have 
possessed greater attractions for the Romans than the works of Phi- 


dias. Numbers of statues belonging to the Periclean age have come 
to light in Rome, replicas for the most part of Victors in the Games 
and of Amazons. Figures of the Gods, with few exceptions, belong 
to a later period. The most numerous, and also very charming, were 
the graceful forms of more recent Attic art, represented by Praxiteles 
and his compeers ; also the elegant and animated creations of the 
Lysippian and post-Lysippian schools. It is hardly conceivable that 
in the museums of Rome, filled as they are with works of sculpture 
collected on the spot, no original works are to be found. Assuredly 
there has been a time when they have not been wanting in Rome: 
and it seems improbable that one and all should have been lost 
in the devastation which has more than once made wreck of the 
Eternal City. Certain it is , however , that the greater part of what 
we now see are either replicas or copies. This fact is determined 
by the material. The great statues of Phidias and Praxiteles set 
apart for the temples were of gold and ivory, while Polycletus and 
Lysippus worked in bronze. In Attica, too, this costly material was 
preferred by the earlier sculptors. It was only by degrees that 
marble came into use for groups as well as single figures. The 
'Discus thrower' of Myron , as well as the groups of Marsyas 
and Athena were originally in bronze. In the Palazzo Massimi 
alle Colonne there is to be seen a striking figure readily recogni- 
sed as that of Myron's 'Discus thrower', but it is in marble. In 
like manner the Marsyas in the Lateran is of marble, and so also is 
the Apoxyomenus in the Vatican museum. Just as we moderns 
delight in the copy or engraving of some celebrated picture, the 
amateur of old gave his commission for the copy of some favourite 
statue, to be executed in bronze , or, more frequently, in marble. 
At any rate comparatively few works in bronze , of importance in 
point of size, are preserved. It was not enough to have simply 
repeated the celebrities of sculpture. The artists of the so-called 
New Attic School, which flourished in the last century B. C. , we find 
reproducing the works of their predecessors very effectively with 
such departures from the original as are to be seen in a more arti- 
ficial and highly wrought arrangement of drapery, a more decorative 
rendering of the detail generally, and an attempt to impart increased 
animation to the figure as a whole. Such piracies, when tolerably 
successful , became in their turn models for numerous imitations. 
The results of this process are exactly what the connoisseur will 
be prepared to find , and such as present themselves in the collec- 
tions of antique art in Rome. He must not expect to find himself in 
the presence of the simplicity and directness as well as grandeur of 
aim characteristic of Greek art in her loftiest moods : but rather of 
her attenuation in the shape of imitations and adaptations, the 
growth of the Imperial age. Antique art, however, exhibits through- 
out its career an astonishing vitality and continuity. The spirit of 
the Greek is mighty even in expiring: and nowhere can the course 


of her marvellous development be studied with the same complete- 
ness as in Rome. 

Monumental works, inconspicuous and unfamiliar as they so of- 
ten are, appeal less powerfully to the imagination than statuary, 
where dazzling beauty enthrals the senses. These monuments, 
however , will have a charm of their own for the discriminating 
observer. In the Egyptian department of the Vatican he can con- 
template the relics of a primaeval antiquity, while in the Gregorian 
Museum he is reminded of the mysterious Etruscans. It will be 
interesting to compare the attitude and proportions of Egyptian 
with Gr£eco-Roman figures , and. to discover in the Sphinxes of the 
Villa Albani, in the Lions by the approach to the Capitol, as well 
as in the numerous obelisks , to be seen in the piazzas of Rome, 
evidence of the mastery acquired by the Egyptian in Art. And their 
works were in the Roman's eye fitting objects where with to celebrate 
his triumphs, and adorn the capital of an empire including within 
its far reaching bounds people of almost every race and climate. 

In the Gregorian Museum the portrait busts in terracotta by the 
Etruscans exhibit a mode of expressing individuality peculiar to 
themselves ; the bronze vessels display that skill in the working of 
metals for which they had long been famous; while the large copies 
of mural paintings which adorned the tombs bring to light the method 
of painting as practised by the Etruscan as well as , in the choice 
of subject, their preference for scenes of sensualism and bloodshed. 

Here, too, is to be seen a collection of Painted Greek Vases ex- 
ceedingly rich and beautiful, discove ed, it is true, in Etruria, but, 
as is evident from the subjects represented, from the drawing, but 
chiefly from the inscriptions, imported from Greece — the greater 
part indeed from Athens. It is not difficult to distinguish those speci- 
mens, which, though borrowed from the Greeks, were of Etruscan 
manufacture. They are inferior in taste and execution, as well as 
in design and modelling, and are not to be mistaken for the work 
of artists. But the Greek vases themselves vary in character; those 
for instance having the black figures on a red ground being of earlier 
date than those showing the reverse arrangement of these colours. 
Nevertheless the painters of these vases, mere handicraftsmen as we 
must suppose them to havebeen, could render mythological subjects, 
andscenesof everyday life, with a vivacity andpoetry of conception ; 
they knew so well how to draw , and , with means and resources 
necessarily very limited, were so far masters of expression, that — 
despised though they may be by the superficial and ignorant — they 
bear not only remarkable testimony to the quality of workmanship 
then prevailing in Attica, but afford a glimpseat the artof their day 
in Athens as seen through the eyes of these unpretending artificers. 

Fin ally there remain to be noticed the Sarcophagi, which, vari- 
ously ornamented with reliefs, are to be seen in museum, in villa, 
and in palace court. The only specimen preserved to us from the old 


Roman time is the Sarcophagus of L. Cornelius Soipio Barbatus in 
the Museum of the Vatican. It resembles an altar both in shape and 
style of ornamentation, and is almost the counterpart of one still 
standing in Pompeii. It is only consistent with the then prevailing 
religious rites that sepulchral monuments should have been thus 
architectural in character. In Greece itself this was conspicuously 
the case: all sarcophagi which have been discovered within the con- 
fines of Geece proper showing a distinctly architectural treatment. 
The Roman sarcophagi combine much that is essentially Greek with 
adaptations from the funeral urns of Etruria. They give signs, how- 
ever, of an independent development, and although including a di- 
versity of shapes and decoration , have for the most part their bas- 
reliefs arranged onthefrontand sides(and, where extraordinary rich- 
ness of effect was desiderated, on the back also) as a frieze or band. 
One naturally endeavours to trace in the decoration bestowed on 
these repositories of the dead, some indication of their purpose. In 
many instances, however, it is evident, that appropriateness of design, 
if originally acknowledged as indispensable, was presently lost in a 
promiscuously lavish decoration. Certainly there is no obscurity in 
such allusions to the goal of life as we discover in Cupids rowing te 
the lighthouse tower, or when we see them careering round the goal in 
the circus. In such symbolical figures as those of the seasons we are 
taught to reflect on the inevitable course of creation, existence, and 
decay succeeding to maturity. AsIIylas is borne away by the Nymphs, 
and Ganymede by the eagle, so we may fancy the soul begrudged 
from its earthly existence. Hippolytus may serve to recal the virtues 
of such as came to an untimely end, Niobe , the grief of the survivors ; 
sleeping Cupids may symbolise sleep favoured by the Gods, while 
Ariadne discovered by Dionysus, Endymion visited by Selene 
present death itself as but sleep in unfamiliar guise. On the 
other hand scenes of Bacchanalian revelry can hardly be accepted as 
allusions to the future state ; and even in a less degree are Nereids 
and Medeahs, and more of the like, in bas-relief, capable of such 
interpretation: and rarely, too, does any reference of a distinctlyper- 
sonal character go beyond a mere vague allusion to life and death. 
It is tolerably certain that these sarcophagi were made in large 
numbers, in advance of immediate requirements. A somewhat extra- 
ordinary expedient for introducing a reference to particular indi- 
viduals, was that of bestowing the lineaments of the departed upon 
such heroes of mythology as were made to figure in these reliefs. 
Thus it is we find portraits of the deceased in such mythical per- 
sonages as Admetus andAlcestis, in Hippolytus, and, what is more 
remarkable, in Phsdra herself. In a considerable number of cases 
these reliefs are almost identical, and are evidently made after one 
model, with such modifications as might be effected by the intro- 
duction or omission of single figures or groups, showing nevertheless 
more or less of artistic intelligence and resource. They form a 


group displaying the established forms and traditional models, 
which in respect of means of expression and motive are the 
worthy inheritance of Greek art at its best. Yet these sarcophagi, 
regarded even as Roman works, are by no means of early origin. It 
must not, however, be forgotten in estimating the quality of work 
bestowed upon the sarcophagus, that it was not intended to be 
closely inspected by the light of day, but would be consigned to the 
twilight of the tomb, where a stray gleam of light might but for 
a moment reveal its detail. Hence, in the execution of these reliefs 
the object was to give prominence to leading features, without an 
overscrupulous nicety of finish, and this end has been attained 
with a success worthy of all admiration. It has been ascertained 
beyond doubt, that the introduction of the sarcophagus as described 
above was coeval with a mode of burial which became the fashion 
in Imperial times ; otherwise the artistic merits of these monuments 
might well have misled us in computing their age. The great 
majority of Roman sarcophagi belong to the 2nd and 3rd centuries 
after Christ, and to an even later period, 

The Early Christian Sarcophagi simply repeat and perpetuate 
preceding pagan models. It is a peculiar coincidence that these in- 
conspicuous memorials should have contributed to the revival of art 
in the middle ages. Niccolo Pisano found a fertile source of inspi- 
ration in the Roman sarcophagi of the Campo Santo in Pisa ; nor 
did Peruzzi and Raphael disdain to use them as models. 

With this passing glance at the homage thus done by Raphael and 
his compeers to the art of antiquity, these pages may fitly conclude. 
The endeavour has not been to fetter the judgment of the reader, 
but rather so to direct his observation and stimulate his interest as 
to give him that self-reliance which alone will arouse in him an 
intelligent interest, and afford him a genuine pleasure in what 
he sees. To praise the creations of great artists in empty or mere 
conventional phrase would simply offend. They alone will exper- 
ience the full measure of delight to be derived from the contem- 
plation of these treasures , who rely upon their own judgment and 
cultivate to the utmost the delicacy of their perceptions. 

Roman Art, 


Prof. Anton Springer. 

Rome as Mistress of the world became the centre of contempora- 
neous culture. Art had found with her a new term : and Greece as 
fitting tribute to the conqueror laid at her feet the accumulated 
wealth of ages — the treasures of her art, which long had embodied 
the loftiest conception of the beautiful. 

Her supremacy secured, Rome became the chief resort of artists, 
and their liberal patron. She dictated the tone, alike in taste and 
fashion, and determined the destinies of art. Down to mediaeval 
times Rome continued to receive the proud title of 'Caput mundi'. 
Presently, however, she laid claim to supremacy in another realm 
than that of art; and this latter, as the ancient traditions 
were gradually outlived, finally fell into neglect. In more recent, 
as in former times Rome has failed to create for herself, as the out- 
come of her individuality, an art peculiar to and a part of herself. 
Her destiny seems to have been to gather from external sources 
the wealth in which she revelled, with the difference that while 
ancient Rome furnished nothing beyond a magnificent arena for 
the art of her day, in later times the artist found in Rome herself 
his sources of inspiration , compelled as he was to contemplate 
perfection reflected in the dazzling mirror of antique art. Ten 
centuries , however , elapsed ere Rome resumed this proud pre- 
eminence. A glance may now be directed to the interval between 
the fall of old Rome and the period when , animated with a new 
life , Rome drew to herself the foremost representatives of the 
Renaissance , to whom she afforded inspiration for their grandest 
efforts. It is not, however, the 16th century , not the glories of 
the Renaissance, that give to the Rome of our day her distinctive 
character, but rather the new and imposing exterior which she re- 
ceived at the hand of her architects in the 17th century. The mind 
must be disenchanted before the veil can be penetrated and the 
Rome of antiquity adequately comprehended. 

The protracted suspension of all activity in art makes it appa- 
rent that Roman art has a history distinct from Italian art. For 

xliv ROMAN ART. 

several centuries the towns of Tuscany were the principal abodes of 
a natural art life. But just as in Rome Italian art achieved its 
most signal triumphs in the persons of Raphael and Michael Angelo 
and the masters of thatperiod : so in Roman ground we find that Chris- 
tian art first took root and attained to its most important dimen- 
sions. In Rome then we find the strongest inducements as well as 
the richest opportunity for the study of Early Christian Art. 

In the4th century heathendom, long tottering to its fall, was, in 
appearance at least, absorbed in the younger Christian world. A new 
era in art is inaugurated. Not that we are to assume the simulta- 
neous extinction of the pagan art of ancient Rome , nor that it was 
at once superseded by an altogether new style provided as it were 
for the emergency. The eye and hand are to a greater extent crea- 
tures of habit than the mind. New views and altered conceptions 
of the Supreme Being as well as of the destiny of man found 
acceptance. But to embody them the artist had to resort to the old 
established forms. Then heathen rules were by no means uni- 
formly hostile to Christianity (the period of bitterest persecution 
began with the 3rd century A. D.); and that the new doctrine 
should have expanded and taken root, should have been permitted 
to organise itself in the very midst of heathen society , is evidence 
that it was received even with favour. 

As a consequence of these conditions it will be observed that 
the art of the early Christians presents no remarkable con- 
trast to that which precedes it, and that they were content to adopt 
and perpetuate the traditions of the antique. The Roman Cata- 
combs afford abundant proof of this. Encircling the city as with 
a subterranean trench , they were originally far from being what 
they subsequently became — secret, carefully concealed places of 
refuge for the early Christians ; but rather their regularly ordained 
and publicly accessible places of burial (e.g. the Catacomb of Nico- 
medus and that of Flavia Domitilla~), and were first designedly con- 
signed to darkness and concealment during the 3rd century, a period 
of constantly recurring persecution. The Christian community, 
reared as it was in the midst of Roman paganism, probably did 
not dream of subverting the principles of antique art. In the adorn- 
ment of the Catacombs they retain the types transmitted to them ; 
so also in the particulars of drawing and colour the precedent of 
the Antique is closely followed. Christ represented as the Good 
Shepherd, Orpheus as the symbol of Christ, and evidences of the long 
standing repugnance to any rendering of the Passion-history, afford 
proofs of the readiness to accept the art heritage of their precursors. 
The older these catacomb paintings are the more closely they ap- 
proximate to the types of antiquity. Even the Sarcophagus 
Sculpture of the 4th and 5th centuries differs in purpose only, not in 
technical rendering of form, from the typical reliefs found on pagan 
tombs. It was only in the latter half of the 6th century that a 


new style declared itself in painting which like other branches of 
plastic art had more or less fallen into a state of decay meanwhile. 
Architecture adapted itself to the exigencies of Christian worship, 
and in allying itself to the new architectural forms , painting 
acquires a new character. 

The term Basilica is understood to apply to Christian temples 
up to the 10th century. The subsequent belief that a more inti- 
mate relation than that suggested by a common name subsisted 
between these .early Christian edifices and the forensic Basilica 
of ancient Rome, was altogether an erroneous one. The latter 
were in fact the Roman courts of law and places of public meet- 
ing. They had a place in most of the towns of the Roman em- 
pire and were erected in the forum, but have nothing, whether of 
origin or form , essentially in common with the early Christian 
temple or church. These forensic basilicas were not adapted to 
purposes of Christian worship , nor did the old Roman basilica 
serve as a model for the building of Christian places of worship. 
In proof of the one assertion may be adduced the fact that the 
forensic basilicas at the end of the 4th century retained intact 
their original destination , and in individual cases have been 
restored; while the other will be justified by an unprejudiced exam- 
ination of the various parts of the Christian basilicas , which 
give evidence of having sprung from another source than that of 
the old Roman basilica. Neither did the Temple of antiquity fur- 
nish the model for churches built by the early Christians. The 
church of SS. Cosma e Damiano, of the 6th century, is the earliest 
example of a pagan temple applied to Christian use. The Chris- 
tian basilica may be said rather to have grown out of the Roman 
dwelling-house, where at first the community was in the habit 
of assembling. The plan for future ecclesiastical edifices was 
acquired by simply extending the proportions of the dwelling-house. 
The church of S. Clemente in Rome is relatively the most perfect 
example existing of the architectural properties and internal arran- 
gement of the early Christian basilica. A small portico supported 
by pillars leads to the outer court (atrium), enclosed by a colonnade 
and having in its midst a fountain (cantharus). The eastern colon- 
nade leads into the interior of the church which was usually divi- 
ded into three aisles. Two rows of columns divide the side aisles 
from the loftier one in the centre known as the nave ; the nave 
and aisles abut upon a half circle or apse. At right angles to 
these aisles, between them and the apse, was sometimes inter- 
posed a third space — the transept; the altar stood within the apse 
and apart beneath a canopy supported by pillars , and in its front, 
enclosed by rails or cancelli, was the choir for the officiating priests 
and two pulpits (ambones), one used for reading the Gospel, the other 
the Epistles. In marked contrast to the temple of antiquity, little 
care was bestowed upon the external architecture of these early 

xlvi ROMAN ART. 

Christian basilicas , the most impressive effect being reserved for 
the interior. And to this end , especially in earlier mediaeval times, 
a ready expedient for supplying decorative material was adopted in 
the plunder of the monuments of antiquity. Columns were carried 
off and set up in Christian churches without regard to congruity 
of material or consistency of style. Thus in the churches of 
S. Maria in Trastevere and S. Lorenzo Fuori le Mura are to be seen 
pillars of different material and workmanship. The churches of 
8. Sabina, 8. Maria Maggiore and others give evidence of similar 
depredations. Crosses and lustres in metal, tapestries bestowed by 
papal piety contributed to the ornate effect of these interiors. But 
the principal decorative feature were the pictures in mosaic which 
covered the recess of the apse in particular as well as the arch which 
connected the apse with the nave (the Triumphal Arch). These 
Mosaic Pictures, as far, at least, as the material was concerned, 
demanded a novel artistic treatment , massive and monumental in 
character. In them we find the traditions of antiquity abandoned, 
giving place to a style which from its harshness as well as austere 
solemnity of conception has been confounded with the Byzantine 
style. In reality the art was of indigenous growth; and its salient 
characteristic may be defined as the substitution of the real for the 
symbolical in general treatment. Now for the first time the pop- 
ular mind became thoroughly imbued with ecclesiastical senti- 
ment, of which the crucified Saviour was the chief embodiment. 
The oldest mosaics, composed of glass cubes, are to be seen in 
the church of 8. Pudenziana. They date from the 4th century 
like those in S. Costanza and the Baptistery of Naples ; while those 
in S. Maria Maggiore and S. Sabina belong to the 5th century. 
The mosaics in SS. Cosma e Damiano in the Forum (526-30) may 
be pronounced as the most beautiful. 

The rudiments of Christian art are to be found in Rome; but 
its further development was promoted in an equal degree by other 
Italian states. Building was still active in the 9th century, while 
the Popes, especially Leo III. , of the 7th and 8th centuries 
did good service in church decoration. But during this period 
there is no evidence either of progress or continuous develop- 
ment in the Mosaic art and as little in architecture itself. The 
experiment (as seen in 8. Prassede, 9th century) of combining piers 
with the pillars of the nave as a support to the wall sand of con- 
necting these with transverse arches was not repeated. Finally it 
may be said of the Mosaics (S. Prassede, SS. Nereo ed Achilleo, 
S. Marco'), that, while they bear a superficial resemblance to the 
works of the 5th and 6th centuries, they show unmistakable signs of 
corruption and decline. This may be accounted for to some extent 
by the evil times which had fallen upon Rome since the 9th century, 
culminating in a conflagration — the work of an incendiary Guis- 
cardo — which laid waste the entire southern quarter of the city, 

ROMAN ART. xlvii 

extending from the Forum to the Lateran and to the slopes of the 
Esquiline. The chief employment of the architect was the con- 
struction of fortified towers and places of strength rendered neces- 
sary by the ceaseless warring of factions within the city. In 1257 
Brancaleoni demolished 140 of these strongholds, the majority of 
which had been erected on the ruins of some monument or other of 
antiquity. The most striking example of the rudeness of early 
mediaeval architecture is to be seen in the Casa di Pilato or di 
Rienzi. Built by one Nicolao , son of Crescentius (probably in the 
12th century), its chief ornamentation consists of marble fragments 
apparently picked up at random and put together in the wildest 

At the close of the 12th century brighter days dawned for 
Roman art. 'Magister Romanus' now became a title which the 
artist was proud to append to his surname. A speciality in decora- 
tive art appeared in Rome about this time which did not connect 
itself, it is true, with the traditions of antique art, though ready 
to utilise its material, without, however, resort to the depredations 
of a bygone age. And material was still at hand in richest abun- 
dance, in an endless array of shattered marbles. These were divided 
and subdivided, out or sawn into minute slabs, arranged in patterns, 
enlivened by the introduction of stained glass and gold leaf, pre- 
senting as a whole a richly coloured decorative effect. These marble 
mosaics adorn the flooring of churches, altar sides, episcopal chairs, 
pulpits, and doorways ; they enliven monumental sculpture, they 
fill the flutings of the elegantly twisted columns which bore the 
Easter candles or adorn the entablature of cloistered courts. This 
art became the monopoly of particular families and was regularly 
transmitted from generation to generation. The monumental 
marbles of this time are generally known as Cosmato Work, a name 
derived from two members of a family thus privileged. Such work 
is frequently to be met with in Rome. Conspicuous among the 
mosaic floorings are those of S. Maria Maggiore, S. Maria in Tras- 
tevere, and S. Lorenzo Fuori le Mura (12th century). S. Clemente 
and S. Qiorgio possess altar tabernacles of Cosmato work and 8. 
Lorenzo the finest example in its pulpit. Of similar work in cloisters 
(8. Sabina, Lateran) the best specimen is in the convent of 8. Paolo 
(13th century). Cosmato work is not infrequently found elsewhere 
than in Rome. It is uncertain how far this Roman work is connected 
with kindred examples to be met with in Southern Italy. In tech- 
nical detail some differences are to be detected, such as the more 
copious use of the glass pastes by the artists of the South. On the 
other hand we fancy that the identity of pattern in the mosaics of 
theCappella Palatina in Palermo with those of S. Lorenzo cannot be 

Along with this decorative mosaic work , the Mosaic Painting 
ef apse and choir- arch had since the 12th century successfully 

xlviii ROMANART. 

asserted itself. That impress of the antique borne by the early 
Christian mosaics is gone ; the drawing has lost its incisiveness as 
well as its traditional typical character, and in lieu of this, receives 
a new and more lively impulse from colour and wealth of ornament. 
The mosaics in front of the church of 8. Maria in Trastevere, in 
the apse of S. Clemente (12th century), those in the altar-tribune of 
the Lateran (i3th century) and finally those in the apse of S. Maria 
Maggiore , the work of Jacobus Torriti in 1295 , are examples of 
this mosaic painting. — Wall-Painting also came once more into 
use as we see from paintings discovered in 1858 in the lower 
church of S. Clemente — that basilica which in 1 1 08 was lost by a new 
structure being builtupon it. — And, if church-architecture was con- 
fined to the rehabilitating of older edifices or the mere reproduction 
of earlier types , the numerous Belfries (the best is that of 8. 
Maria in Cosmedin) show an abundant fertility of resource in the 
architects of that period. They tower aloft, story upon story follow- 
ing in light and airy succession, relieved by flights of slender pillars, 
and stand, eloquent tributes to the genius of medieval Rome. 

The condition of art in Rome , however (particularly in the 
14th century), was far behind that of Tuscany. While in Tuscany 
popular forces directed by the municipalities provided an ample field 
for the cultivation of artistic tastes , Rome was distracted by the 
incessant war of factions and families , or the quarrels of the 
popes. Strangers were invited to execute works which where beyond 
the ordinary resources of art as it then existed in Rome. Dominican 
Friars introduced Gothic architecture into Rome — Fra Ristoro, 
Fra Sisto are probably the builders of the church of S. Maria sopra 
Minerva — and Giotto (chief of the Florentine school) was summoned 
to Rome during the pontificate of Boniface VIII. , and at the in- 
stance of his patron Cardinal Gaetano Stefaneschi, to execute a 
mosaic (Navicella) for the Porch of St. Peter's, and to paint a 
Ci6or2wm(inpart preserved in the Sacristy of St. Peter's); probably 
also to execute a commission from the Pope, to represent the pro- 
clamation of the Jubilee of the year 1300. Of Giotto's Roman con- 
temporary Pietro Cavallini we have unfortunately no certain 

It was not until the return of the Popes from their exile at 
Avignon, when Italians held exclusive possession of St. Peter's 
chair, and aimed at supremacy amongst the secular powers of the 
peninsula; when the Humanists acquired their shortlived ascen- 
dency at the Papal court — that Roman art first approaches its 
maturity. Rome indeed had no direct share in the creation of the 
Eenaissance. To Florence belongs the exclusive and imperishable 
renown of this achievement. On the other hand it must not be for- 
gotten how powerful an impression the spectacle of the mighty relics 
of antiquity must have made upon the receptive minds of the first 
Humanists, exciting their emulation and inciting to a more reverent 

ROMAN ART. xlix 

study of the Antique ; neither must it he forgotten that hy study of 
old Roman artBrunelleschi and Donatello became familiar with those 
forms in which they were wont to express their artistical thought, 
and so were led to new and unexplored paths in the realm of art. 

Once more Rome occupies a foremost place in the history of art 
when Pope Nicholas V. (1447-1455), a Humanist , vies with the 
Medici in his passion for books and building. He is bent upon a re- 
novation of the Vatican Quarter ; his ambition is to erect a papal 
residence of surpassing splendour ; nay, he entertains designs on 
the St. Peter's pile itself and contemplates its reconstruction. The 
most imposing work of this period was the Venetian Palace begun by 
Pietro Barbo (1455), afterwards Pope PaulII., which, like the Albergo 
dell' Orso recently as it were again discovered, is to a great extent 
mediaeval in character. Leon Battista Alberti, who resided in Rome 
about this time and died there in 1472, is supposed to have furnish- 
ed the plans for this palace. 

So far indeed had the fostering of art become obligatory on the 
occupants of the papal chair, that they could not neglect this 
function without forfeiting their individual influence, and impairing 
the dignity of their office. The right powers were not, however, 
immediately at hand, which should give effect to the building pro- 
jects of these Sovereign Pontiffs, enamoured as they were of splen- 
dour in every shape. The architect who during the pontificate of 
Sixttjs IV. (1471-1484) was most employed, Baccio Pintelli, was 
a practitioner of moderate skill, and far behind the great Florentines 
of his day. The building of S. Agostino and S. Pietro in Montorio, 
as well as the facades of SS. Apostoli and S. Pietro in Vincoli were 
from his plans. His most celebrated work is the Popes' private 
Chapel in the Vatican , called after the Pope Sixtus the Sistine 
Chapel, which owes its chief attractions far less to its architectural 
merits, than to the artistic decoration of wall and ceiling. 

Abundant employment together with the favour which artists 
found with dignitaries of the Church had already allured numerous 
Tuscan and Umbrian Painters to Rome. Amongst those thus engag- 
ed in beautifying the churches of Rome and the Vatican Palace we 
meet such Florentine celebrities as Maestri Sandro Botticelli, lilip- 
pino Lippi, Domenico Ohirlandajo, Cosirno Rosselli; and from the 
Umbrian School the immediate forerunner of Michael Angelo , bold 
Luca Signorelli, along with Perugino and Pinturicchio. An attempt 
is made to found an Academy, or Guild of St. Luke at Rome. Amongst 
its members we find (1494) Melozzo da lorli, the painter of a fresco 
(transferred to canvas) in the Vatican Gallery , representing the 
foundation of the Vatican library. — The execution of the Wall 
Paintings in the Sistine Chapel, by order of Sixtus IV., was a moment- 
ous event in a time prolific in art enterprise. In accordance with the 
then prevailing point of view the acts of Moses are represented as 
symbolically parallel to those of Christ. On the left wall are incidents 

Baedekek. Italy II. 10th Edit. d 


in the life of Moses by Botticelli, Rosselli, Signorelli, on the right 
wall events in the life of Christ by Botticelli, Rosselli, Ghirlandajo, 
and Perugino. Those lovers of art who are unable to visit Florence 
before going to Rome are recommended to make these wall paintings 
their especial study. They will learn from them to appreciate the 
descriptive power of the Florentines and will be familiarised with 
the field subsequently occupied by the heroes of Italian Art. 

Tuscan Sculptors , too , find their way frequently to Rome 
and are constantly employed either as workers in bronze or marble. 
Little attention seems , however, to have been paid to the former. 
The great bronze doors of St. Peter, the joint work of Filarete 
and Simone, are interesting rather from the wealth of mythological 
imagery with which they are embellished, than from their artistic 
pretensions, which will not compare with those of Ghiberti's famous 
gates. So much the more powerfully does the sculptor appeal to us 
in marble. A taste for profusion and splendour of monumental de- 
coration in adorning the tombs, which fact declares itself in the 15th 
century — a result probably of that thirst for fame which is identi- 
fied with the Renaissance — gave the sculptor unceasing opportunity 
for the exercise of his art, particularly in its purely decorative phases. 
There is scarcely a single church of a certain date which does not 
contain sepulchral monuments from the close of the l:Vch century. 
The church of S. Maria del Popolo possesses the largest number. 
These monuments — perfected in Florence and probably naturalised 
in Rome by Mino da Fiesole — are nearly uniform, viz. a sarcopha- 
gus surmounted by a statue of the deceased, and supported by a 
pedestal ornamented with a garland of fruit and flowers, and 
genii. A niche or panelled screen finished with a medallion of the 
Madonna form the usual background. The majority of these sculp- 
tures cannot be traced to any particular artist. It would appear 
indeed that the sarcophagi, as with the ancient Romans, were rather 
articles of manufacture than works of art, made wholesale fashion 
after some favourite pattern and bought 'ready made', a com- 
mission being given to the sculptor for a portrait of the deceased 
to which would be added the armorial bearings with inscription. 

Whoever might have visited Rome in the earlier years of the 
16th century would have found himself in the presence of an in- 
tense movement in the art world ; he would have found Archi- 
tect, Sculptor and Painter alike occupied with projects of more or 
less grandeur. So far, however, Rome did not in this respect sur- 
pass the other chief towns of Italy; so far art had not assumed that 
particular form of life and direction which only the atmosphere of 
Rome could sustain, or which the genius of the Vatican alone could 
quicken — during the Pontificate of Julius II. (1503-1513), where 
the golden era of Roman art began, this consummation was actu- 
ally achieved. 

To Julius belongs the glory of having associated with Rome three 


names, Bramante, Michael Angelo, Raphael, everlasting beacons in 
the path of art — three men who in the course of the 16th century 
(cinquecento) raised modern art to its loftiest pitch of splendour. 
His successor Leo X. (1513-152T) of the house of Medici owes 
it to his lineage only that he should have transmitted to posterity so 
splendid a reputation, — that his name should he associated insepa- 
rably with the greatest triumphs of art in modern times. Leo !X . 
inherited the well-earned fame of his predecessor, but knew not how 
either to value or to use his inheritance aright. It was not given him 
to sway the imperious temper of Michael Angelo, nor fully to com- 
prehend the mighty schemes of Bramante. The latter's chief work, 
the rebuilding of St. Peter's, can be adequately studied only in the 
collection of original drawings in Florence which set forth the gran- 
deur of Bramante's designs in all their completeness ; for so many 
different hands were employed in giving effect to these, that little 
remains of the original plan. Happily this little, viz. the dome with 
the overwhelming impression of vastness it conveys, is of the very 
best. Bramante contemplated a central structure in the form of a 
Greek cross, rounded at its extremities, which, crowned by a gigantic 
dome, should r>resent an ensemble at once simple and majestic. 
Succeeding generations have failed to embody Bramante's ideal. 
His career, extending probably from 1444 to 1514, is involved in ob- 
scurity. Of his works, Rome possesses numerous examples. The cir- 
cular chapel in the monastery of S. Pietro in Montorio, the court 
of S. Maria della Pace, the arcades in the first court of the Vatican 
(Cortile di S. Damaso), the Palazzo Oiraud and above all the Cancel- 
leria are perfect examples of Renaissance. 

We are wont to wonder at the profusion and splendour, too, of 
works to which the cinquecento gave birth. How much richer, how 
much more splendid would have been this profusion, had only 
these works been carried out as originally designed by the artist's 
creative genius ! 

The same fatality which pursued Bramante's mightiest projects 
served to mar Michael Angelo's (1475-1564) supreme effort in the 
realm of Plastic Art. The Tomb of Julius II., begun while that 
pope was still living, was to consist of a large detached edifice with 
statues of Moses, St. Paul, and other colossal figures at its projecting 
angles, and ranged along its wall the naked forms of men in chains. 
The work, however, soon came to a standstill, and at last, 30 years 
after its commencement (1545), it was placed in the church of 
S. Pietro in Vincoli where it now stands, deplorably, a mere fragment 
of the original design. Its most striking feature is the tremendous 
figure of Moses, rising in wrathful indignation at the worship of the 
golden calf, to denounce the idolatry of the Israelites. In addition 
to the Moses, Rome contains two conspicuous works from the hand 
of Michael Angelo : the Pieth, badly placed in one of the chapels in 
St. Peter's, and the Statue of Christ in S. Maria sopra Minerva. The 


former surpasses all other efforts of the great sculptor in the deli- 
cacy of its modelling as well as in the force with which it appeals 
to human sympathies. 

As Fresco Painter Michael Angelo figures exclusively in 
Rome. Tradition tells us how loath he was to exchange the 
chisel for the brush, when at the behest of the imperious Julius II. 
he undertook the decoration in fresco of the ceiling of the Sixtine 
Chapel. These frescoes are nevertheless the most important of Mi- 
chael Angelo's contributions to art. They afford a wider field for 
the exercise of his creative power than sculpture , where plastic 
forms, unequal as they are to the demands of his prolific genius, be- 
tray him into exaggeration. These frescoes of Michael Angelo are 
closely akin to the wall paintings of Florentine and Umbrian artists 
at the close of the 15th century, in which the deliverer of the Israelites 
is made to prefigure the Saviour of mankind. How salvation came 
to the world, and how proclaimed , is the theme which Michael 
Angelo undertakes to illustrate. In the centre piece is depicted the 
Creation, the history of Adam and of Noah ; how sin came into the 
world , but with sin the promise of redemption. Forecasting all 
this we next see the figures of Prophets and Sibyls. In the mar- 
ginal pictures we see continued reference to the Redemption , in 
the various deliverances of the Jewish people (the brazen serpent, 
David and Goliath, the fate of Haman, and Judith), in conformity 
with mediaeval conceptions, together with symbols of the Redemption. 
Connecting themselves with the above are the groups occupying the 
lunettes, pourtraying expectation, the anguish of suspense, and con- 
trition, which include at once matters of fact and a twofold allusion 
to the vicissitudes of the Israelites and the events of our Saviour's 
life (progenitors of Christ and Jews captive in Babylon). The sub- 
limity of the work is to be attributed very much to the skill with 
which mere matters of fact are everywhere subordinated to 
the claims of individual action as well as artistic purpose. Moreover 
Michael Angelo has contrived so to dispose the various portions of 
his vast work, ascending by figures , single and in groups, from the 
simply decorative margin to the crowning effort in the centre, so to 
adapt them to the place they occupy , that the entire work becomes 
architecturally, so to speak, self-supporting; while the compo- 
sition as a whole is wielded with a wealth of resources together 
with a power of organisation such as no other artist has attained to. 
The thoughtful beholder will not confine himself exclusively to the 
study of the central pictures. The figures in monochrome and minor 
decorations are replete with a beauty peculiar to themselves. 

Of the '■Last Judgment', painted by Michael Angelo at a much 
later period (1541), it is difficult, owing to its dilapidated condition, 
to form an accurate estimate. The unerring audacity , however, 
with which figure and group alike are thrown into every conceivable 
attitude and movement, must command amute and amazed attention. 

ROMAN ART. liii 

With the names of Bramante and Michael Angelo is associated 
that of Baphael (1483-1520), whose youthful genius had very 
early declared itself, flrstin Perugia and later in Florence. In Rome 
are to be seen interesting mementoes of both these periods. In the 
Coronation of the Virgin in the Vatican Gallery we see him still in 
the trammels of the TJmbrian School ; the effects of his Florentine 
training are visible in his Entombment of Christ in the Borghese 
Gallery (belonging to later periods are the so called Fornarina in 
the Barberini Gallery , the Violin Player in the Palazzo Sciarra, 
Navagero and Beazzano in the Doria Gallery, the Madonna di Fo- 
ligno, and the Transfiguration, the master's last work, both in the 
Vatican Gallery). The majority of Raphael's easel pictures are to 
be found elsewhere than in Rome. 

But in Rome only could Raphael have found a field suited to 
the exercise of his highest powers in Fresco Painting. The 
mural paintings in the state apartments of the Popes in the Vatican 
palace must first be noticed. In order rightly to appreciate these, 
it must not on the one hand be forgotten that fresco painting 
never completely loses its decorative character ; nor on the other 
must the peculiar position of the Pontificate in the beginning of 
the 16th century be lost sight of. In the palace of the Vatican the 
same courtly tone, the same pursuit of sensuous pleasures, of the 
mere joys of existence , prevailed as in the courts of the younger 
Italian dynasties; expressions of national sentiment met with a 
favorable reception , while an active agitation on the part of the 
Humanists did not appear to have compromised the dignity of 
the Papal Court. These conditions are more or less distinctly 
reflected in the frescoes of Raphael. The courtier repeatedly asserts 
himself ; even a delicate compliment to the patron is not disdained, 
nor the ceremonial spectacle excluded. Political as well as personal 
allusions are not wanting , while ample space is devoted to the glo- 
rification of the Humanistic ideal. Finally, when it is borne in 
mind that Raphael was constantly compelled to defer to the exigen- 
cies of the allotted space, to study the separate requirements of wall 
and ceiling , we gain an insight into the nature and extent of the 
restraints imposed upon the Artist. They beset him indeed on 
every hand, and constantly compel him to alter or modify his design. 
Curiously enough these restrictions are to this day interpreted as 
an act of the Artist's free and daring will. One wonders at the 
amount of theological learning, of philosophical erudition displayed 
in the Disputa and the School of Athens, as well as at the inventive- 
ness which could connect subjects so remote from one another as 
the Heliodorus driven from the Temple , and the expulsion of the 
French from Italy. Through the entire range of subjects there 
runs a vein of profound and continuous thought. But especially 
admirable are alike the discernment which enabled Raphael to 
select, from apparently the most heterogeneous sources, matter 


suitable for pictorial embodiment; the resolution with which he 
guarded the realm of fancy; and his sense of the beautiful, 
whereby he was enabled to bring the most intractable material into 
subjection to his purpose. These qualities are most conspicuous 
in the picture known as the Burning of the Leonine Quarter 
(the so-called Borgo~) of Rome, or rather, as the artist's patron 
would have it, the conflagration, extinguished by intercession 
of the Pope. The spectator forgets the preposterous demand that 
a miracle should be thus palpably depicted: Raphael relegates 
the action to the heroic age , fills his picture with figures and 
groups of surpassing grandeur and animation (such as succeeding 
generations have striven in vain to imitate) and depicts the 
confusion, the preparation for rescue and flight with surpassingly 
graphic effect. The picture was not what he had been commissioned 
to paint; but in lieu of this we have a creation teaming with ima- 
ginative power and masterful execution. In like manner Raphael 
disposed of the celebrated frescoes in the first Stanza, the Disputa 
and the School of Athens. Had he not been required to illustrate a 
chapter from the history of dogma (the proclamation of the doctrine 
of transubstantiation) or to present a pictorial extract from the 
history of ancient philosophy, the task of depicting a procession of 
historical celebrities known to fame as fathers of the church or 
mundane philosophers could not be particularly inviting. And 
further , while Raphael mingled with historical personages figures 
purely typical, and in the Disputa represents the assembled com- 
pany of believers as beholding a vision , where each individual 
present is naturally more or less overpowered by emotion — while 
in the School of Athens he especially emphasises the blessedness 
of knowledge, the good fortune which leads to the higher paths of 
learning (whether his representation literally coincides with the 
Diogenes Laertius or Sidonius Apollinaris or not) • — he has asserted 
with brilliant success the Artist's right to supremacy in the realm 
of creative fancy. 

After the foregoing remarks the unprejudiced reader will need 
a hint only as to the mental attitude he shall assume as a student 
of Raphael's works. If the mere subject of the picture exclusive y 
occupies his attention, if he must know the name and history of 
every figure, and feels it incumbent upon him to admire the in- 
tellectual grasp of an artist who gathered his materials from the 
remotest provinces of learning and who abounds in literary allusions, 
he is no longer in a condition fairly to test the artistic value of 
Raphael's works. From this point of view he will fail to detect in 
them any essential difference from the allegorical pictures of the 
period, nay he may even give precedence to many of these : to 
the wall paintings in the Capella dcgli Spagnuoli (S. M. Novella 
in Florence) for example, which indisputably exhibit greater versati- 
lity, a snpprior daring in the embodiment of the preternatural and 


a loftier conception of the didactic capabilities of art. It is still 
a matter of uncertainty how far the erudition displayed by Raphael 
was an acquirement of Ms own or how far he may have relied on 
the contributions of contemporary scholars, such for example as Cas- 
tiglione, Bembo, and Ariosto, who would in so far share with him 
the meritdue to fertility of thought. Assuming, however, thatRaphael 
himself supplied the wealth of literary research which the frescoes of 
the Stanze are said to reveal, he would not as Artist become more in- 
telligible to us. His intellect might thus have been exercised, but 
not his imagination. Raphael's pictures will not only be more tho- 
roughly enjoyed, but his individuality and purpose will be more per- 
fectly apprehended when the effort is made to understand, how the 
painter by force of his imagination could out of material for thought, 
dead in itself, create new and living forms ; how he imparted to 
single figures so distinct a pyschological impress that the mere bear- 
ers of historical names are made to appear as representative hu- 
man characters; how subtly he balanced action and repose in his 
groups, not dwelling too long on mere beauty of outline and con- 
tour, but intent on giving harmonious expression to a more profound 
intellectual antithesis. From this point of view, interest in the 
works of Raphael will be enlightened and enduring. Numerous pro- 
blems will present themselves to the amateur for solution : what 
motive Raphael might have had in treating the Disputa and the 
School of Athens so differently in respect of colour; how far in the 
latter picture the architectural character of the background is 
essential to the collective impression to be conveyed ; for what 
reason the domain of portraiture is here narrowed to the utmost, 
while there (Jurisprudence) it is extended ; what were the grounds 
for the manifold changes in composition which are accurately 
traced in his numerous sketches, etc. 

The condition of the Stanze frescoes is such, alas, as to afford any- 
thing but unqualified gratification, just as in the Loggie we regret- 
fully trace the departed glory of unique examples of decorative art, 
and with difficulty recognise the summit of Raphael's attainments in 
the grievously injured Tapestries. These latter, it is true, in the 
detail of their composition may be studied in the cartoons now 
in the Kensington Museum; but the subordinate decorations, mar- 
ginal arabesques and the like are still in part preserved in the ori- 
ginal tapestries, and are essential to the festive character of orna- 
mentation originally designed for the Sistine Chapel. To the ten 
tapestries so long known, an eleventh discovered in the depot of the 
Vatican has been added. These tapestries were to have adorned 
the lower compartment of the chapel walls and to this end they 
must correspond with the companion pictures : that, while these re- 
late the history of Redemption, they, the former, should pourtray the 
power and grace of God abiding with the Church. 

In apparently irreconcileable contrast to Raphael's works in the 


Vatican we have his frescoes in the gay Villa Farnesina. On the 
one hand we are awed by devotional fervour, sublime aspiration, 
thought earnest and profound; on the other we find Art revelling in 
the joys of life, each form radiant with an ecstasy of innocent mirth. 
Nevertheless it will cost no great effort to discern in the Farnesina 
frescoes the impress of Raphael's genius. He was indebted for his 
version of the myth of Cupid and Psyche to a work of Apuleius, fa- 
miliar to readers of the 16th century as it had been to the Romans 
of old. Probably no author either in ancient or modern times can 
boast a more captivating illustration than Apuleius , while at the 
same time none has been more freely handled by his illustrator. 
In Raphael's hands the myth is moulded anew. Remembering that 
it was the adornment of a festive chamber he had in hand, Raphael 
sedulously avoided everything repugnant to the festive mood . Pysche's 
woes were consigned to the background ; the painter is intent upon 
recording her triumphs only. The confined space afforded by the 
chamber serves only to stimulate the Artist's mastery of form. Ra- 
phael's representation of the myth is condensed : many scenes are 
but glanced at for a moment, though essentials never escape him ; 
thus the claims of narration and decoration are adjusted without 
restraint. Harmony alike in idea and form ; nobility of proportion 
never overstepping the bounds of refinement ; the power of so losing 
himself in his subject as to present it devoid of individual caprice : 
attributes characteristic of Raphael as these are declare themselves 
in the frescoes of the Farnesina as unmistakably as in the wall 
paintings of the Vatican. The spectator's own unassisted eye will 
not fail to see that the pictures on the ceiling of the principal saloon 
are far inferior in execution to the so-called Oalatea in the neigh- 
bouring apartment. He will find nevertheless that both are such as 
will reward careful study with the highest gratification — a delight 
it must be a lasting desire to renew. 

The inaccessibility of the upper rooms of the Farnesina, adorned 
by Bazzi of Siena (1477-1549 ; p. 23), commonly known as Sodoma, 
with his painting of the Nuptials of Alexander with Roxane, cannot 
be too much regretted. In the embodiment of sensuous grace and 
beauty, Raphael found in Sodoma a worthy rival. 

In the Sibyls of Raphael in S. Maria della Pace (1514) we find 
him competing — if the expression may be allowed — in another 
field. Here he trenches upon the domain of Michael Angelo ; not, 
however, that he is for a moment betrayed into disingenuousness by 
contact with a presence so overpowering , or that is he beguiled into 
assuming a style foreign to his genius. True to himself, he accepts the 
limits prescribed by his subject, and combines an air of pleasing sere- 
nity and infinite grace with the expression of prophetic inspiration. 

Around these three Art heroes, Bramante, Raphael, and Michael 
Angelo, is grouped a brilliant circle of pupils and dependents. The 
best works of the School of Raphael are undoubtedly those executed 

ROMAN ART. lvii 

in his lifetime and under his direction. Oiulio Romano (1493-1546) 
and Francesco Penni (1488-1528) had a considerable share in the 
painting of the Hall of Constantine; the completion of the Loggia 
paintings -was entrusted to them , Perino del Vaga (1499-1547), 
Raffaello dal Colle, and others. For the decorative ornamentation of 
the Loggie and the Farnesina the master engaged the services of 
Giovanni da TJdine (1487-1564). Romano exhibits himself most 
clearly as a pupil of Raphael in the Villa Madama Giulio, less 
so in his Madonnas (Pal. Colonna and Borghese). 

The crowd of Architects, who appeared in Bramante's time, 
showed greater independence: Baldassare Per«zzj(1481-1563; p.23), 
who built the Farnesina and Pal. Massimi, Raphael himself and Oiu- 
lio Romano (Villa Madama), Antonio da Sangallo the younger, with 
whom originated the Pal. Farnese and a new plan for St. Peter's, 
and lastly Michael Angelo , whose influence, gradually deposing 
Bramante, irresistibly impelled the architecture of Rome into new 
courses. And just as in Plastic art he scornfully rejects the recognised 
forms and forces upon them a new construction , in like manner as 
Architect he concerns himself little about the accurate adjustment of 
subordinate parts, intent rather upon the effect to be produced by the 
structure as a whole — usually one of ponderous immensity. The 
colonnades in the Palazzo Farnese, the conversion of the Baths of 
Diocletian into the church of S. Maria degliAngeli — a work subse- 
quently spoiled — and the Porta Pia are among his chief works. His 
chief mer t consists in his having reverted to the plans of Bramante 
for the completion of St. Peter's, which since 1546 had been under 
his superintendence. The Cupola at least was carried out according 
to his designs , but the ground-plan, to the injury of the building, 
was much altered, and the Latin substituted for the Greek Cross. 

As long as the 'divine' Michael Angelo lived, Rome was so dazzled 
by the splendour of his renown that no one suspected the Decline 
of Art was at hand. In fact, however, it had already declared itself 
at the death of Raphael. Rome once more captured and pillaged ; 
orthodoxy reinstated ; the church recoiling from the taint of Hu- 
manism: these were incisive events in the history of art, which now 
received a more distinctively ecclesiastical direction. The Foreign 
occupation of Rome expelled a vast number of her artists and laid a 
chasm in the traditions of her art. As she once more recovered herself 
and under the pontificate of Sixtus V. (Felice Peretti, 1585-90) was 
to all appearance again invested with her pristine grandeur, the en- 
couragement of art was revived, but in a spirit which presently pervaded 
and brought into subjection every phase of art. To Sixtus V. the 
Eternal City, which 'forthwith doubleditself, owesherpresent aspect. 
The Acqua Felice, the Spanish Staircase, the Via Sistina, the Piazza 
di S. Oiovanni in Laterano , the Obelisk in the Piazza of St. Peter, 
the restoration of the Columns of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius are his 
work. Domenico Fontana of Ticino was foremost in giving effect to 

lviii ROMAN ART. 

this Pope's projects. The authors of the degenerated Renaissance 
known as Baroque were really Vignola (1507-73) and Fontana's 
nephew Carlo Maderna (1556-1639). In the Jesuit church of Gesii 
(1568) the former furnished the type of the style which prevailed 
during the following century, especially in the numberless Jesuit 
churches then built. Maderna with Borromini and Carlo Fontana were 
the leaders of that band of Artists who conspired to rob architecture 
of its fitting repose, and by the introduction of figures posed in start- 
ling attitudes, aroused or convulsed by agency unseen, of curves in- 
stead of straight lines, of pillar piled upon pillar, substituted a tur- 
bulent unrest. Not that the style was without striking and artistic 
effect. An undoubted vigour in the disposition of detail, a feeling 
for vastness and pomp , together with an internal decoration which 
spared neither colour nor costly material to secure an effect of dazz- 
ling splendour: such are the distinguishing attributes of the Ba- 
roque style as in Rome it is to be seen on every hand, not only in an 
endless succession of churches ($. Jgnazio, S. Andrea della Valle, 
S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, etc.), but in numerous palaces, 
the Barberini being a conspicuous example. The reader will, how- 
ever, scarcely dwell on these works longer than will suffice to give 
him a clear general impression of their character. 

A greater tenacity of life is, however, inherent in the art of 
Painting. An altogether deplorable interval now ensued, during 
which artistic talent was beguiled by Michael Angelo's overwhel- 
ming ascendency into aslavish imitativeness, content with the least 
possible effort to crowd into a given space the greatest possible 
numberof unmeaning figures, not devoid, however, of acertain super- 
ficial charm sufficient to captivate the eye. After an interval thus 
occupied and identified with this supremacy of the Mannerist 
School (Arpino, Zuccaro), painting once more, at the close of the 
16th century, was galvanised into a new life, destined to be of 
brief duration — Rome becomes a scene of conflict in which painters 
and their partisans are the combatants. During the reigns of the 
popes from Sixtus V. to Clement VIII. the fashionable artists were 
Circignani, surnamed Pomarancio, and his pupil Roncalli. It was 
not, however, till the accession of Paul V. (1605-21), a member of 
the Borghese family, that the interest in art became again widely 
spread. It was about this period that Rubens visited Rome, where 
he profited by a study of the best qualities of every school, without 
identifying himself with any. 

Caravaggio (1569-1609) was the chief of the Naturalist School. 
He was triumphant in the possession of popular favour. On the other 
• hand it was objected that his drawing was bail, that he failed in the 
essential of grouping the figures in his larger compositions. Never- 
tlieless the mass is presented with such startling reality, and ani- 
mated with gesture so impassioned, that every figure fitly asserts it- 
self, while a corresponding force in colour conveys an impression 


powerfully suggestive of the turbulent license then prevailing. — 
The Eclectics took an opposite direction. Trained in a regularly- 
constituted school of art, such as had been established at Bologna, 
initiated moreover in the art of Coreggio and the Venetians, full 
of reverence for more remote traditions, thoroughly versed in the 
rules of drawing and composition as well as familiar with the fresco 
painter's art — thus formidably equipped, Annibale Carracci, Do- 
menichino, Guido Rent, Ouercino appeared amongst the rival aspi- 
rants to fame in Rome. They supplanted the Naturalists, appro- 
priating as much of the latters' method as appeared available, and 
finally monopolised the favour of the court and aristocracy. Nor 
was the struggle by any means confined to the pallette and the 
brush. Personalities arose, and amongst themselves the partisans of 
Carracci were seldom at peace. Their contributions are in part, at 
any rate, of the highest excellence. Annibale Carracei's frescoes in 
the Palazzo Farnese ; Ouido Rents Aurora in the Casino Rospigliosi; 
the frescoes of Domenichino in S. Luigi dei Francesi, S. Andrea 
della Valle, in Grotta Ferrata near Rome are not mere master- 
pieces of technical skill, but are replete with artistic beauty and 

The Neapolitan sculptor Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) flourishes 
up to the close of the 17th century. His works occupy the concluding 
chapter in the history of Roman Art. It is superfluous to bid the be- 
holder bevare of being led captive by art essentially flimsy and mere- 
tricious ; rather perhaps it is necessary, as a set off against the now 
prevailing depreciation of Bernini's works, to plead the important 
historical significance they posses amidst all their too conspicuous 
defects ; to bear in mind that throughout the course of nearly a 
century they were regarded as the most brilliant production of 
that period and were verry generally imitated. 

Since the 17th century, Rome has not given birth to nor nur- 
tured any distinctive art life, though the past has held Artists of 
all nations spell-bound, compelling the conviction thatRome is still 
the true High School of Art, whose teaching is indispensable to 
every true Artist. So late as the close of the loth and the beginning 
of the present century, Rome continued to give proofs of the potency 
of her influence. Without the suggestions which Rome alone could 
furnish, David would never have received that classical impulse 
which he turned to such admirable account in France. Asmus 
Carstens, the father of the classical style of modern German art, 
also made his home in Rome. Amid the art-collections of Rome 
alone could Thorvaldsen, the 'Greek of the 19th century', have 
worthily perfected his talents. In the absence of such inspiration 
as the spectacle of Rome's master-pieces alone can afford, Cornelius 
and his associates would never have had the courage to attempt the 
revival of fresco-painting. 

Thus it was that Rome reacted on the destinies of modern art, 


though without an art ife she could call he* own. During the last 
fifty years , however, she has lost much of her importance even in 
this respect, through the ared te tendencies of the artistic schools 
of France, Belgium, and Germlany. Foreign painters and sculptor 
still visit Rome, hut it has entirely ceased to dictate the tone o 
European art. In place of this, Rome may perhaps become the 
centre of a new Italian school of art, though the productions of 
modern Roman artists have hitherto scarcely warranted the suppo- 
sition. At the beginning of this century building wholly ceased at 
Rome, and the works of monumental painting , such as Podesti's 
frescoes in the Stanza dell' Incendio, prove that the traditions of 
the classic period had been utterly forgotten. Since , however, 
Rome has been the capital of a united Italy, increased activity has 
been manifested in the field of art, and the clever Roman stone- 
masons have had abundant opportunity to show their skill in the 
ornamentation of handsome modern edifices. The resuscitation of 
a truly elevated style of sculpture is hindered by the tendency to 
exaggerated realism and the undue value laid upon mere mechanical 
dexterity, which seem nowhere so much out of place as at Rome. 
In painting Rome has not yet outstripped the flourishing schools of 
North Italy. 



1. From Leghorn or Pisa to Rome 

by the Maremme. 

208 M. (from Pisa 207'/2 M.). Railway. Express in 7-772 hrs., fares 41 fr. 
65, 29 fr. 15 c. (from Pisa 41 fr. 55, 29 fr. 10 c.) ; ordinary trains in 81/2 hrs., 
fares 37 fr. 90, 26 fr. 50, 17 fr. 5 c. (or 37 fr. 75, 26 fr. 45 c, 17 fr.). 

The Makemme Railway coincides with the ancient Via Aurelia. It runs 
inland as far as Cecina, where if approaches the coast, commanding fine 
views of the sea with its promontories and islands. Views always on the 
right. — This is perhaps the least picturesque of the routes to Rome ; yet 
the traveller who desires to explore it may devote several days to the jour- 
ney, though, owing to the malaria, this is not practicable between the end 
of May and the end of October (comp. p. 2). 

Steamboat. Another route from Leghorn to Rome is by sen as far 
as Civita Vecchia, and thence by railway. This route is somewhat more 
expensive than the railway journey. Embarkation at Leghorn in the 
inner harbour 1 fr., in the outer harbour l'/2 fr. The steamers generally 
weigh anchor towards evening. Arrival at Civita Vecchia (landing l /2 fr. 
each person, trunk to the station 1 fr.), and journey thence to Rome, see 
pp. 6, 7. 

Leghorn and Pisa, see Baedeker's Northern Italy. — The lines 
unite at Vicarelle, near the first station Colle Salvetti, which is 
10 M. distant from Leghorn and Q^fe M. from Pisa. To the right we 
see the Monte Nero, a celebrated place of pious resort, with an an- 
cient picture of the Virgin brought from the East and especially re- 
vered by sailors. 

13 M. (from Pisa) Fauglia; 18 M. Orciano; 24 M. Bosignano, 
the village of which name is situated on a hill to the right; 28 M. 
Vada. The train crosses the Cecina, the ancient Caecina. The fam- 
ily of that name was once settled in this district, as is proved by 
numerous inscriptions at Volterra. 

31^2 M. Cecina (poor cafe at the station), where a branch-line 
to Volterra diverges (see p. 8), is, like all the above-mentioned vil- 
lages, of modern origin. 

The line now approaches the coast. The loftily-situated, ancient 
Etruscan Populonia (p. 2) becomes visible to the right, on a chain of 
hills projecting into the sea; beyond it the island of Elba (p. 12). 

42 M. Castagneto; 47 M. &. Vincenzo, with a small harbour. 

5372 M. Campiglia; the small town lies to the left on the height, 
with a ruined castle and Etruscan tombs of no great interest. 

Baedekek. Italy II. 10th Edition. 1 

2 Route 1. rnjiviBiiNU. from heghorn 

Fkom Campiglia to Piombino, 7'/2 M., diligence every evening in about 
2 hrs., returning thence at noon (fare I1/2 fr.). 

Piombino (Albergo delle Api, unpretending, bargaining advisable), a 
small town with 4000 inhab., originally belonged to Pisa, in 1399 became a 
principality of the Appiani, in 1603 was acquired by Spain, and then by 
the family of Buoncompagni-Ludovisi, from whom it was wrested by Na- 
poleon in 1805 in favour of his brother-in-law, the Corsican Felix Bacciocchi. 
In 1815 it was assigned to Tuscany, with which it remained united till 1859. 
It lies at the S. end of a wooded promontory, bounded on the land side by 
a flat district. A weather-beaten tower on the harbour commands a grand 
•View of the sea and the island of Elba (in front of which rise the cliffs 
of Cerboli and Palmajola), of S. Giglio and the coast, and Corsica in 
the distance. — Steamboat to Elba daily, returning the following morning 
(p. 12). 

A forenoon suffices for a visit to (6 M.) the ancient Populonia, the 
Etruscan Pupluna, at the N. end of the peninsula. The shorter route 
through the woods requires a guide. The town with its mediaeval castle, 
situated on a lofty and precipitous hill, is conspicuous from all sides. Once 
a prosperous seaport, it suffered greatly from a siege by Sulla; in the time 
of Strabo it had fallen to decay, and it is now a poor village. In ancient 
times the iron of Elba was smelted here. The old town-walls may still be 
distinctly traced, and are particularly well preserved on the side next the 
sea; they consist of huge blocks, approaching the polygonal style. The 
views towards the land and the sea are striking and extensive. Several 
vaults, erroneously said to belong to an amphitheatre, and a reservoir may 
also be mentioned as relics of the Roman period. The Etruscan tombs in 
the vicinity are hardly worthy of a visit. 

The district now begins to exhibit the distinguishing charac- 
teristics of the Maremme : a world of its own, consisting of forest 
and swamp, in summer poisoned by malaria, and still but sparsely 
cultivated, in spite of repeated attempts (especially near the rail- 
way-stations) to bring it under tillage. During the Etruscan period 
the Maremme possessed several considerable towns : Populonia, Ve- 
tulonia, Rusellae, Cosa. On the decline of agriculture in Italy and 
the conversion of the farms into pasture - land , the desolation of 
the coast-district made rapid progress. During the present century 
the first successful attempts were made to counteract the malaria by 
the drainage and filling up of swamps and the establishment of new 
farms ; but the evil is still very great. Charcoal-burning and in win- 
ter cattle-grazing are the chief resources of the inhabitants, most of 
whom withdraw to the Tuscan hill-country in May, when the ma- 
laria begins. 

64 M. Follonica, near the sea, possesses considerable smelting- 
foundries for the iron from Elba. Beautiful view towards the sea ; 
to the right the promontory of Piombino and Elba, to the left the 
promontory of Castiglione with a lighthouse, and the small, grotesquely 
shaped island of Formica. On a hill to the left is Massa Marittima, 
one of the largest towns of the Maremme, with 13,000 inhabitants. 
In the vicinity are extensive copper-mines. — The train again quits 
the coast and skirts the Promontory of Castiglione. 

73 M. Gavorrano, the stationfor the place of thesame name, situ- 
ated higher up, to the right. Farther on, also to the right, on a hill, 
is Colonna; and in the distance, at the mouth of the Bruna, the small 
fortified harbour of Castiglione della Pescaja is visible. Here, as in 

to Rome. GROSSETO. 1. Route. 3 

the other seaports of the Maremme, wood and charcoal form the chief 

82Y2 M. Monte Pescali , junction of a branch-line from Siena, 
which runs parallel to our line as far as Grosseto. The village is 
picturesquely situated on a hill to the left. 

90^2 M. Grosseto (*Rail. Restaurant; Stella d' Italia, with a 
good trattoria; Bella Toscana), the capital of the Maremme, a plea- 
sant town with 7400 inhabitants. The Cathedral, begun in 1294, 
was restored in 1855. The Municipio contains a collection of Etrus- 
can cinerary urns, sarcophagi, and other antiquities. Branch-line 
to Asciano (Siena), see p. 17. 

About 3'/2 M. to the N.E. of Grosseto (carriage-road) lie the sulphur- 
eous Bagni di Boselle, whence the ruins of Kusellse are reached in V2 hr. 
(guide necessary). Rusellse , anciently one of the twelve capitals of the 
Etruscan confederation, has been deserted since the middle of the 12th cent, 
and is thickly overgrown with underwood. The walls , which are nearly 
2 M. in circumference , and in most places accessible , consist partly of 
horizontal courses, partly of polygonal blocks (6-8 ft. high, 6-12 ft. long). 

Around Grosseto, and to the W., in the direction of Castiglione, extends 
a considerable plain, in ancient times a lake (the Lacus Prelius of Cicero), 
which gradually became shallower and productive of malaria (Palude di 
Castiglione and di Grosseto). By skilful drainage, and by conducting hither 
the deposits of the neighbouring rivers, the government has almost entirely 
filled up the morass and converted it into a valuable pasture, 12-15 M. long. 

Beyond Grosseto the Ombrone is crossed. 99 M. Albarese. The 
line skirts the wooded Promontory of Talamone ; towards the S. the 
imposing Monte Argentario (see below) is visible. 

At (105 M.) Talamone a beautiful view of the sea is disclosed. 
The village lies at the end of the promontory and possesses an an- 
chorage sheltered by the island of Giglio and the Mte. Argentario 
(steamer to Elba, p. 12). The creek has been much diminished by 
alluvial deposits. Here, in B.C. 225, the Roman legions landed 
and signally defeated the Gauls who were marching against Rome. 

The train crosses the small river Osa, then the more important 
Albegna (ancient Albinia~), at the mouth of which are salt-works. 
109 M. Albegna. 

H31/2 M. Orbetello (*Rail. Restaurant). On the arrival of the 
train an omnibus (1 fr.) starts for (l 1 ^ M.) Orbetello [Albergo Rosa, 
Albergo Nazionale, both unpretending), with 6000 inhab., situated 
at the extremity of a promontory, near the foot of Monte Argen- 
tario, which rises immediately from the sea, and is connected with 
the mainland by two narrow tongues of land, whereby a large salt- 
water lagoon is formed. The only object of interest is the polygonal 
wall on the side next the sea, which testifies to the great antiquity 
of the town, although its ancient name is unknown. 

From Orbetello an embankment has been constructed across the shallow 
lake, which abounds in fish, to Mte. Argentario. A carriage-road leads to the 
N. harbour, Porto S. Stefano (steamboat to Elba, every Friday at 5 a.m., see 
p. 12), and to Port 1 Ercole on the S. side. The Monte Argentario (2090 ft.) 
culminates in two peaks , on one of which is situated a monastery of the 
Passionists. The ascent is very interesting (from Orbetello, 2-3 hrs. ; guide). 
The "View embraces the coast of Tuscany and the surrounding district as 

Y * 

4 Route 1. CORNETO. From Leghorn 

far as Mte. Aniiata, aud the sea with its numerous rocky islands as far as 
Sardinia. If time is limited, the first and lower eminence, 3 /4 hr. from 
Orbetello, with a picturesque view of the coast, should be visited. 

Orbetello is the most convenient starting-point for an excursion to the 
(4>/z M.) interesting ruins of the ancient Cosa, the present Ansedonia (car- 
riage there and back, including stay of 5 hrs., 8 fr.) ; and also for a visit 
to the ancient, towns of Saturnia and Sovana, 30-35 M. inland. Cosa is an 
old Etruscan town, deserted in the 5th century. The polygonal walls 
(1600 yds. in circumference) with their towers are admirably preserved. 
A beautiful prospect of the sea and coast is enjoyed hence. 

The train soon enters the former Papal territory, and traverses 
the Roman Maremma; scenery unattractive. 121 M. Capalbio ; 
125y 2 M. Chiarone. It then crosses the Flora and reaches (135 M.) 
Montalto, a poor village. 

From Montalto the traveller may ascend by the Fiora to the ancient 
Ponte delta Badia and the site of Vulci, where thousands of Etruscan vases 
and other antiquities have been discovered since 1828. The ancient 
Etruscan city itself, the circumference of which is ascertained to have 
been 5 M., has disappeared with the exception of its tombs. 

Beyond Montalto the country is undulating. We cross the small 
rivers Arrone and Maria, the outlet of the Lake of Bolsena. 

I441/2 M. Corneto. On a hill (350 ft.) li/ 2 M. to the left of the 
station (seat in a carriage ] /o fr-) ls tne antiquated town of Corneto 
(Alb. if Trat. Orassi, fair), with numerous towers and a population 
of 5000. The town sprang up at the beginning of the middle ages 
near the ruins of the ancient Etruscan town of Tarquinii, to which 
fact it owes its modern official name of Corneto Tarquinia. 

The handsome but unfinished Gothic Palazzo Vitelleschi, in the 
main street, immediately to the left of the gate, was erected by Car- 
dinal Vitelleschi in 1437. — On the N. buttress of the plateau on 
which the town stands is the imposing Custello of Countess Matilda, 
containing the recently restored rhurch of *S. Maria in Castello, 
begun in the 11th cent., with a facade dating from 1121. This 
church (key kept by the keeper of the Museo) contains a taberna- 
culum of 1168 and a pulpit of 1209. — Adjacent is Scappini's 
Ceramic Factory. 

The smaller Romanesque churches of S. Anastasia, S. Salvatcre, 
S. Martino, and S. Pancrazio have all been morn or less restored. 
Adjoining the last is the old Palazzo Municipale, with three of its 
original eight towers. On a height above the town is the Gothic 
church of S. Francesco. — A genealogical tree 'al fresco' in the 
new Palazzo Comunalc, professing to trace the origin of the place to 
a remote mythical era, shows an amusing disregard for history. 

The lower story of the * Museo Municipale contains a number 
of sarcophagi, the most interesting of which is the so-called 'Sar- 
cofago del Magnate', embellished with reliefs (battles of Ama- 
zons) and with handsome polychrome figures on the lid. On the 
upper floor are smaller antiquities, vases, gold ornaments, weapons, 
etc,. Among these are an antique set of false teeth (3rd room), 
and a fine painted bowl, which bears the names of Oltos and 
Euxitheos as the artists and represents the Arrival of Bacchus in 

to Rome. TARQUINII. 1. Route. 5 

Olympus, the types of the deities recalling the character of pre- 
PMdian art. The last rooms contain the products of the excavations 
carried on since 1881 in the oldest part of the Necropolis. The pot- 
tery is of the rudest description and evidently produced without 
the aid of a wheel. Four cinerary urns in the form of huts give us 
an idea of the Italian dwelling of the period. The conical helmets, 
with bars at the top, were evidently imported ; their type seems 
to have served as a model for the 'Apices', or caps of the Roman 
priests. Among the remaining contents are Carthaginian scarabaei 
and idols in fused glass. The keys of S. Maria in Castello and of 
the Museum are kept by Frangioni, the custodian of the Necropolis 
of Tarquinii (fee 1 fr.). 

The Palazzo Bruschi contains a very fine collection of Etruscan 
antiquities, formed by the mother of the present count; and a few 
Etruscan and Roman relics are also preserved in the Oiardino 
Bruschi, outside the town. — Corneto commands a fine view of the 
sea with Monte Argentario and the neighbouring islands, and also 
an interesting survey of the bleak environs. 

On the Turchina, a stony hill opposite, separated from Monlarozzi, the 
hill of the tombs, by a ravine, lay Tarquinii, a town with walls about 
5 M. in circumference, anciently one of the twelve Etruscan capitals, and 
remarkable for the influence which it exercised on the development of the 
national religion of Etruria. It participated in the war of the Etruscan 
confederation against Rome, but was compelled to surrender after the 
Samnite war and to receive a Roman colony. The town continued to 
flourish during the empire, but subsequently declined and was devastated 
by the Saracens ; it was , however , inhabited down to 1307 , when its last 
remains were totally destroyed by the inhabitants of Corneto. No ruins 
are now visible save the scanty vestiges of walls and foundations. Of its 
seaport Graviscae a few relics on the right bank of the Marta, Pfe M. from 
its mouth, still remain. 

Tombs. The principal interest attaching to Corneto is derived from its 
tombs , the "Necropolis of the Ancient Tabquinii, which spreads over a 
great part of the hill upon which the town itself stands. The keys are 
kept by the keeper of the Museo (fee 1V2-2 fr., for a party more in pro- 
portion ; carriage, hardly necessary, bargaining advisable). The Necro- 
polis was accidentally discovered in 1823 by Carlo Avvolta, a native of Cor- 
neto, who while digging penetrated into a tomb, and through the aperture 
beheld a warrior extended, accoutred in full armour. The influence of the 
air caused the body to collapse after a few minutes' exposure. Even in an- 
cient times the tombs were frequently plundered for the sake of the pre- 
cious trinkets they contained, and modern excavations have despoiled them 
of every movable object which remained. A visit to them is nevertheless 
extremely interesting to those who desire to form an idea of the civili- 
sation , art, and religion of the Etruscans •, and for this purpose the tombs 
of Corneto are well adapted owing to the good preservation of their 
paintings. The decoration of the chambers is in a style that was preva- 
lent chiefly in the towns of southern Etruria, and indicates a close relationship 
to Hellenic art. The Tumuli which externally distinguished the tombs have 
in the lapse of ages been entirely destroyed; the subterranean chambers 
now alone remain, of which the following are the most interesting: — 

No. 4. Qrotta della Caccia del Cignale (boar-hunt), or Grotta Querciola. 
The faded paintings, copied in the Museo Gregoriano (p. 316), represent a 
banquet with music and dancing, and a boar-hunt. — Opposite to this tomb — 

No. 5. "Grotta del Convito Funebre, or del Triclinio, also with the re- 
presentation of a banquet. The admirable drawing bears witness to the in- 


iluence of the best period of archaic Greek art. The men here, as in all 
the others, are coloured dark red, the women sketched in outline on the 
walls in whitish colours. 

No. 8. Grotta del Morto, small ; mourning for the deceased, and dancers. 

No. 11. "Grotta del Tifone, more extensive, supported in the centre by a 
pillar, on which are Typhons, or winged genii of death terminating in ser- 
pents. The sarcophagi bear Latin as well as Etruscan inscriptions, a proof 
that they belong to a comparatively recent epoch. To the right on the wall 
are souls escorted by genii ; under them is Charon with the hammer. 

No. 12. Grotta degli Scudi, with banqueting scenes. 

No. 13. Grotta del Cardinale, the most spacious tomb of Tarquinii, 
supported by four pillars, opened last century, colours almost entirely faded. 

No. 14. "Grotta delV Oreo or del Polifemo: in the anterior chamber, 
a banquet; in the one beyond it a scene from the infernal regions, with 
Pluto, Proserpine, Geryon, Tircsias, Agamemnon, Memnon, and Theseus ; 
in a niche in this chamber is Ulysses blinding Polyphemus. — The paint- 
ings here exhibit unmistakable Greek influence. 

No. 15. Grotta dei Vasi Dipinti, and No. 16. Grotta del Vecchio, with 
banquets and dances, both not later than the first half of the 5th cent. B. C. 

No. 18. Grotta delle Iscrizioni, so called from the numerous Etruscan in- 
scriptions, with warlike trials of skill. 

No. 19. "Grotta del Barone, so called from tho Hanoverian ambassa- 
dor Baron Kestner, by whom it was opened, contains warlike games, riders, 
etc., partly in the archaic style ; colours well preserved. 

No. 20. Grotta delle Bighe , discovered in 1827 by Baron Stackelberg. 
A copy of the paintings (funereal games and dances) is preserved in the Va- 
tican. Adjacent — 

No. 21, Grotta del Mare, small, with sea-horses. 

No. 23. Grotta degli Auguri (with funereal games ; a criminal with 
veiled head fighting with a large mastiff, hounded on by a figure in a 
mask), of the same date as Nos. 15 and 16. 

From Corneto to (16 M.) Toscanella (p. 73) a diligence runs thrice a 
week (carriage 8fr.). 

The train skirts the foot of the hill of Corneto , which remains 
visible for a long time. To the right , farther on , is the insigni- 
ficant Porto Clementino, which is entirely abandoned in summer on 
account of the malaria. The horizon is bounded inland by the moun- 
tains of Tolfa (p. 7) , which yield an abundance of alum and 
sulphur. The line crosses the small river Mignone, at the mouth of 
which stands the Torre Bertaldo , where , according to a legend, an 
angel dispelled St. Augustine's doubts respecting the Trinity. 

157 M. Civita Vecchia. — Halt of 5-14 niin.; "Railway Restaurant. 

Omnibus to the town (within a few minutes'' walk) 25 c. ; one-horse 
carriage 1/2 fr., two-horse 1 fr. ; porter for a box 40 c. 

Hotels: -Orlando, to the right at the entrance of the town, a large 
hotel, expensive ; Edkopa, moderate. 

British Consular Agent, L. Sperandio; American, G. Marsanich. 

Civita. Vecchia, the seaport of Rome, with 12,000 inhab., the 
ancient Centum Cellae founded by Trajan , and sometimes called 
Portus Trajani, was destroyed by the Saracens in 828, but in 854 
the inhabitants returned into the 'ancient city'. The fortifications, 
built in the 16th and 17th cent., were recently restored by the 
French. The entrance to the harbour, in front of which lies a small 
fortified island with a lighthouse, is defended by two strong towers. 
Visitors are permitted to inspect the Bagno, where the galley- 
convicts are at work. The town is uninteresting. The traveller may 
best spend a leisure hour in walking on the quay. 

PALO. 2. Route 7 

A good road leads from Civita Vecchia to the volcanic mountains of 
La Tolfa (2040 ft.) and the loftily - situated village of that name, in the 
vicinity of which are extensive mines of alum. The scenery is picturesque, 
and the locality interesting to geologists. Some mineral springs , with the 
ruins of ancient baths (Aquae Tauri), lie about 3 M. from Civita Vecchia. 

From Civita Vecchia to Rome. The best views are on the right 
till Rome is approached, and then on the left. The line traverses 
a dreary tract , Tunning parallel with the ancient Via Aurelia near 
the sea-coast as far as Palo. On clear days the Alban and Volscian 
Mts. are visible in the distance, and still farther off the promontory 
of Circeii. 163 M. Santa Marinella possesses a mediaeval castle ris- 
ing above a small bay. ■ — 166 M. Santa Severa, a picturesque ba- 
ronial castle, formerly the property of the Orsini family, and now of 
the S. Spirito Hospital at Rome. Here in ancient times lay Pyrgos 
or Pyrgi, the harbour of the once powerful Etruscan city Caere, now 
Cervetri (p. 392), situated on a height, 6 M. to the left. 

171 M. Furbara. The solitary towers on the shore were erected in 
the middle ages for protection against the dreaded Turkish corsairs. 

177 M. Palo, the junction of a branch-line (opened in Nov., 
1889) to Trastevere, with a chateau and villa of the Odescalchi, oc- 
cupies the site of the ancient Alsium, where Pompey and Antoninus 
Pius possessed country-residences. Relics of antiquity now scarce. 
The sea-baths of Ladispoli, near Palo, recently founded by Prince 
Odescalchi (fine beach), attract a considerable number of summer 
visitors (special trains from Rome on Sun. and Thurs.). 

181 M. Palidoro lies on the river of that name, which has its 
source on the heights near the Lago di Bracciano. The line now 
approaches the plantations of (186 M.) Maccarese to the right, sup- 
posed to be the ancient Fregenae, which lay near the mouth of the 
Arrone. The Lago di Ponente or Stagno di Maccarese is now skirted. 

193 M. Ponte Galera, whence a branch-line diverges to Porto 
and Fiumicino (p. 393). Near (201 M.) Magliana the Tiber becomes 
visible, and the line follows its course (comp. Map, p. 334). A 
freer view is now obtained of the extensive Campagna di Roma ; 
to the right, in the background , the Alban Mts. (p. 363; comp. 
panorama, p. 328) and to the left the Sabine Mts. ; in the foreground 
is the grand basilica of S. Paolo fuori le Mura (p. 352). The train 
crosses the Tiber by an iron bridge and skirts the S.E. walls of Rome. 

207i/ 2 M. Rome. — Arrival, see p. 111. 

2. From Leghorn to Volterra and Colle. 

A visit to Volterra, the antiquities of which are interesting, is best 
accomplished from Leghorn. Railway via Cecina to Volterra station, 
51 M. , in 3-3 3 /4 hrs. ; express to Cecina (no through-connection) 6 fr. 35, 
4 fr. 45 c; ordinary trains 5 fr. 95, 4 fr. 15, 2 fr. 65 c; from Cecina to 
Volterra station 3 fr. 40, 2 fr. 40, 1 fr. 55 c. — Diligence from the station 
to Volterra in 2 hrs. (fare I1/2 fr. ; one-horse carr. 10 fr.). Those who 
intend to continue their journey southwards by the Maremme line should 
leave their luggage at Cecina. — Diligence to Colle twice a week only ; 
one-horse carriage about 12 fr. 

8 Route 2. VOLTERRA. From Leghorn 

Volterra may also be reached from Pontedera, a station on tlie Flor- 
ence and Pisa line, by driving up the valley of the Era (5-6 hrs.). 

From Leghorn to Volterra. To (32 M.) Cecina (Maremme 
Railway), see pp. 1, 2. The branch-line to Volterra ascends hence 
on the right bank of the Cecina, traversing a district of great mineral 
wealth. — 51/-2 M- Riparbella; 10'/ 2 M. Casino di Terra; 15 M. 
Ponte Oinori. 

19 M. Volterra. The station is situated at the foot of the lofty 
hill on which the town lies. The extensive salt-works (Le Saline) 
in the vicinity supply the whole of Tuscany with salt. 

The following excursion, for which a carriage may be hired at Volterra 
Station, is interesting to geologists. We first drive to Pomarance,a. pleasant 
town, famed in the Renaissance period for its earthenware, with a large 
chateau of Count Larderello, and in about 3 hrs. reach Larderello on the 
Monte Cerboli, the central point of the boracic acid works belonging to 
the Larderello family, which are politely shown to visitors. The_ ex- 
cursion may be extended towards the S., by Bagno a Morbo (with springs, 
good for gout, used perhaps by the Romans), Caslelnuovo, Sasso, and Monte- 
rotondo, to Massa Marittima (p. 2), a drive of 3 hrs. more. Near Sasso 
and Monterotondo in particular the country is covered with clouds of smoke, 
and the hot surface of the earth with incrustations of sulphur, sulphate of 
iron, etc. Near Monterotondo is the hot Lago Zolforeo, a small lake strongly 
impregnated with boracic acid, which is obtained from it by evaporation 
by M. Duval, a Frenchman. Count Larderello's works yield about 1650 
tons, and M. Duval's 500 tons annually, and the whole quantity is sent by 
contract to England, where it is chiefly used in the manufacture of glass 
and pottery. The lagoni, or pools through which the soffloni or jets of 
boracic acid in the form of steam bubble up, are all, with the exception 
af those of Travale, in the region of the Cecina and Cornia, and most prob- 
obly have a common volcanic origin. 

The road from the station to (5 M.) Volterra ascends (diligence 
IY2 fr-)- The country presents a peculiarly bleak appearance. The 
effect of the rain on the soft and spongy soil is most prejudicial to 

Volterra. — "Albergo Nazionale, R. I1/2-2 fr. ; Unione. — Gafi 
Etrusco, in the market-place. 

The celebrated Alabaster Works of Volterra afford occupation to nearly 
two-thirds of the population, but most of the patterns are unfortunately 
in very bad taste. The ordinary kinds of alabaster are found in the vici- 
nity, the more valuable in the mines of La Castellina, to the S. of Leg- 
horn. The traveller should visit the interesting work-shops, where sou- 
venirs may be purchased far more cheaply than at Florence or Leghorn. 

Volterra (1805 ft.), chief town of an official district and one of 
the most ancient Etruscan cities , is an episcopal residence with 
5700 inhab. (commune 14,000 inhab.~), commanding in clear wea- 
ther charming prospects as far as the heights of Pisa, the Apennines 
and the sea withthe islands of Gorgona, Elba , Capraja, and Corsica! 

Volterra (the ancient Volaterrae, Etruscan Velathri) was one of the 
twelve ancient confederate cities of Etruria, and was so strongly fortified 
that during the civil wars it withstood a siege by Sulla's troops for two 
veara. It afterwards became a Roman municipium, but gradually fell to 
decay and was totally destroyed in the 10th century. It was re-erected under 
the Othos , but does not now cover one-third of its ancient area. I n the 
middle ages it was a free town, until it became subject to Florence in 
1361. The last revolt of the inhabitants against the Florentines terminated 
on 17th June, 1472, when the town was captured and ruthlessly pillaged 

to Volterra. VOLTERRA. 2. Route. 9 

Among the Antiquities the ancient *Town Walls, once up- 
wards of 41/2 M. in circumference, and nearly three times as ex- 
tensive as those of Fiesole and Cortona, are especially worthy of 
notice. Their dimensions (40 ft. in height, 13 ft. in thickness) 
and construction of horizontal courses of sandstone blocks (pan- 
china) are best inspected outside the Porta Fiorentina and in 
the garden of the monastery of Santa Chiara. One of the ancient 
gateways, the *Porta dell' Arco, 20 ft. in height, is also still in 
existence. The corbels are adorned with almost obliterated heads. 
The Porta di Diana ('il Portone 1 ), another gateway, outside the Porta 
Fiorentina, has been much altered. Outside the same gate, below 
the burying-ground, is situated the ancient Necropolis, about halfway 
up the hill, at the place now called S. Marmi. A number of the 
curiosities in the museum were found here, but the tombs have all 
been closed up again. 

The Piscina, outside the castle, a reservoir resting on six col- 
umns, is only shown by permission of the bishop, and is reached 
by a long ladder. The Thermae, near the Fonte S. Felice, are of 
Roman origin. Traces of an Amphitheatre near the Porta Fiorentina. 

The Palazzo dei Priori or Palazzo Pubblico (PI. 19) in the 
Piazza, a handsome edifice, begun in 1208 and completed in 1257, 
is unfortunately somewhat modernised; the exterior is adorned with 
mediaeval coats-of-arms. It contains a collection of pictures , of 
which, the following are the most important : Signorelli, Madonna 
and saints, 1491 (much injured); Dom. Qhirlandajo, Christ in glory 
(ruined by restoration in 1874), and a Madonna, by the same. 

Adjoining, to the right, is the entrance to the *Cathedral 
(PI. 8), consecrated in 1120 by Pope Calixtus II., and enlarged in 
the 13th cent, by Niccolb Pisano. The facade dates from 1254. 

Intekioe. Above aad beside the entrance are reliefs from the life of 
St. Octavianus (14th cent.) ; the pulpit is adorned with sculptures of the end 
of the 12th century. The two angels on the high-altar are by Mine* da Fie- 
sole. The sarcophagus of St. Octavianus is by Raffaele Cioli (1527); the elabo- 
rate roof by Fr. Cipriani (1570). — In the S. transept is a wooden group 
(13th cent.) of the "Descent from the Cross. The chapel of S. Carlo, oppo- 
site , contains on the left an "Annunciation by Signorelli (1491) , of rich 
colouring and attractive grace; above the altar, Mary Magdalene by Ca- 
millo Incontri (1634) ; on the right, Ben. di Giovanni, Nativity, with predelle 
by Ben. Gozzoli; and Rosso Fiorenlino, Descent from the Cross (unfinished). 

Opposite to the cathedral rises the baptistery of S. Giovanni 
(PI. 6), an octagonal church, supposed to date from the 7th cent., 
and occupying the site of an ancient temple of the sun. The por- 
tal dates from the 13th century. To the left of the entrance is an 
ancient sarcophagus, with a relief of Narcissus. The fine arch of the 
high-altar is by Balsimelli da Settignano (16th cent.), the octagonal 
font by Andrea Sansovino (1502) , and the ciborium by Mino da 
Fiesole (1471). 

S. Lino (PI. 13), a church founded in 1480 by Raffaele Maffei, 
contains the tomb of that scholar, with a recumbent statue by Silvio 
da Fiesole. 

10 Route?. VOLTERRA. From Leghorn 

In the Via Iticciarelli is the house in which Daniele da Volterra, 
the celebrated pupil of Michael Angelo, was born in 1509 (he died 
at Paris in 1567). The house still belongs to the family of Ricciarelli, 
who possess the artist's *Elias. 

S. Francesco (PI. 10), with the Gothic chapel of the Confra- 
ternith della Croce di Giorno of 1315, contains frescoes from the 
life of the Saviour and the legend of the Cross by Cienni di Fran- 
cesco di Ser Cienni of Florence, 1410. 

The most interesting object in Volterra is the *Museo Nazio- 
nale, a valuable collection of inscriptions, coins, bronzes, statues, 
and vases, now contained in the Palazzo Tagassi (PI. 20), Via Vit- 
torio Emanuele. Admission 1 fr., Sun. free. 

The museum, established in 1731, and greatly enriched by the collections 
of the erudite Mario Quarnacci in 1761, has lately been admirably arranged 
by Cavaliere N. Maffei. Seven rooms on the lower floor and as many on 
the upper are occupied by the collection of Cinerary Urns (upwards of 
400). These are generally about 3 ft. in length, and date from the latest 
period of Etruscan art, i.e. the 3rd or 2nd cent. B.C. The subjects are 
more interesting than the execution, which is for the most part very 
mediocre. A few of them are composed of terracotta and sandstone , but 
most of them are of the alabaster of the environs. On the lid is the greatly 
reduced recumbent effigy of the deceased ; the sides are adorned with 
reliefs , and some of them bear traces of painting and gilding. The re- 
presentations on the urns are partly derived from the peculiar sphere of 
Etruscan life, partly from Greek mythology. From the former, parting 
scenes are the most frequent; the deceased, equipped as a rider, is escorted 
by a messenger who bears a long sack containing provisions for the jour- 
ney or is accompanied by Charon with the hammer. Sacrifices and funeral- 
processions occur frequently, as well as banquets , races, contests of skill, 
etc. Greek mythology has supplied an abundant selection of subjects, e.g. 
Ulysses with the Sirens and with Circe, the abduction of Helen, death of 
Clytemnestra, Orestes and the Furies, the Seven before Thebes (the gate a 
copy of the Porta dell' Arco, p. 9), Polynices and Eteocles, CEdipus with 
the Sphinx , CEdipus slaying his father. There is a singular blending of 
luxuriance and melancholy in the subjects and treatment of these works, 
and the same peculiarity is often observed in the subsequent development 
of Etruscan art. — Five other rooms contain marble sculptures (archaic 
sandstone relief of a warrior), vases (mostly of a later style), coins, bronzes, 
utensils, gold ornaments, and fine glass vessels. — In the third story are 
the Archives and the Library, containing 13,000 vols., and a collection of 
coins and seals. On the staircase are a frieze in relief (9th cent.) from 
S. Giusto, an inscription of Gundibert, King of the Lombards, and other 
mediaeval sculptures. 

The Citadel (Fortezza) consists of two parts , the Cassero or 
Rocca Vecchia, erected on the ancient town-walls in 1343 by Walter 
de Brienne, Duke of Athens, and the Rocca Nuova, built by the 
Florentines after the capture of the town. At the same time they 
constructed the prison 11 Mastio for the incarceration of political 
offenders, where the mathematician Lorenzo Lorenzini was confined 
as a suspected person by the Grand-Duke Cosimo III. for 11 years 
(1682-93). The citadel, now a house of correction, may be visited 
with permission of the Sotto Prefetto. 

The Palazzo Maffei- Quarnacci, opposite the church of S. Michele, 
with its three towers, the oldest dating from the 13th' cent., contains 
pictures and a valuable collection of letters of Salv. Rosa. 

to Volterra. VOLTERRA. 3. Route. 11 

The Gothic Palazzo Inghirami contains a small collection of 
pictures, comprising a *Portrait of the learned Fedra Inghirami, 
an original work of Raphael (replica in the Pitti Gallery at Florence). 

The Casa Ducci bears the Roman epitaph of a boy, five years of 
age, probably a member of the family of the poet Persius, who 
was born at Volaterrae in A.D. 34. 

Outside the Porta Pisana ia the ruined Romanesque church of S. Ste- 
fano, near which are a fountain and a Roman marble portrait-statue, 
known as the Protomarzio, from a corruption of Prato Marzio, the ancient 
name of the place. » — Farther from the town , between the churches of 
S. Giusta and La Badia, lies a deep ravine called Le Baize, which was 
comparatively recently formed by the action of water and continues to 
increase. Several buildings have already been undermined and destroyed, 
and the celebrated Camaldulensian abbey of San Salvatore, founded in 
the 11th cent., is threatened with the same fate. 

In the valley to the E. is the convent of S. Girolamo, the vestibule 
chapels of which contain terracotta altar-pieces from the studio of the Delia 
Robbia's, one representing St. Francis with SS. Clara and Louis, another 
the Last Judgment (1501). In the church is an Annunciation by Benvenuto 
di Giovanni. — Farther on is the Villa Inghirami (fine view), with some 
Etruscan Tombs, in which the burial-urns are still in situ (the gardener 
supplies a light, '/« f"*-)- Hence the rock-caves named Le Buche de? Sara- 
ceni may be visited. 

A pleasant Excursion may be made to the copper -mines of La Cava 
di Caporciano, near Monte C'atini, 10 M. from Volterra. The road leads 
across the hill of La Bachetona to Monte Catini on the summit of the Se- 
lagite, a mountain of volcanic origin. The square tower of the old castle 
commands an extensive prospect. The mines have been worked since the 
15th cent. , and the operations were very successful till within the last 
few years, but since 1870 the yield has fallen off. The present possessor 
is Count Buturlin. The mineral was found in pockets or clusters , be- 
tween serpentine, known here as gabbro verde, and a peculiar species 
of red rock, gabbro rosso. The whole vicinity is extremely interesting for 
geologists. A number of peaks, such as Monte delf Abele, Poggio alia Croce, 
and Monte Massi, consist of gabbro rosso, which has been upheaved at 
a comparatively recent period through the surrounding sand and limestone. 
The view from "Monte Massi (1910 ft.) or from Poggio alia Croce (V2 hr. 
from Monte Catini) extends from the heights near Massa and Carrara to- 
wards the N. to Monte Amiata on the S., and embraces the sea with the 
islands of Elba, Capraja, and Corsica. 

From Volterra to Collb, 15 j /2 m - '^ e high-road leads to- 
wards the E. through an undulating and attractive district. To the 
left is seen 8. Gimignano (p. 14), to which a good road (fine views) 
diverges after 7^2 M. (reaching it after 11 M. more; pedestrians 
may take a short-cut, diverging 1 M. farther on, via Ranza and S. 
Donato). To the right lies Pomarance (p. 8). Colle, see p. 13. 

3. Elba and the Tuscan Islands. 

A visit to Elba, which is strongly recommended to the scientific traveller 
and the lover of nature, is accomplished either from Leghorn or from 
Piombino (p. 2). Between both these points and Porto Ferrajo, the capital of 
the island, communication is kept up by the Societa Riunite Florio-Rubattino. 
From Leghorn to Porto Ferrajo every Sun. forenoon in 4V2 hrs., return- 
ing on Mon. forenoon. — From Piombino to Porto Ferrajo every afternoon 
in 2 hrs., returning every forenoon. — A steamboat of the same company 
also makes a trip once weekly to the smill neighbouring islands (Linea 

12 Route 3. ELBA. 

About 4 M. to the "W. of Leghorn rises the cliff of Meloria, where 
the Pisans were so signally defeated by the Genoese in 1283, that 
they never regained their former supremacy. Farther to the W. 
(21 1 /2 M. from Leghorn) is Oorgona, inhabited by fishermen, a 
sterile island, affording pasture to wild goats only. Between the 
latter and Elba lies (40 M.J Capraja ('island of goats', so called by 
the ancients also}, with 2000 inhab., where wine is produced. 

Elba, Lat. Ilva , Greek Mthalia , consisting of an imposing 
mountain-group, lies 5'/2 M. to the S.W. of Piombino (p. 2), be- 
yond the islets of Palmajola and Cerboli. The Torre di Oiove, sit- 
uated on the highest point, serves as a landmark to sailors. The 
vessel rounds the Capo della Vita and enters the beautiful bay of 
Porto Ferrajo (Albergo delle Api, fair), the capital , enclosed 
amphitheatrically by mountains. The island was celebrated in an- 
cient times for its iron ore ; in the middle ages it was subject to 
the Pisans, then to Genoa, to Lucca, and to the Appiani of Piom- 
bino, and was finally presented by the Emp. Charles V. to the 
Grand-Duke Cosimo I. of Florence , who fortified the harbour of 
Porto Ferrajo in 1548. As the name of the town indicates, the 
mining and export of iron form the principal occupation of the 
inhabitants (22,000), others of whom are supported by the tunny 
and sardine fisheries. Elba has acquired a modern celebrity as the 
retreat of the dethroned Napoleon, from 5th May, 1814, to 26th Feb., 
1815. The Villa S. Martino, the house occupied by the emperor, is still 
shown at Porto Ferrajo, on the height above the harbour, between 
the forts Stella and Falcone, which were erected by Cosimo I., and 
command a view of the bay in front, and of the sea in the di- 
rection of Piombino at the back. It contains several Napoleonic 
relics. Below, adjoining the harbour, is the Bagno, or prison, in 
which several hundred galley-convicts are confined. — The island 
is about 18 M. long, O'^M. broad, and 90 sq. M. in area; it contains 
several fertile valleys, but lofty and precipitous mountains predomi- 
nate. Monte Capanne, the highest point, near the village of Mar- 
ciana, is 3300 ft. in height. The coast on the side next the main- 
land is less abrupt, and produces admirable wine and fruit, espe- 
cially near Capoliveri, where excellent Aleatico is grown. — An ex- 
cursion from Porto Ferrajo to the iron-mines is best made by tak- 
ing a boat to the Borgo dei Mngmzini, and walking or riding thence 
(hor.~e there and back 3 fr. ) over the hill to Rio Castello and on to 
Rio Marina, where a guide to the mines (scarcely necessary) may 
be obtained. The ferriferous strata lie on the surface, and are re- 
cognised at a distance by the reddish-black appearance of the hills. 
On the coast, to the S. of Rio Castello, lies the picturesque strong- 
hold of Porto Longone, founded by the Spaniards. 

About 71/2 M. to the S. W. of Elba lies the island of Pianosa, 
the ancient Planasia, which, as its name indicates, is perfectly flat. 
To this island Agrippa Postumus, grandson of Augustus, was once 

EMPOLI. 4. Route. 13 

banished, and to him are referred the considerable Roman remains 
which still exist here. Farther to the S. (25 M. from Elba) rises 
Monte Cristo, consisting of granite-rock, 6 M. in circumference. It 
contains numerous springs, and the ruins of a monastery destroyed 
by pirates in the 16th century. The name is familiar through the 
well-known romance of the elder Dumas. Opposite the Monte Ar- 
gentario (p. 3) and about C M. from the mainland is Giglio, Lat. 
Igilium, a considerable island containing a village and vestiges of 
Roman palaces. The highest point is 1630 ft. ahove the sea-level. 

4. From Florence to Siena and Chiusi via, Empoli. 

114 M. Railway. To Siena, 591/2 M., in 3-3'/ 2 hrs. ; fares 10 fr. 90, 7 fr. 
65, 4 fr. 95 c. — From Siena to Chidsi, 54Vz M., in ^/,-iy 2 hrs. ; fares 9 fr. 
95, 6 fr. 95, 4 fr. 45 c. — No qnick trains. 

Florence, see Baedeker's Northern Italy. — 6 M. S. Donnino; 
the valley of the Arno expands. 7 M. Signa, with its grey pinnacles 
and towers, is famed for its straw-plaiting. The line crosses the 
Ombrone , which falls into the Arno, and enters the defile of the 
Oonfolina, which separates the middle from the lower valley of the 
Arno. Crossing the Arno, the train reaches (16 M.) Montelupo. 
Farther on we cross the small river Pesa. 

20 M. Empoli (Rail. Restaurant , unpretending), a small town 
with 6000 inhab. , with antiquated buildings and narrow streets, 
situated in a fertile district. Halt of 6-25 min. ; passengers to Siena 
have often to change carriages. The main line pursues a W. di- 
rection towards Pisa and Leghorn ; see Baedeker s Northern Italy. 

The line to Siena traverses the fertile valley of the Elsa, on the 
right bank of the stream. To the right, on the hill, S. Miniato del 
Tedeschi, picturesquely situated, with a lofty mediaeval tower. 23 M. 
Ponte a Elsa; 26 M. Granaiolo. 307-2 M. Castel Fiorentino ; the town, 
on the height to the left, is the principal place in the Val a" Elsa. 

35^2 M. Certaldo ; the town, on the hill to the left, was the na- 
tive place of Giovanni Boccaccio, who died here, 21st Dec, 1375, at 
the age of 62. His tomb in the church of S. Michele e Giacomo (La 
Canonica), erected in 1503, was removed some time after 1783 and 
his bones scattered. The house of Boccaccio, now denoted by a 
tablet, was restored in 1823 by the Countess Carlotta Lenzoni-Me- 
dici, and fitted up in the mediaeval style. The remains of his mon- 
ument were also brought hither. 

431/2 M. Poggibonsi (Aquila, opposite the station , tolerably 
comfortable); the town (4000 inhab.) lies to the right. On the hill 
above it rise the old castle and the monastery of S. Lucchese. In the 
church of the castle is an altar-piece and in the former refectory are 
frescoes by Gerino da Pistoja. 

FaoM Poggibonsi to Collb, 5 M., railway in 26 min. (70, 40 c). 
Colle (Alb. del Buon Soggiorno , tolerable), generally called 

14 Route 4. S. GIMIGNANO. From Florence 

Colle di Val d'Elsa to distinguish it from other places of the same 
name, is an old town with 1000 inhab., frequently mentioned in the 
history of the Renaissance. It now consists of two parts, Colle Alto 
and Colle Basso. The first of these contains the palaces of the old, but 
now greatly impoverished aristocracy ; the house of the celebrated 
architect Arnolfo diCambio ; and the Cathedral, dating from the 13th 
cent., with a facade modernised in bad taste, a marble pulpit (of 
which the lower part belongs to the 13th cent., and the upper part, 
with reliefs of saints, to the 16th), and handsome carved choir- stalls 
and episcopal throne of the 17th century. At Colle Basso there are 
now important iron and glass works. 

The interesting little town of S. Gimignano may be conveniently 
visited from Poggibonsi or Colle, from each of which it is about 
6 M. distant. Carnages may be hired at the stations for 4 frs. 

S. Gimignano (1180 ft. ; Albergo Leone Bianco, Via S. Matteo, 
near the gate, well spoken of), an ancient and loftily situated town, 
with 8200 inhab., was a prosperous and independent place in the 
13th and 14th cent., but in 1353, after having suffered terribly in 
consequence of the dissensions of the leading families of the Salvucci 
(Ghibellines) and Ardinghelli (Guelphs), it became subject to Flor- 
ence. Its walls, its towers (whence the name 'S. Gimignano delle 
belle torri') and its streets, all carry us back to the middle ages. 
Perhaps no other town in Tuscany presents so faithful a picture 
of Dante's time. Architecture of the Gothic type prevails. 

In the centre of the town is the Piazza della Collegiata, or 
del Duorno, with several important buildings. 

The *Palazzo Pubblico or Comunale was erected in 1288-1323. 

The Sala del Consiglio , on the second floor, contains a "Madonna 
with saints and angels , and the kneeling donor Podesta Nello dei Tolo- 
mei (1317,), a fresco by Lippo Memmi of Siena; also pictnres from sup- 
pressed monasteries in the neighbourhood : 8, 9. Maincn-di, Madonnas ; 13. 
Filippino Lippi, Annunciation (two round paintings) ; 16. Fra Paolino, Ma- 
donna; 18. Pintnricchio, Madonna with two saints. — To the left of the 
exit into the court is the Cappella del Pbetoee, or delle Carceri (now 
divided by a wall into two parts), containing a "Scene from the legend of 
St. Yvo, and allegorical figures of Truth, Prudence, and Falsehood, fres- 
coes by Sodoma. There are also many traces of frescoes in other parts 
of the palace. 

The Torre del Comune (160 ft.) is the highest of the 13 towers 
which still exist out of the original number of 50. The largest of 
its three bells dates from 1328. 

Adjacent is the cathedral, usually called *La Collegiata, of 
the 12th cent., altered in the 15th by Qiuliano da Majano, and now 
entirely modernised. It contains frescoes of the 14-15th centuries. 

On the entrance-wall, ''Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, a fresco of colos- 
sal proportions by Benozzo Gozzoli, 14G5 ; Annunciation, two wooden figures 
(14th cent.) by Marlinus Bai-tolomtiei of Siena. In the N. aisle, scenes from the 
Old Testament (some in had preservation) by Bartolo di Fredi of Siena, 1356; 
in the S. aisle, Life of Christ by Barua da Siena, 1380. In the nave, above 
the arch, Paradise and the Inferno, by Taddeo Bartoli. — The visitor should 
particularly notice the decorations in the last side-chapel to the right, 
the "Cappella S'. Fina, which contains the bones of this local saint, who 

to Siena. S. GIMIGNANO. 4. Route. 1 5 

died at the age of 15 years. The chapel was designed by Giuliano da Ma- 
jano ; altar-piece (recently restored) by Benedetto da Majano. The two "Fres- 
coes on the side-walls, representing the vision of the youthful saint and 
her burial, by Dom. Ghirlandajo, are among the finest works of that master, 
and combine a fresh and life-like style with majestic gravity. — In the 
choir, centre of the right wall, Coronation of the Virgin , an altar-piece 
by Piero del Pollajuolo of Florence, 1483; to the right of this, Madonna 
and four saints, by Benozzo Gozzoli; on the left wall, same subject by Ta- 
rnagni; adjacent, *Marquetry ('intarsia') choir-stalls of 1490. — The Oka- 
tokio S. Giovanni contains an Annunciation by Dom. Ghirlandajo, 1482, 
a work of no great importance. 

Opposite the. cathedral is the Palazzo del Podesta, with an 
imposing loggia (now a theatre). It is surmounted by the Torre 
della Rognosa or dell' Orologio, which indicates the height beyond 
which private individuals were prohibited from building. 

The Via S. Matteo descends from the Piazza , passing the two 
towers of the Salvucci , to an ancient gateway , which marked the 
limits of the town until the 13th century. Immediately to the right 
in this street is the Biblioteca Comunale (librarian, Preposto Ugo 
Nomi), which contains 9000 vols, and 200 codices. One of its 
treasures is a copy of Alciati's Emblemata (Lyons, 1564), along with 
which are bound up several interesting autographs, including those 
of Luther and Melanchthon. Adjacent is a small Museum. — Far- 
ther on are 8. Bartolo (originally S. Matteo), a church of the 
Knights Templar , with a 12th cent, facade , and the Palazzo Pes- 
ciolini. — In the Via Nt/ova, which diverges to the right , are the 
church of S. Chiara on the left , and farther on , on the right , the 
Hospital, with numerous majolica vases, and the church of S. Oiro- 
lamo (behind the high-altar, Madonna and saints by Vincenzo Ta- 
magni, 1522, with a glory by a later painter) , and finally , to the 
left of the gateway, the 12th cent, church of 8. Oiacomo , another 
church of the Templars , with frescoes by a Sienese master of the 
13th century. 

The Via delleRomite, diverging from the Via Nuova at S. Chiara, 
leads to *S. Agostino, begun in 1280 (chief entrance usually closed ; 
sagrestano, Via Nuova 17). 

This church owes its fame to the "Frescoes in the Choir by Benozzo 
Gozzoli (1465), where the master has pourtrayed the life of St. Augustine 
in 17 scenes, from his school-days to his death. Though not of uniform 
excellence, nor in equally good preservation, these pictures alone repay 
a visit to S. Grimignano (the finest are: St. Augustine as teacher of rhe- 
toric in Rome; Death of St. Monica; 'St. Augustine on the bier). — The 
Cappella S. Guglielmo, to the right of the choir, contains a Nativity and 
Death of the Virgin, by Bartolo di Fredi, in which several touches of real 
Italian life are traceable. — To the left, in the Cappella del S. Sagka- 
mento, are frescoes by Vincenzo da S. Gimignano. — On the N. side of the 
church, St. Geminianus and three worshippers, a fresco by Seb. Mainardi, 
a pupil of Dom. Ghirlandajo; farther on, St. Sebastian, the deliverer 
from the plague, the effects of which are symbolised by flashes of light- 
ning, by Benozzo Gozzoli, 1464, of less importance than the frescoes in the 
choir. To the right of the principal entrance : *Alt;ir-piece (St. Bartoldus) 
by Benedetto da Majano, 1494; under the organ are frescoes by Seb. Mai- 
nardi, representing Saints in simple groups. 

From S. Agostino we return to the market-place, which is ad- 

16 Route 4. MONTE OLIVETO. From Florence 

joined by the Piazza della Cisterna , distinguished by the two 
low towers of the Ardinghelli , on the right. The Via del Castello 
leads to the left to the church of S. Lorenzo in Ponte, with a portico, 
now built up, of the 13th century. — The terracotta ornamentation 
of the windows of the buildings, many of which are in the form of 
a horseshoe, should be observed. 

From the Piazza della Cisterna the Contrada di San Giovanni 
descends to the right to the Palazzo Pratellesi, in which the prin- 
cipal saloon of the upper floor contains a Madonna with saints, a 
fresco by Tamagni. Farther on, to the left, are S. Giovanni Evan- 
gelista, a Johannite church of the 12th cent., and, in the street, a 
figure of the Madonna, by Mainardi. 

A private garden at the Fortezza , the highest part of the old 
fortifications (ascend to the right from La Collegiata), commands a 
fine view of the town and neighbourhood. 

We may drive in 3 /< hr. to the venerable church of S. Maria Assunta 
di Callori, or Cellole, situated outside the Porta Matteo, and dating from 
the 11th, or perhaps from the 10th cent., containing remarkable capitals 
and curious ornamentation in the apse. Fine view. 

Beyond Poggibonsi the Railway begins to ascend considerably. 
To the right, Staggia with a mediaeval chateau ; farther on, to the 
right, the ancient and picturesque chateau of Monte Riggioni. The 
train then passes through a long tunnel (3 min.). 

59 y 2 M. Siena, see p. 20. 

Siena is a terminal station, loftily situated, from which the train 
backs out. On the journey to Orvieto, the train returns part of the 
way to Empoli, and then diverges at an acute angle towards the 
S.E. We traverse the hills which form the watershed between the 
Ombrone and the valley of the Chiana. Several tunnels. 65 M. 
Arbia. This district is one of the bleakest in Italy, the chief fea- 
tures being grotesquely shaped hills of sand, and barren fissured 
mountains, interesting to the palaeontologist only. 

79 M. Asciano; the pleasant little town {Alb. del Sole, clean; 
7400 inhab.), Vfe M. to the Tight of the railway, possesses fortifica- 
tions constructed by the Sienese in 1351 , and several handsome 
churches with pictures of the early Sienese School. 

Asciano is the most convenient starting-point for a visit to the 
famous, but now suppressed, Benedictine convent of *Monte Oliveto 
Maggiore (6 M.; a drive of l 3 /4 hr. there, and iy 2 nr - back; carri- 
ages at the Alb. del Sole, fare 10-12 fr.). The road, leading by 
Chiusure, is rough and more suitable for walking. 

Visitors apply beforehand to the 'Ispettore' of the Istituto delle Belle 
Arti ;it Siena (p. 32), from whom they receive a 'permesso' to present 
to the 'Sopraintendente' at the monastery. Those who have not time to 
send this two days in advance should provide themselves with eatables 
for one day. Ordinary visitors are not allowed to stay more than two days 
at the convent ('pens'. 5 fr.). 

The convent, founded in 1320 by Bernardo Tolomei and afterwards 
greatly enriched by donations, still affords an excellent idea of a great 

to Siena. ASCIANO. 4. Route 17 

establishment of the kind. The monks must have been wonderfully 
energetic to have been able to transform the sterile chalk-soil here into 
a smiling oasis. iEneas Sylvius Piecolomini (Pius II. ; p. 28) gives an 
interesting description of the monastery in his 'Commentaria\ 

The walls of the Monastery Codet are adorned with celebrated 
*Frescoes by Luca SignorelU (1497) and Anl. Bazzi, called Sodoma (1505), 
representing scenes from the legend of St. Benedict. The order of the 
pictures does not correspond with the date of their execution. The series 
begins with the first picture on the wall opposite the entrance (adjoining 
the entrance to the church), representing St. Benedict's departure from 
home, by Sodoma. The earliest part of the series are the frescoes on the 
entrance-wall, executed by SignorelU, eight in number: Totila kneeling 
to the saint ; Soldier in disguise, attempting to deceive the saint ; Temp- 
tation of the fasting monk ; Punishment of two monks addicted to dainties ; 
Resuscitation of a dead man whom Satan has thrown from a wall ; Exor- 
cism of Satan; Overthrow of the idol; Resuscitation of a youth killed by 
the fall of a house. — The 'Sending forth of Missionaries 1 , on the left 
of the corner to the right, is by Riccio, but all the other pictures are 
by Sodoma, whose sense of beauty is everywhere apparent, though he is 
doubtless far inferior to Signorelli in depth and excellence of conception 
and execution. In the first pictures by Sodoma we can trace a resem- 
blance to the frescoes of Pinturicchio in the Cathedral library at Siena, 
and, in the others, features that recall Leonardo da Vinci. — The Chdrch 
(entrance to the left of the monastery court), which was modernised last 
century, contains little to detain us beyond the handsome choir-stalls 
and reading-desk, in inlaid work, by Fra Oiov. da Verona (1502-5). — 
In the Libreria are a door and a cabinet , also beautifully inlaid by the 
same master. — The visitor should notice the extensive stables at the 
back of the monastery, the different sections of which bear tablets with 
the names of the chief towns of Italy, in order that guests might know 
on arriving where to put up their horses. 

The Emperor Henry VII. died, Aug. 24th, 1313, at Buonconvento, 41/2 M. 
to the S.W., on the Arbia. The churches contain a few ancient pictures 
of the Sienese school. 

Fkom Asciano to Gkosseto, 59V2 M., branch-line in 372 hrs. (fares 11 fr., 
7 fr. 70, 4 fr. 95 c.) — 8 M. S. Giovanni d'Asso (tolerable inn). The Ca- 
nonica contains six small and ancient paintings of the Sienese school. Mte. 
Oliveto is reached hence in I1/2 hr. (p. 16; a car with one horse may be 
obtained). — 14 M. Torrenieri, on the old road from Siena and Buoncon- 
vento (see above), via S. Quirico, Radicofani, and Bolsena (p. 65), to Rome. 

— [About 572 M. to the S.W. of Torrenieri (omnibus 2 fr.) lies Mont- 
alcino {Albergo del Oiglio, tolerable, bargaining necessary), a town which 
early in the middle ages belonged to the abbey of S. Antimo, and after- 
wards to Siena. In the Palazzo Municipale is the Cappella delle Carceri, 
which contains a small collection of pictures from suppressed mon- 
asteries, including a Descent from the Cross (1382) and a Coronation of 
the Virgin (1388) by Bartolo di Fredi of Siena. The Cathedral was begun 
in 1818. The dissolved Franciscan Monaster;/ is now a hospital. Over the 
chief entrance of the church belonging to it is a group of the Madonna, 
John the Baptist, SS. Peter and Sebastian, of the school of Delia Robbia 
(1507). A room adjoining the sacristy is adorned with frescoes of the 
latter part of the 15th cent., and the monastery court contains others dating 
from 1438. Fine view from the piazza adjacent to the modern church of 
the Madonna, on the E. side of the town. — The railway -station of 
Monte Amiata (p. 18) lies about 8 M. to the S.E. of Montalcino. To the 
N. of Castelnuovo dell'Abate, within about 2'/2 M. of Monte Amiata, is S. 
Antimo, which was an independent abbey down to the 13th century. The 
handsome church was built of white alabaster and travertine in the 11th 
cent., and its rich portal dates from 1292. 

About 4 M. to the S.E. of Torrenieri (omnibus l'/a fr.) lies S. Quirico 
(Albergo del Lepre, tolerable), which was the residence of an imperial 
governor during the Hohenstaufen regime and was fortified by Siena in 
1472. The handsome "Collegiate Church in the Lombard style was foundep 

Baedeker. Italy II. 10th Edition. 2 

1 8 Route 4. MONTEPULCIANO. From Florence 

in the 8th cent.; highly ornate porch of 1298; interior disfigured in the 
17th cent. ; choir-stalls of the 16th century. The adjacent Misericordia church 
contains a high- altar-piece by Scdoma. The Palazzo Chigi, erected in 
1685-87 , deserves a visit (keys at the Fattoria Chigi). The Orti Leo- 
nini (keys at the same place), a neglected park of the 16th cent., adjoin- 
ing the town-wall, afford an admirable view. — The hot Baths of Vig- 
noni, 3'/.> SI. to the S. of Quirico, were much frequented in ancient times, 
and again during the Renaissance period , but are now neglected. The 
ante-chamber of the bath-house contains an ancient votive stone. Among 
the famous medifeval visitors were St. Catharine of Siena and Lorenzo il 
Magnifico. — From S. Quirico to Pienza (p. 20) 41/2 M.] — 

21 SI. Monte Amiata , the best starting-point for a visit to the moun- 
tain of that name, the highest in Tuscany, lies 2'/2 M. to the S.E. of 
Castelnuovo dell'Abbate (p. 17) — [By omnibus in 3 hrs. to Castel del Piano 
(2'/2 fr. ; Locanda Amiatina), where a guide may be obtained at the Muni- 
cipio; thence on horseback in 33/4 hrs., or on foot in 4'/2 hrs., to the 
summit of the *Monte Amiata (5645 ft.), which affords an admirable survey 
of the whole country between the Tyrrhenian Sea, the Apennines, and the 
Ciminian Forest (p. 73). The rock-formation is volcanic and interesting to 
geologists. A pleasant return-route leads through beautiful woods to Vivo, 
a suppressed Camaldulensian monastery, now the property of Count Cer- 
vini, where a one-horse carriage may be hired of the miller. — From Vivo 
to stat. Monte Amiata 11 SI., or to Torrenieri 17 M. The latter road leads 
by Castiglione d'Orcia, not far from the Baths of Vignoni (see above), and 
by S. Quirico (p. 17).] — 

28 M. S. Angelo and Cinigiano. The train follows the right bank of 
the Orcia, the E. affluent of the Ombrone, and crosses the latter. — 32V2 M. 
Monte Antico. At Paganico the train quits the Ombrone and begins to 
thread its way among the hills. 42 SI. Rocca Strada, a village (1640 ft.) 
on the right ; then Sticciano. At (53 M.) Monte Pescali the line unites with 
the Maremme Railway, to the N. of Grosseto (p. 3). 

82!/2M. Rapolano. The village, to the right, possesses baths which 
are frequented in summer. The country becomes more attractive. 

90y 2 M. Lucignano ; the mediaeval village lies on the hill to the 
left. The improving cultivation of the soil indicates the proximity of 
the charming valley of the Chiana. To the left, in the distance, the 
chain of the Apennines. — 94 M. Sinalunga; on the right the village, 
where Garibaldi was captured on his march to Rome , 24th Sept. 
1867. — 98 M. Torrita. Montepulciano becomes visible to the right. 

103 M. Montepulciano ; the lonely station is 6M. from the town 
(omnibus in iy 2 hr. , meeting nearly every train ; fare2fr.); the 
road passes through several small villages. 

Montepulciano. — Albergo Marzocco ( BruzzichelWi) , with trattoria, 
Via Garibaldi 32, tolerable, R. l-H/2 fr., D. 2-3 fr. — The Wine of Monte- 
pulciano is justly celebrated. The red wine is strong and somewhat rough. 
'■Vino santo'' is a sweet white wine (2 fr. per bottle). Vermouth is a white 
wine flavoured with fragrant herbs and wormwood. 

Montepulciano , a picturesque town with 3000 (or with the ad- 
joining suburbs 13,000) inhab., surrounded by mediaeval walls, lies 
conspicuously on the slope of a mountain (2070 ft.). It was the 
birthplace of the scholar and poet Angelo Ambrogini (1454-94), 
surnamed Politianus after this his native place ('Respublica Po- 
litiana'), the friend of Lorenzo il Magnifico and preceptor of his chil- 
dren. The beautiful situation as well as the monuments of the place 
repay a visit. The sights may be inspected in 4-5 hours. 

to Siena. MONTEPULCIANO. 4. Route. 19 

We follow the main street, generally running from E. to "W., 
and ascending from the gate next the railway-station to the plateau 
of the hill on which the town lies. It is first named Via Garibaldi, 
then Via Cavour, and lastly Via Poliziano. — In the Via Garibaldi, 
No. 32, on the left, is the Palazzo Tarugi (containing the above- 
mentioned Alb. Marzocco), built by Vignola. Opposite, Nos. 35-37, 
Palazzo Avignonesi, dating from the latter half of the 16th century. 
Then, also on the right, S. Agostino, of the 17th cent., with curious 
touches of Gothic. • — In the Via Cavour, on the left, Chiesa del 
Gesii, a characteristic example of the Jesuit style. On the right the 
*Mercato (market-halls) by Vignola. — In the Via Poliziano, on the 
left, No. 1, is the house in which Angelo Poliziano was born, a brick 
building of the 14th cent., with an inscription. 

We next reach the Piazzbtta di S. Maria, with the small 
church of <S. Maria of the 13th cent, (handsome portal). It com- 
mands an admirable view of the lakes of Montepulciano , Chiusi, 
and Trasimeno; to the left rises Monte Amiata; farther up we obtain 
a survey of Pienza, S. Quirico, Montalcino, and the valley of the 
Ohiana. — A road hence descends to the left in 12 min. to the — 

*Madonna di 8. Biagio , in the valley, designed by Antonio da 
Sangallo and begun in 1518. The fine marble chapel of the high- 
altar, by Oiovanozzo and Lisandro Albertini, dates from 1584. 

Returning to the hill, and again following the main street, we 
next reach the Piazza Grande. The interesting fountain in the 
centre dates from 1520. On the left is the — 

Palazzo Munieipale , of the 14th cent. , resembling the Palazzo 
Pitti at Florence, and containing a few pictures and curiosities. 

Ante-chamber of first floor : Madonna, John the Baptist, and saints, of 
the school of Delia Robbia. — Pictuke Gallekt on the second floor. 
I. Room: Matteo da Siena (?), Madonna. II. Room: 9. Seb. del Piombo, 
Pope Paul III. ; 80. Pacchiarotto, Madonna ; "86. Umbrian School (ascribed 
to Raphael) , Portrait of a lady. A collection of dies once used by the 
engraver Cerbano is preserved here. 

On the W. of the piazza is the Cathedral, with a ruinous facade. 

In the Interior, over the principal entrance, are the Death, Assumption, 
and Coronation of the Madonna by Taddeo Barloli. The church was once 
adorned with an imposing monument to Bartolommeo Aragazzi, secretary 
of Pope Martin V., erected in 1427-29 by the famous architect Michelozzo 
Michelozzi, with the assistance of his master Donatello. It was taken 
down , however, during last century, when several parts of it were lost 
and others were placed in different parts of the chirch: thus, to the left 
of the principal entrance, two reliefs; by the two first pillars, two alle- 
gorical 'Statues; by the high-altar, marble group of cherubs with gar- 
lands, forming the top of the monument. 

To the right , opposite the Palazzo Munieipale , is the Palazzo 
Contucci, by A. da Sangallo, and adjoining it the Palazzo Nobile- 
Tarugi, attributed to the same master. 

We next enter the Via Ricci, where on the right rises the *Pa- 
lazzo Bombagli, a Gothic brick building. — Crossing the Piazzetta 
della Misericordia, with the church of S. Francesco (Gothic portal) 
and fine view, we now descend the Via del Poggiolo. Immediately 


20 Route 5. SIENA. Cabs. 

to the left in this street is the entrance to the Oratorio della Mi- 
sericordia, which contains a Christ in a glory and an Annunciation 
over the high-altar of the school of the Della Robbia. 

A visit to Pienza is most conveniently made from Montepulciano : about 
9 M., one-horse carr. there and back 10, two-horse 20 fr. Comp. p. 18. 

Pienza (Albergo Franci, poor), a small town with about 2000 inhab., 
was originally called Corsignano, but subsequently named the 'town of Pius' 
after Pius II. (tineas Sylvius Piccolomini, p. 28), who was born here on 
18th Oct. 1405, and who adorned the town with very handsome buildings, 
chiefly designed by the Florentine Bernardo Rossellino and the Sienese 
Francesco (Ciecco) di Giorgio (1439-1502). As all these buildings date 
from about the same period (1460) and are situated in the same piazza 
(del Duomo), they afford a more compact survey of early-Renaissance 
architecture than is to be obtained in most Italian towns. The chief 
edifices are the Cathedral, with its studiously simple facade; to the 
right of it is the Vescovado or episcopal palace ; opposite the cathedral 
the Palazzo Pubblico, with a colonnade; to the right the finest of all, 
the "Palazzo Piccolomini, which like the Palazzo Rucellai at Florence 
exhibits the rustica style in combination with pilasters (handsome court 
and colonnade) ; in front of the palace is a charming Fountain of 1462. — 
The right transept of the cathedral contains a Madonna with four saints 
by Matteo da Siena; the choir-stalls, carved in the Gothic style, date from 
1462; in the chapel to the left of the high-altar is an Assumption of the 
Virgin by Vecchietta; in the left transept a Madonna and four saints by 
Sano di Pietro. The Cathedral Treasury (shown by the sagrestano in pre- 
sence of one of the canonici, sacristan 2 fr.) contains some early Renais- 
sance works : crozier in gilded and embossed silver , a Paxvobiscum , a 
silver censer in the Gothic style, ''Mitre of Pius II. decorated with pearls 
and jewels, reliquary of St. Andrew of Salerno, crucifix with rich fili- 
gree-work, etc. — The Opera del Duomo, to the left of the cathedral, con- 
tains the ecclesiastical vestments, including those of Pius II., one of which 
is of Flemish , the other of Italian workmanship. 

Continuation of Journey. To the right we soon observe the 
Monti di Cetona , which are connected with the Monte Amiata 
(p. 18). To the left stretches the long Lake of Montepulciano, 
beyond which is the Lake of Chiusi , connected with the other by 
a canal. The lakes exhale unhealthy malaria in summer. 

108y 2 M. Chianciano. — 114 M. Chiusi, see p. 60. 

5. Siena. 

Hotels. s Geand Hotel Royal de Sienne (PI. a; E, 3), Via Cavour, with 
its back to the Lizza (p. 35), R. from 2-3, D. 4, B. H/z, L. & A. 1, omn. 
1 fr. ; 'Geand Hotel Continental (PI. b; B, 4), Via Cavour 15, opposite 
the post-office,!: R. f r0 m 2'/2, L & A. 1, B. I 1 /,,, luncheon 272, D. 41/2, omn. 
1 fr.; Aqoila Nera, Via di Citta (PI. D, 5), a good house in the Italian 
style, similar charges. — Scala (PL d; D, 4), Piazza S. Giovanni, opposite 
the Baptistery (p. 26) unpretending, but with large rooms (l'/2 fr.); Tee 
Moei (PI. F, 3), Via Garibaldi, near the station, for moderate require- 
ments, R. l l /2 fr.; Il Sasso, with restaurant, Via Cavour, near the post- 
office, well spoken of. — For a prolonged stay: Pension Chiusarelli, 
Via S. Domenico, near the Protestant church ; J. Oatti, Palazzo Bianchi, 
Via de' Servi ; Masini, Via Cavour 12, well spoken of: Francesco Tog- 
nazzi, Via Sallustio Bandini 19; Mme. Marion, Via Ricasoli 37; Pas- 
quini, Via delle Belle Arti 19 (pension at each 5-7 fr. per day, even for a 
short stay). 

Trattorie. Aquila Nera, see above; Sasso, see above, good; La Tos- 
cana (formerly Minerva), Via del Re 4, with rooms (1-2 fr.), unpretending; 



5. Route. 21 

Scuta, see above. — Wine and fine view at TallianPs, Via delle Belle Arti 
31, and at the Fiaschetleria il Confortabile, Via del Castoro, near the 
Piazza d"l Duomo (sometimes open in the evening only). — Beer at Ba- 
der's, on the Mzza (p. 35). 

Caffe Greco, near the Casino de 1 Nobili (p. 25). 


By Day 


lfr. - 


two -horse 

1 fr. 



1 fr. 50 

1 - 


At Night 


two -horse 



Cab Tariff: 

In the town : to or from the sta- 

— first half-hour .... 

— each additional '/a hr. 
Bepond the town, as far as 2 M., 

for one hour . . 

— each additional hour . . 

Box above 22 lbs. 30 c. 

Vetturini. Turillazzi and Nat. Ceccarelli, Via Cavour 23 and 25; car- 
riage per day 25 fr., half-day 8-10 fr. Saddle-horses, per day 7Vs fr., half- 
day 5 fr. 

Post and Telegraph Office, Via Cavour 16, in the Pal. Spannocchi 
(PI. 25). 

Baths. Swimming-bath near the Fontebranda (poor ; water cold) ; warm 
baths at Mazzei's, Via Dupre 45. 

English Church Service at the Grand Hotel Continental, from March 
to May. 

Good Photographs at Gav. Paolo LombardVs, Alia Costarella No. 8, near 
the Caffe Greco. — Carved Wood (comp. p. 23): Gosi, Guidi, & Querci, 
Via Belle Arti 31, near S. Domenico; Carlo Cambi, Via del Capitano 5, 
near the cathedral. 

Principal Attractions. Piazza del Campo (Vittorio Emanuele; p. 23), 
Duomo and Opera del Duomo (pp. 26, 28) ; walk through the town. To 
the town and its treasures of art the traveller should devote 2'/2-3 days at 
least. On 2nd July and 15th August, horse-races, called il Palio ) take place, 
presenting a very picturesque scene (seat on grand-stand 2-2 1 /2 fr.). 

Siena, the capital of the province of that name, with 25,000 
inhab. (incl. the suburbs), the seat of a university which was in 
high repute as early as the 14th cent., and the residence of an arch- 
bishop, is picturesquely situated 25 M. due S. of Florence, and 
1330 ft. above the sea, on three connected hills (the clayey soil of 
which is called 'Terra di Siena'). It is now a busy trading and man- 
ufacturing place ; it also possesses several libraries and scientific 
societies , and is one of the pleasantest towns in Tuscany, suitable 
for a stay of some duration. The climate is healthy, the atmos- 
phere in summer being tempered by the lofty situation ; the lan- 
guage and manners of the inhabitants are pleasing and prepossessing. 
Most of the streets are narrow and crooked, but they contain many 
palaoes and handsome churches. Next to Rome, Florence, and Veu- 
uice, Siena is perhaps the most important town in Italy for the 
study of the art of the 13-16th centuries. 

Siena, the ancient Sena Jttlia, or Colonia Julia Senensis, is said to have 
been founded by the Senonian Gauls and converted into a Roman colony 
by Augustus, whence it derives its arms, the she-wolf and the twins. 
The only Etruscan antiquities here are a few tombs which were discovered 
in 1864 near the Porta Camollia. The town attained to the height of its 
prosperity in the middle ages. After the death of the Countess Matilda 
(1115) her extensive dominions were dismembered, and the citizens of 
Siena, as well as those of Pisa, Lucca, and Florence, succeeded in estab- 
lishing their independence. The government then fell into the hands 

22 Route 5. SIENA. History of Art. 

of the nobility, but was wrested from them by the people in 1133. The 
ensuing conflicts, however, terminated in favour of the nobles, and Siena 
became the leader of the Ghibelline party in Central Italy, while Florence 
was the stronghold of the Guelph faction. Farinata degli Uberti and the 
Ghibellines from Florence were welcomed in Siena, and on 4th Sept., 
1260, a great victory over the Guelphs, the bloodiest recorded in the an- 
nals of Tuscany, was gained near Monte Aperto, on the Arbia (6 M. distant), 
with the aid of the German troops of King Manfred of Naples. Ten years 
later Charles of Anjou succeeded in gaining possession of Siena and in 
making it a member of the T-uscan-Guelph confederation of towns ; but 
the city kept a jealous watch over its privileges, and, notwithstanding 
several attempts on the part of the nobility to re-assert their influence, its 
constitution remained unchanged. In the 14th and 15th centuries Siena 
numbered nearly 100,000 inhab. , and vied with Florence in wealth and 
love of art. At length the supremacy was usurped by tyrants, such as 
(about 1487) Pandolfo Petrucci, surnamed II Magnifico, whom Macchiavelli 
represents as a pattern of a despot. In 1493, when Charles VIII. of France 
arrived in Italy, Siena concluded an alliance with him , and during the 
troubles of the first half of the 16th cent, the citizens for the most part 
sided with the French, by whom the town was usually garrisoned. On 
22nd April, 1555, the French garrison was compelled by famine to capit- 
ulate to the Spanish besiegers, by whose aid Duke Cosimo I. of Tuscany 
succeeded in gaining permanent mastery of the place. 

History of Art. The bitter political fate which overtook Siena, and 
converted the mighty rival of Florence into a quiet provincial town, will 
strike the antiquarian as a very fortunate circumstance ; for here are still 
preserved many monuments and reminiscences of mediaeval life compara- 
tively unaffected by the vicissitudes and the progress of subsequent ages. 
The conservative character of Siena has not, however, been produced, as 
in the case of Bruges, by the withdrawal of the stream of history ; for even 
when at the height of its power, particularly as compared with Florence, 
it manifested a preference for old established rules and a dislike for inno- 
vations. In the province of Art, despite the abundant supply of artists at 
their disposal, the citizens never seem to have taken the initiative , but 
adhered with remarkable tenacity to the earlier style. The best period of 
Sienese art still belongs to the middle ages, when the towns of Italy had 
begun to pride themselves on their practice of art, but before the pedantic 
element had given way to the pure sense of the beautiful. There is no town 
in Italy which presents such instructive examples of the Italian Gothic 
Architecture of the 13th and 14th centuries as Siena, where we find magni- 
ficent stone buildings vying with graceful structures in brick. If the Ca- 
thedral had been built according to the intentions of the citizens, it would 
have been one of the largest and most imposing churches in existence, 
and even in its reduced proportions it is one of the finest in Italy. In 
the secular buildings (of which perhaps the Palazzo Buonsignori is the 
finest example) the pointed style predominates; the windows are gene- 
rally divided by small columns, and the whole edifice is crowned with 
pinnacles. In the 15th cent., when the motive of the castellated mansion 
was clothed with Renaissance forms , Siena was not slow to imitate the 
example of Florence. It is, however, uncertain whether Rossellino and 
Feancesco di Gioegio have been correctly designated as the architects of 
the Piccolomini, Sjiainiocchi, and Nerucci palaces. The most interesting of 
the Renaissance churches is the small round church degli Innocenti , ad- 
joining the Spedale della Scala. 

Siena has produced no independent school of Sculpture, though a 
liberal patron of foreign masters. As throughout the rest of Tuscany, 
the development of art did not progress rapidly here till the beginning of 
the 13th century. Niccolo Pisano, the most famous sculptor of the 13th 
cent., and his son Giovanni were employed at Siena; and the sculptures 
on the font of S. Giovanni and on the Fonte Gaja are admirable works 
by Jacopo della Quercia (1374-1438), the earliest representative of the 
Renaissance style. 

Painting was the favourite art of the early Sienese. As early as the 

Piazzadel Campo. SIENA. Route. 5. 23 

13th cent, they could boast of Ducoio di Buoninsegna , a painter whose 
works far surpass those of Cimabue in beauty and gracefulness. On his 
completion in 1310 of the 'Majestas' , or Triumphant Madonna, for the 
high-altar of the cathedral of Siena, the picture was carried to the church 
in solemn procession (p. 28). An equally important master was Simone 
Martini (1283-1344), who has been immortalised by a sonnet of Petrarch, 
and who, like his contemporary Giotto, practised his art and exercised 
his influence far beyond the limits of his native city. Works by his 
hand are, or were, to be found at Naples, Orvieto, Assisi, and Avignon, 
as well as in the Palazzo Pubblico at Siena. So famous indeed was his 
name that it was usual to attribute to him all the best works of his 
period. His compositions are of a very primitive character, but he certainly 
possessed great skill in his rendering of tender sentiment. Closely akin to 
these two masters was Lippo Memmi, who executed large frescoes with 
the same elaborate care as miniatures in missals. Several painters of the 
14th cent, followed in Simone's footsteps, such as Barna or Berna, Luca 
Thome, and Lippo Vanni, without however exhibiting much individuality. 
The easy narrative style and the imaginative allegory were cultivated 
by the brothers Pieteo and Ambeogio Lorenzetti (both of whom pro- 
bably died of the plague in 1348) , and the approach of the Sienese 
school to that of Giotto was thus accomplished. A little later, however, 
the works of Bartolo di Fredi (1330-1409) fell short of those of his 
predecessors, and this was still more the case with ihose of Taddeo 
Baetoli (1362-1422?), who was far inferior to his Florentine contem- 
poraries. For a time all artistic progress at Siena seemed to be at an 
end, and throughout the 15th cent, the city did not give birth to a single 
master of note. The painters Domenico di Bartolo , Lorenzo di Pietko 
(nicknamed Veochietta), Benvenuto and Matteo di Giovanni, and others 
of this period adhered tenaciously to the limited methods of their prede- 
cessors, from whose influence they were unable to emancipate themselves. 
At the close of the century, owing to contact with neighbouring schools, 
whose representatives were frequently invited to Siena, and to the intro- 
duction of the study of Florentine, Umbrian, and Lombard masters, the 
tide of progress at length began to set in. The most distinguished Sie- 
nese masters of this period, far surpassing their contemporaries Fungai- 
Pacchia , Pacchiarotto , and others , were Baldassaee Peedzzi and Gio- 
vanantonio Bazzi, surnamed II Sodoma. Peruzzi (1481-1537), who was 
associated with Raphael at Rome, was endowed with an admirable per- 
ception of beauty of proportion, and was famous both as an architect and 
a decorative painter, but Siena now possesses none of his works. Sodoma 
(c. 1473-1549), on the other hand, may be thoroughly studied at Siena. A 
Lombard by birth, he brought to Siena some traces of Leonardo's style, 
but instead of cultivating this, he seems to have trusted to his own nat- 
ural ability, and with such success that in one respect he vies with Ra- 
phael himself. In the delineation of beautiful and youthful figures he is 
unsurpassed, and his technical skill in fresco painting and his fertility 
are marvellous; but, in spite of his strong sense of the beautiful, his 
works are apt to pall upon the taste owing to the superficiality of their 
composition. With Dom. Beccapumi (1486-1551), who frequently altered his 
style, begins the final period of decline from which Siena never recovered. 

In the art of Wood Carving Siena has always taken the lead among 
the towns of Italy. In the 15th and 16th cent, the Barili family (particu- 
larly Antonio., d. 1516, and Giovanni, d. 1529) distinguished themselves 
in this branch, and their modern representative is Giusti, whose pupils 
Gosi, Guidi, and Querci are mentioned at p. 21. 

In the centre of the town , at the union of the three hills on 
which it stands, is the picturesque *Piazza del Campo, now offi- 
cially called Vittorio Emanuele (PI. D, 5), which has been men- 
tioned by Dante (Purg. si. 134). It is semicircular in form, and 
depressed towards the centre , somewhat resembling an ancient 
theatre. The popular assemblies and festivals of the ancient re- 

24 Route 5. SIENA. Palazzo Pubblico. 

public took place here, and it is here that the Palio horse-races 
(p. 21) are now held. — The piazza is enclosed by pinnacled pal- 
aces. On the diameter of the semicircle rises the — 

*Palazzo Pubblico (PI. 22; D, 5), a huge brick edifice of four 
stories , erected in 1289-1309 , with pointed windows divided by 
small columns, and wings lower than the central part of the build- 
ing. (The wings of the second floor are of a later date ; comp. 
p. 28.) Adjacent rises the slender tower del Mangia , begun in 
1325 , and finished about 1345 , so named after the stone figure of 
a man which used to strike the hours (a popular figure somewhat 
resembling the Roman Pasquino, p. 201): fine view from the top. 
At the foot of the tower is the Cappella di Piazza, in the form of 
a loggia , begun after the cessation of the great plague of 1348 
which carried off 30,000 persons , and completed in 1376, with 
damaged fresooes by Sodoma. The upper part was added in 1460 
by Federighi. The she-wolf on the column in front of the right wing, 
the arms of Siena (p. 21), dates from 1429. 

The 'Interior (custodian 1/2-I fr. ; best time 10-2) is embellished with 
numerous frescoes of the Sienese school. Among those on the Ground 
Floor are a Coronation of the Virgin, by Sano di Pietro, 1445; a Ma- 
donna with SS. Ansano and Galgano, and another with St. Leonard, both 
by Sodoma; Madonna with saints, by Vecchiella; a Risen Christ, by So- 
doma, 1535 (?), in the room of the Sindaco. 

On the First Floor, the custodian first shows the Sala del Gran 
Consiglio (or del Mappamondo , or delle Balestre) , adorned with large 
frescoes : ''Madonna and Child under a canopy borne by saints, by Simone 
Martini, 1315, a composition with numerous figures, somewhat stiff, but 
with beautiful details ; opposite, ^Equestrian portrait of Guidoriccio Fo- 
gliani de Ricci by Simone Martini (1328) ; beneath , Madonna by Guido da 
Siena, the date of which , 1221 , appears to be spurious (prob. 1281 ; for- 
merly in S. Domenico) ; then, to the right and left, *S. Ansano and "'S. 
Vittorio, and, on the other wall to the right, S. Bernardo Tolomei, all by 
Sodoma; then S. Bernardino by Sano di Pietro and S. Catarina by Vecchielta. 
— The vestibule of this hall is adorned with frescoes by Taddeo Bartoli, 
representing ancient heroes , Judas Maccabseus, and St. Christopher and 
other saints (1441). The vault of the archway is occupied by a curious 
view of Koine. — A beautiful iron railing (1435-45), adjoined on the right 
by a font by Tnrini, separates this vestibule from the Council Chapel, 
which is embellished (left) with frescoes of the Death and Assumption 
of the Virgin by Taddeo Bartoli, and contains handsome benches carved 
by Domenico di Niccolb (142U). The altar-piece is a Holy Family by So- 
doma ; on the right is an organ by A. Pifferio (1519). — To the right of the 
Sala del Consiglio is the Sala della Pace , or dei Nove , with frescoes 
by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, painted in 1337-43, representing 'Good and Bad 
Government' , three pictures which are indispensable to those who 
desire an insight into the disposition of the proud citizens of Siena 
in the middle ages. The allegories and allusions of a more or less obs- 
cure character which they contain are at least interesting as being of a 
much more homely kind than those customary in modern times. One of 
these mural paintings represents the ideal of a state, under the guidance 
of wisdom, justice, and other virtues, while the two others pourtray in 
a realistic style the consequences of good and bad government. The 
preservation is imperfect, but the spectator will not fail to admire the heads 
of Peace, Justice, and Concord in the first of the series. — Adjoining 
is a room with portraits of the eight popes and thirty-eight cardinals to 
whom Siena has given birth. — Another Boom contains some frescoes 
recently transferred from other buildings, a Madonna by Matleo da Siena, 

Casino de' Nobili. SIENA. 5. Route. 25 

1484, and S. Bernardino preaching in the Carapo (p. 23), "by Sano di Pielro, 
interesting for its representation of the piazza at that period. — The ad- 
joining Sala di Balia, or de' Pketoki, is adorned with ostentations "'Frescoes 
from the history of Pope Alexander III. by Spinello Aretino (1408; includ- 
ing a naval victory of the Venetians, and the Emp. Frederick Barbarossa 
and the Doge leading the Pope's horse). In the centre of the room are two 
fine coffers, one carved by Barili, the other adorned with paintings said to 
be by Fra Angelico. — The last room is the Sala del Concistoeo, with 
ceiling -paintings by Beccafumi , a fine marble doorway by Jacopo delta 
Quercia (above which is the Judgment of Solomon by Luca Giordano), 
Florentine 'Arazzi' or tapestry (partly of the 16th cent.) on the walls, and 
modern busts of statesmen and other illustrious citizens of Siena. 

The rear of the palace, abutting on the Piazza del Mercato (PL D, 
5, 6), or vegetable market, is also very picturesque. The piazza com- 
mands a good view of the environs. 

At the E. end of the Piazza del Campo is the Palazzo del Go- 
verno (p. 30; facade towards the Via Ricasoli). — In the centre of 
the piazza, opposite the Palazzo Pubblico, rises the marble *Fonte 
Gaja, a modern reproduction (1868) by Tito Sarrocchi of the original 
fountain of 1343. The beautiful bas-reliefs of the Christian vir- 
tues and of the Creation of Adam (left) and the Expulsion from 
Eden (right) were executed by Jacopo delta Quercia in 1409-19 
(originals, in a very damaged condition, now preserved in the Opera 
del Duomo , p. 28). A subterranean conduit, 18 M. in length, 
supplies the fountain with delicious water. 

Ascending by steps through one of the passages beyond the 
Fonte Gaja, we reach the beginning of the Via di Citta, which 
presents a busy scene, especially in the evening. 

To the right, the *Loggia of the Casino de 1 Nobili (PI. 2 ; D, 5), 
once the seat of the commercial tribunal. It was built in imitation of 
the Loggia de' Lanzi of Florence in 1417, but the upper story is 
later. The sculptures are by Sienese masters of the 15th cent., 
such as Ant. Federighi (who executed the figures of S. Ansano, S. 
Savino, and S. Vittore, and the stone bench on the right), Lorenzo 
di Mariano (stone bench on the left) , and Vecchietta (figures of 
SS. Paul and Peter). — The N. prolongation of this street towards 
the Porta Camollia is the Via Cavour (p. 35). — A little to the 
N. of the Loggia is the Piazza dell' Indipendenza, with a Statue of 
Italia by Sarrocchi , in memory of Sienese patriots who fell in the 
struggle for the union of Italy (near PI. 27; D, 5). 

Proceeding to the left, past the Gaffe Greco, and then ascending 
the Via dei Pellegrini , a side-street to the right , we reach the 
small Piazza S. Giovanni. Here, in the corner to the left, is 
situated the Palazzo del Magnifico (PI. 18; D, 5), erected in 1508 
for the tyrant Pandolfo Petrucci (p. 22), from designs by Giacomo 
Cozzarelli. The bronze ornaments and flag-brackets on the outside 
are in admirable keeping with the style. One room is embellished 
with frescoes by Pinturicchio , discovered in 1882. 

In a straight direction we obtain a fine survey of the choir of 
the loftily situated cathedral, under which is the old baptistery, 

26 Route 5. SIENA. Cathedral. 

forming a kind of crypt, now the church of *S. Giovanni (PI. 5), 
with a fine, hut unfinished Gothic facade (after 1317). 

The marble "Font is an admirable early-Renaissance work, designed 
by Jacopo della Querela (1416) , who also executed the statuettes of John 
the Baptist and the four prophets, and one of the six bronze-gilt "Reliefs 
from the history of John the Baptist (Zacharias led out of the Temple, 1430). 
The others are by Lorenzo Ghiberti (Baptism of Christ and John the Baptist 
brought before Herod, 1427), Donatello (Head of John the Baptist brought 
before Herod and his guests, 1427) , and Turino di Sano and his son Giovanni 
di Turino. The last also executed the figures of Charity, Justice , and 
Prudence ; those of Faith and Hope are by Donatello. — The frescoes 
by Sienese painters of the 15th cent, are of inferior value. — Over the 
high-altar is a Baptism of Christ by And. and Raf. Puccinelli of Brescia. 

From the Piazza S. Giovanni we may either follow the street to 
the right, past the Palazzo Arcivescovile (PI. 13), or we may ascend 
the steps to the left. By either way we reach the Piazza del Duomo- 

The **Cathedral, or Chiesa Metropolitana (PL C, 4, 5), occupy- 
ing the highest ground in the town, is said to stand on the site of a 
temple of Minerva, which was succeeded by a church of S. Maria 
Assunta. The present building was begun early in the 13th cent. ;. 
the dome was completed in 1264; and about 1317 the choir was 
prolonged to the E. over the church of S. Giovanni (see above). 
Owing to certain structural defects, to which the present irregu- 
larity of the edifice is still perhaps partly due, it was resolved in 
1339 to erect a huge nave, of which the present cathedral was to 
form the transept only , according to a plan preserved in the 
Opera del Duomo (p. 28). Parts of this building , designed in a 
beautiful style , still exist on the S. side of the cathedral in the 
form of a ruin. After the plague of 1348 this ambitious plan was 
abandoned, and the original structure was then completed. (Length 
97 yds., width 26</ 2 yds., length of transept 55 yds.) The ♦Fa- 
cade, constructed in 1284-1380 from a design by Giovanni Pisano, 
showing a combination of the pointed and circular styles, is com- 
posed of red, black, and white marble, and richly decorated with 
sculptures representing prophets and angels by different masters ; 
the mosaics were added in 1878 by Mussini and Franchi. The cam- 
panile , consisting of six stories , does not taper towards the top. 
On each side of the entrance is a column bearing the wolf of Siena. 

The ''Interior consists of a nave and aisles extending to the choir 
and intersected by a double transept , with an irregular hexagonal dome 
over the centre. The horizontal bands of colour, the continuous rows of 
busts of popes (in terracotta; about 1400) over the arches, and the pillars 
with the half-columns will at first produce an unfavourable impression on 
northern travellers, but they will find that the pleasing ornamentation in 
marble compensates to a great extent for organic defects. 

The stained glass in the large circular window in the wall of the en- 
trance was designed by Perino del Vaga, 1549. Over the entrance is a 
graceful tribune of 1483, borne by two columns. The "Basins for holy 
water are by Ant. FederigM, a pupil of Jac. della Quercia, 1462-63. 

The marble ""Pavement is quite unique, being covered with 'Graffito 1 
representations from designs by eminent artists: scenes from Old Testament 
history, Moses, Samson, Judas Maccabseus, Solomon, and Joshua by Do- 
menico di Niccolb (1423); Abraham's sacrifice, Adam and Eve, Moses on Mt. 
Sinai, etc., by Beccafumi; the symbols of Siena and the towns allied with 

Cathedral. SIENA. 5. Route. 27 

it, Hermes Trismegistus, Socrates and Crates, the Sibyls, and other figures 
by masters of less note. The execution varies. The oldest scenes are 
simple outlines engraved on the white marble and filled with black stucco. 
Shading was then introduced by the use of grey and also of coloured 
marble, so that the graffito gradually developed into an elaborate mosaic. 
The pavement is generally covered by a wooden flooring, which is, however, 
removed on Aug. 15th (Feast of the Assumption). Some of the original 
works are now in the Opera del Duomo (p. 28). 

Left Aisle: At the entrance-wall, statue of Pope Marcellus II., by 

D. Cafaggi. — 4th Altar (of the Piccolomini), with sculptures by Andrea 
Bregno (1485) and statues of SS. Peter, Pins, Gregory, and James, by 
Michael Angelo , atfd St. Francis , begun by Torrigiani and completed by 
Michael Angelo. — The entrance-wall of the Libreria is embellished with 
fine sculptures in marble, by Lorenzo Marrina (1497). Over the door: 
Coronation of Pius III. (Piccolomini; 1503), who reigned 27 days only 
by Ber. Pinturicchio, who also painted the frescoes in the library (p. 28). — 
Farther on is the Monument of Bandino Bandini, with the Risen Christ 
and angels, attributed to Michael Angelo. 

The "Pulpit , octagonal in form and constructed of white marble, 
borne by ten columns, some of which rest on lions, and adorned with 
admirable reliefs from the New Testament, is by Niccolb Pisano, his son 
Giovanni, and his pupils Arnolfo and Lapo (1266-68). The flight of steps 
was designed by Bernardino di Giacomo (1543). 

The Left Tbansept contains the Cappella S. Giovanni, with a portal 
by Marinna. In the interior are a '-Statue of John the Baptist by Dona- 
tello, 1457; statues of SS. Catharine and Ansanus, by Neroccio (1487) and 
Giov. di Stefano, respectively; a font, perhaps by Jacopo della Querela; 
stucco enrichments on the walls by Peruzzi; and five small frescoes by 
Pinturicchio , three being scenes from the life of Alberto Arringhieri, the 
donor. — Farther on in the same transept are statues of Popes Pius III. 
and Pius II. by P. Balestra and G. Mazzuoli respectively. — The chapel 
to the left of the choir contains a relief of the 11th cent., representing 
the Annunciation , the Nativity, and the Adoration of the Magi, removed 
hither from the old church of Ponte alio Spino , about 3'/2 M. from the 
town (p. 37). The bronze relief in the pavement in front of this work 
is by Donatello, and marks the tomb of Bishop Giovanni Pecci (d. 1426). 

The Choik contains a high-altar executed from a model by Baldassare 
Peruzzi (1532); and behind it richly carved "Choir-stalls, reading-desk, etc., 
by Bartolo Neroni, surnamed Riccio (1567), and inlaid work (intarsia) by 
Fra Giovanni da Verona (1472). The bronze "Canopy is by Lorenzo di Pielro, 
surnamed Vecchietta (1472) ; the angels, acting as candelabra, are by Gio- 
vanni di Stefuno and Francesco di Giorgio (1489) , the front row of stalls 
and the reading-desk by Rnffaele da Brescia (1520). The frescoes , by 
Beccafumi (1544) , were entirely renewed and altered at the beginning of 
the present century. — By the pillars o r the dome are two flagstaffs from 
the standard-waggon of the Florentines (il carocczo), captured at Monte 
Aperto in 1260, or, according to some authorities, those of the victorious 
waggon of the Sienese. Over a neighbouring altar is the crucifix which 
the Sienese carried with them on that occasion. — To the left of the 
high-altar is an organ-loft by Barili (1511) above the entrance to the 
sacristy, which contains (to the left) a font by Turini. 

In the chapel to the right of the choir are reliefs of the Evangelists 
and St. Paul, by Francesco da Imola and Giov. Turini. 

The Right Transept contains statues of Popes Alexander VII. (by 

E. Ferrata) and Alexander III. (by A. Raggi). — The tomb of Bishop 
Tommaso Piccolomini (d. 1483) is by Neroccio. — The Cappella del Voto, 
belonging to the Chigi, built by Alexander VII. (Fabio Cliigi of Siena, 
papal nuncio at the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, pope in 1665-67) in 1661, 
is richly adorned with lapis lazuli , marble , and gilding , and contains 
statues of St. Jerome and Mary Magdalene (said originally to have been 
an Andromeda) by Bernini. At the end of the right aisle is a statue of 
Pope Paul V., by F. Signorini. 

28 Route 5. SIENA. Opera dd Duomo. 

In the left aisle, as already mentioned, is the entrance to the cele- 
brated "Library of the Cathedral {Libreria; fee V2 fr.), formerly the Sala 
Piccolominea, erected by order of Cardinal Francesco Piccolomini, afterwards 
Pope Pius III., in 1495, and adorned in 1505-07 with ten frescoes by Pin- 
Uiricchio, representing scenes from the life of ^Eneas Sylvius Piccolomini of 
Pienza (p. 20), afterwards Tope Pius II. (1458-64): (1) Departure of iEneas 
Sylvius for the Council of Basle; (2) jEneas Sylvius in presence of King 
James of Scotland, to whom he had been sent by the Council; (3) His 
coronation as a poet by Emperor Frederick III. at Frankfort in 1445; (4) 
./Eneas Sylvius doing homage to Pope Eugene IV. in the name of the 
Emperor; (5) Betrothal of Emperor Frederick III. with Eleonora of Portugal 
at Siena by iEneas Sylvias; (6) iEneas Sylvius created a cardinal by Pope 
Calixtus III.; (7) iEneas Sylvius elected Pope Pius II.; (8) Pius II. at the 
diet of princes in Mantua; (9) Canonisation of Catharine of Siena; (10) 
Death of Pius II. at Ancona, while preaching a crusade against the Turks. 
Some of these pictures, which are connected by beautiful figures of nude 
or half-nude children, are admirably preserved. Vasari asserts that Ra- 
phael assisted in their execution. It is tolerably certain that Raphael 
was at Siena at the same time as Pinturicchio, and it is not improbable 
that he furnished the older and less imaginative master with designs of 
which the latter availed himself more or less freely. Designs for these 
frescoes attributed to Raphael are now preserved in the Uffizi (that of 
No. 1), in the Brera at Milan (No. 3), by the Duke of Devonshire at 
Chatsworth (No. 4), and by Sign. Baldeschi at Perugia (No. 5; p. 49). — The 
'Missals , embellished with beautiful miniatures , also deserve attention 
(No. 5 and No. 9 by Liberale da Verona, No. 12 by Girolamo da Cremona, 
No. 11 by Sano di Pietro). — The S. side-entrance of the cathedral is 
surmounted by a relief of the Madonna by Michelozzo. 

Opposite the S. side of the cathedral, in the corner where the 
steps ascending from S. Giovanni terminate under the arches of the 
uncompleted nave (p. 26), is the *Opera del Duomo {della Metro- 
■politana ; PI. 12; C,5), which contains several interesting works of art. 

In the entrance-passage is the custodian's bell 0/2 fr.). 

The hall on the Geound Flooe contains a famous antique "Group of 
the, Graces, found at Rome in the reign of Pius II. and presented by 
him to the cathedral library, but removed thence in 1857 by desire 
of Pius IX. From this work Raphael made his first studies from the 
antique (drawing at Venice). The superb Renaissance pedestal is also 
interesting. The "Sculptures from the Fonte Gaja (p. 25) by Jacopo della 
Querela, representing a Madonna, the Virtues, the Creation of Man, and 
the Expulsion from Paradise, which are among the master's finest works, 
are unfortunately much damaged. Sculptures from the Cappella di Piazza 
(p. 24), and others from the facade of the cathedral before its restoration. — 
Antique sarcophagus with sea-gods; ornamentation of an organ-screen, 
representing the Transfiguration, by Sodoma. On the Fiest Flooe : Drawings 
and copies of the "Graffiti of the "Cathedral Pavement, destined to replace 
the originals; also some of the originals themselves (comp. p. 27) and 
four copper-plates with the four chief designs. — On the Second Flooe 
several interesting plans and architectural designs ; handsome embroi- 
deries; crosiers; ring of Pius II. Also several early Sienese paintings, 
the chief of which is the large *Picture by Duccio di Buoninseana : on the 
left the Triumphant Madonna with the Child and saints, the once highly 
revered 'Majestas', which was placed over the high-altar in 1310 (p. 23), 
with the inscription: Mater Sancta Dei, sis caussa Senis requiei, sis Ducio 
vita, te quia pinxit ita. On the right is the Life of Christ, in 25 sections, 
originally forming a background to the Majestas. Also four saints by Ambr. 
Lorenzetti; a Byzantine Madonna of the 12th cent.; a Credo by Taddeo 
Bartoli; a 'Nativity of the Virgin by Pietro Lorenzetti (1342), in a lifelike 
genre style; and a picture of the 15th cent, (perhaps by Sano di Pietro), 
showing the original form of the Palazzo Pubblico (p. 24). 

Adjoining the Opera is the Palazzo Reale (PI. 23), erected by 

S. Maria della Scala. SIENA. 5. Route 29 

Bern. Buontalenti in the 16th cent., now the seat of the prefecture. 
— Farther on, in the Via del Capitano (see below) which diverges 
here, is the Palazzo Pecci (PI. 20), a Gothic brick building of the 
13th century. About 1360 it was appointed the official residence 
of the Capitano diGiustizia, or chief judicial functionary of Siena; 
in 1457 it was acquired by the jurist Tom. Pecci ; and it is now the 
property of Sign. E. Grotanelli di Santi , who has had it restored 
without and within by Sienese artists. 

Opposite the facade of the cathedral are the church and hospital 
of S. Maria della Scala (PI. 0, 5), of the 13th century. Over the 
high-altar of the church is a Risen Christ , a statue in bronze by 
Vecchietta. The choir-stalls are by Ventura, the organ by B. 
Peruzzi. Adjoining the handsome entrance-hall of the hospital is 
a large sick-room called 'II Pellegrinajo', adorned with frescoes from 
the history of the monastery by Domenieo di Bartolo (1440-43) 
and other masters. Pleasing view from the windows (fee t/ 2 &•)■ — 
Descending to the left at the N. angle of the Piazza del Duomo by 
steps and under several arches, we reach the church Degli Innocenti 
(PI. C, 4), externally a very rude edifice , but 'with a charming 
interior in the form of a Greek cross' (Burckhardt). 

The above-mentioned Via del Capitano leads to the quarters 
of the town situated on the S. and S.W. hills. It soon crosses the 
small Piazza Postierla, with the Palazzo Chigi, now Piccolomini 
(PI. 16; C, 5), on the right, which contains two saloons adorned 
with frescoes by Bernhard van Orley, a Fleming who joined Raphael's 
school. The column with the wolf in the piazza dates from 1487. — 
Not far off, in the Via di Citta, which diverges here to the left, is the 
Palazzo Piccolomini, now Nerucci (PI. 19; C, D, 5), erected by 
Bernardo Rossellino in 1463 for Catharine, the sister of Pius II. 
Beyond it is the Palazzo Saracini, the vaulting in the court of which 
is tastefully painted. — In the Via di Stalloreggi, diverging from 
the Piazza Postierla to the right, is the Casa Bambagini - Galletti, 
on the facade of which is a fresco by Sodoma ('Madonna del Corvo'). 

On the left, in the Via S. Pietro, the continuation of the Via 
del Capitano, is the * Palazzo Buonsignori (PI. 15; C, 5), a hand- 
some Gothic edifice of the 14th cent., in brick, with a rich facade, 
restored in 1848. The vestibule, court, and staircase are in a heavy 
rococo style. — At the church of S. Pietro alle Scale (PI. 9 ; C, 6), 
which contains paintings by Salimbeni and Rutilio Manetti (16th 
cent.), the street bends to the right. — Following the main street 
and passing under an archway , we enter the Piazza S. Agostino 
(PI. C, 6), with the R. Collegia Tolomei, formerly a monastery and 
now a much frequented grammar-school (Liceo), and the church of — 

S. Agostino (PI. C, 6) , remodelled by Vanvitelli in 1755 , the 
entrance to which is in the Liceo, to the left. 

Over the 2nd altar on the right, a Crucifixion by Pietro Perugino. 
Massacre of the Innocents by Matteo da Siena (1482), in a chapel on the 
right. Statue of Pius II. by Dwpri. Altar-piece, an Adoration of the Magi by 

30 Route 5. SIENA. Palazzo del Governo. 

Sodoma. At the back of the choir, on the left, the "Legend of S. Agostino 
Novello in three sections, by Lippo Memmi, probably his best work. Also 
pictures by Salimbeni, Ruiilio Manetii, and others. 

About 2o0 paces beyond the Porta Tufi (PI. B, 7) is the Cimi- 
tero della Misericordia , containing among its monuments a good 
Pieta by Dupre' and several statues by Sarrocchi (fee 30-50 c). — 
Following the Via della Cerchia (where the small Palazzo Finetti 
should be noticed) to the W. of S. Agostino , and bending to the 
right, we enter the Via Baldassare Peruzzi, on the left side of which 
are the suppressed monastery (now a barrack) and the church of — 

S. Maria del Carmine (PL B, 5), a handsome brick edifice, with 
campanile and cloisters, by Baldassare Peruzzi (open 7-9 a.m. only). 
On the right is the Cappella del Sagramento with a Nativity of Mary 
by Sodoma; 5th altar on the left, St. Michael by Beccafumi. 

Opposite is the Palazzo Pollini , formerly Celsi (PL 21; B, 5), 
attributed to Peruzzi. — "We may now proceed straight on through 
the Via delle Fosse di S. Ansano (with the R. Istituto Toscano dei 
Sordo-Muti, or Deaf and Dumb Asylum) either to the Piazza del 
Duomo, or, by turning a little to the left towards the end of the 
way, we may reach the Porta Fontebranda (see p. 34). 

Outside the Porta 8. Marco (PL A, 5) there is a fine view. 

The E. angle of the Piazza del Campo is occupied by the *Pa- 
lazzo del Governo (PL 17; D, E, 5), one of the most imposing pri- 
vate edifices at Siena, erected for Oiacomo Piccolomini in 1469-1500, 
probably from a design by Bernardo Rossellino. The principal facade 
with its tasteful decorations in wrought iron (horses' heads, etc.) 
looks towards the Via Ricasoli and the small Piazza Piccolomini. The 
palace now contains the extensive * Archives (director, Sign. Lisini), 
one of the most important collections of the kind in Italy. 

Parchment Charters, 52,000 in number, the oldest dating from 736. 
Under glass are a number of interesting specimens of these documents, 
Autographs of celebrated men (Pius II., Leo X.), Miniatures, etc. There 
is also a valuable collection of the Covers of the old Treasury Registers 
(Biccherne), in chronological order, painted with scenes from sacred and 
profane history, and affording an admirable survey of the development of 
Sienese art. They include works by Dietisalvi, Duccio, and the Lorenzetli. 

In the vicinity is the University (see p. 31). — The *Loggia del 
Papa (PL 11 ; E, 5) , in the Piazza Piccolomini, opposite the Pal. 
del Governo, was erected in 1460 by the Sienese Antonio Federighi 
by order of Pius 11. (yEneas Sylvius Piccolomini), and dedicated by 
the pope 'gentilibus suis'. 

Adjacent is the church of S. Martino (PL 8; E, 5, 6). 
Over the 2nd altar on the right, a Circumcision of Christ by Ouido 
Reni. On each side of the 3rd altar are ornamental sculptures in marble 
by Lorenzo di Mariano, surnamed // Marrina; on the left: Nativity of 
Christ by Beccafumi. The choir contains gilded wooden statues, attributed 
to Jacopo della Quercia. 

The Via Ricasoli , which passes the Loggia del Papa , tra- 
verses the crest of the S.E. hill and leads to Porta Pispini and 

8. Spirito. SIENA. 5. Route. 31 

Porta Romana, the two S.E. gates. — Immediately to the right in 
this street is the Fonte di Pantaneto, dating from 1352, recently 
restored. To the left, a little farther on, the Via di Follonica 
descends to the Fonte di Follonica, constructed in 1239 and situated 
in a garden far below. — After 5 min. more, a few paces beyond 
the church of 8. Qiorgio (PI. E, 6), the Via de' Pispini diverges to 
the left, in which we first reach the church of — 

S. Spirito (PL E, 6, 7), with a dome dating from 1508, and a 
portal from 1519, the latter designed by Baldassare Peruzzi. 

The 1st chapel on the right (Cappella degli Spagnuoli) contains, above 
a St. Rosa by Viterbo, the following ''Paintings by Sodoma: Madonna pre- 
senting the gown of the Order of the Dominicans to St. Alfonso , in 
the presence of SS. Octavia and Lucia; to the right and left SS. Sebastian 
and Anthony the Abbot; in the lunette, St. James on horseback (fresco). 
To the right is a Nativity of Christ in terracotta by Ambrogio delta Robbia 
(1504). — Over the door leading to the sacristy, Crucifixion, by Sano di 
Pietro. — Over the 3rd altar to the left, Coronation of the Virgin by 
Pacchia. — In the Cloisters (sagrestano 5-6 soldi): Crucifixion by Fra 
Paolino (1516). 

The Fonte de' Pispini dates from 1534. The neighbouring Porta 
Pispini is adorned with a damaged fresco (Nativity) by Sodoma. 

Opposite S. Spirito we enter the Vicolo del Sasso, follow to 
the right the broad Via S. Girolamo, and passing the column with 
the wolf, reach S. Girolamo (PI. D, 7), belonging to a nunnery (3rd 
altar to the left : Madonna by Matteo da Siena, framed in marble 
by Lor. di Mariano). On the left we next reach the church of — 

SS. Concezione, or Servi di Maria (PL D, 8), erected in 1471, 
with a beautiful interior (1511-33) attributed to Bald. Peruzzi. 

First altar to the right: Madonna, by Coppo di Marcovaldo, 1261. 
Fourth altar to the right : Massacre of the Innocents, by Matteo da Siena, 
1491; above, Adoration of the Shepherds, by Taddeo Bartoli. — In the 
right transept, above the first door leading to the sacristy: 'La Vergine 
del Popolo', by Lippo Mernmi, an able work. — At the back of the high- 
altar, 'Madonna del Manto' , ascribed to Giovanni di Pietro, 1436. The 
Coronation of the Virgin, by Fungai "(1500?) , is one of his earlier works. 

The Porta Romana (PL D, 8) is adorned with a fresco (Cor- 
onation of the Virgin) begun by Taddeo Bartoli and finished by 
Sano di Pietro. — About 1/3 M. beyond the gate is the church of 
Madonna degli Angeli, the choir of which contains a Madonna with 
saints, by Raffaele da Firenze, 1502. 

Opposite the N. side of the Palazzo del Governo (p. 30) the Via 
S. Vigilio leads to the E. to the church of the same name and to 
the University (PL 28; E, 5). The entrance to the latter is in the 
corner to the right ; in the corridor is the monument of the cele- 
brated jurist Niccolb Aringhieri (d. 1374), with a bas-relief re- 
presenting the professor in the midst of his audience. 
. The neighbouring church of S. Maria di Provenzano (PL 7; 
E, 5) dates from 1594. — Traversing several streets to the E. we 
reaeh the Piazza di S. Francesco (PL F, 5) , in which rise the 
church of S. Francesco and the Oratorio di S. Bernardino. 

32 Route 5 SIENA. Oratorio di S.Bernardino. 

The church of S. Francesco , now undergoing restoration , has 
fine cloisters of 1518, in which, adjoining the side-entrance to the 
church , are architectural sculptures from tombs of nobles dating 
from the 14th century. To the left of the entrance to the seminary 
is a relief of the Madonna by Cozzarelli. The chapel contains a 
*Madonna nourishing the Child, by Lorenzetti (wall facing the 
windows), and a Madonna and saints by Barna (left wall). Farther 
on in the cloisters are some relics of a fresco of the Madonna by Am- 
brogio Lorenzetti. 

The *Oratorio di S. Bernardino (PL F, 5) possesses admirable 
pictures, especially by Sodoma. Afternoon light best. The 'custode J 
lives at No. 6, adjoining (fee */ 2 fr.). 

Lowee Oratorio : Scenes from the life of St. Bernardino, of the close 
of the 16th century. — "Upper Oratorio : Presentation in the Temple, 
Salutation, Assumption, and Coronation of the Virgin ; SS. Anthony, Bern- 
ardino, Louis, and "Francis, by Sodoma, 1518-32, the single figures being 
of great beauty. Betrothal and Death of the Virgin, by Beccafumi, 1518. 
Nativity of theVirgin, and Annunciation, by Oirol. del Pacchia, 1185. The 
visitor should observe the admirable enrichments of the ceiling, the frieze, 
etc., which are among the most tasteful of early -Renaissance works, 
executed by Qiuliano Turapilli after 1496. Altar-piece by Beccafumi, 1537. 

The Via dei Rossi leads straight to the Via Cavot;b., which 
with its prolongation, the Via Camollia, extends from the Casino 
de' Nobili (p. 25) to the Porta Camollia, a distance of nearly 1 M. 
Approaching from the Casino de' Nobili, we first reach a small 
piazza, named after the Palazzo Tolomei (PI. 26; E, 4), a Gothic 
edifice of 1205, on the left, and also adorned with a wolf. Farther 
on are the Palazzi Palmier i (1540), Bichi (1520), with a fine loggia 
with modern paintings, Qori (1677), and *8pannocchi (PI. 25 ; E, 4), 
built in 1470 by a Florentine master, with a bold colonnaded court, 
and recently thoroughly restored. The last now contains the Post 
and Telegraph Office. — In the vicinity is the Piazza Salimbeni, 
with a statue of Sallustio Bandini (1677-1766), the drainer of the 
Sienese Maremme, by Tito Sarrocchi, erected in 1880. 

To the left diverges the Via delle Belle Auti, which contains 
the Art Institution and the Library and leads straight to the church 
of S. Domenico (p. 35). 

The *Istituto delle Belle Arti (PI. 10 ; D, E, 4) contains a valu- 
able collection of pictures, principally of the older Sienese school, 
formed at the beginning of the present century of works procured 
from suppressed monasteries and from the Palazzo Pubblico, and 
gradually extended since that period. Adm. 9-3 daily (1 fr.), ex- 
cept on Sundays and holidays (bell below, to the right). 

The numbering of the pictures is as nearly as possible chronological, 
though a few of the most important canvases have been transferred out 
of order to the better light of the cabinets. There is no catalogue, but 
the names of the artists, so far as known, are attached to the frames. ■ 

At the entrance, Beliefs of little value. — I. Corridor, to which the 
attendant directs us: 1-15. Pictures of the 13th cent, still in the Byzantine 
style; 16. Margaritone d'Arezzo, St. Francis; 17. Ouido da Siena, Madonna; 
22-24. Duccio di Buoninsegna, Madonnas ; 39. Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Annun- 

Istituto delle Belle Arti. SIENA. 

5. Route. 33 

ciation (1344); 55,58. Works by Pietro Lorenzetti; 59. Lippo Memmi; 62. 
Niccolb di Segna, Crucifixion; 604. P. Lorenzetli, Madonna and saints ; *86. 
Lippo Memmi, Madonna and four saints. — II. Cokeidor: 404-410. Becca- 
fumi, Cartoons for the pavement of the cathedral ; 394. Ascribed to Alb. Dilrer, 
Portrait of an old man; 385. Morone, Portrait; 495. Steenwyck, St. Jerome. 
— III. Corridor: Pictures by Taddeo Bartoli, Giovanni di Paolo, Sano 
di Pietro (the 'Sienese Fra Angelico'), Neroccio di Bart. (Landi), etc. 188. 
Pietro di Giovanni, St. Bernardino. — IV. Cabinet : 265. Sano di Pietro, Ma- 
donna and St. Calixtus; "374. Sodoma, Scourging of Christ (fresco); 375, 376. 
Girolamo Genga, Flight of iEneas, Ransoming prisoners. 'Wooden pilaster 
by A. Barili. — V. Cabinet: 269-280. Paintings by Sano di Pietro; 152- 
155. Andrea di Vanni, Triumphs. 

We next traverse Room VI. and enter Room VII., which contains prize- 
works by pupils of the Academy. In the middle is a Madonna and saints 
by Pietro Lorenzetti (1329), transferred from panel to canvas. — VIII. Cabinet : 
122. Taddeo Gaddi, Madonna; 123, 124. Spinello Arelino, Death and Coro- 
nation of the Virgin. 345. Antique sarcophagus with Nereids. — IX. Cab- 
inet: 132. Lippo Memmi, SS. Michael, Jerome, and John the Baptist; 162. 
Sano di Pietro , Coronation of the Virgin. — X. Cabinet : 176, 178. Two 
large altar-pieces by Sano di Pietro, Madonnas and saints ; *366. Pacchiarolto, 

Annunciation ; 170. Taddeo di Bartolo, Annunciation ; 138. Luea di Tomme, 
Madonna (1367). — We now return to the door and enter the — 

XI. Large Hall. To the right and left of the entrance, *362, 363. 
Sodoma, Christ on the Mt. of Olives, Christ in Purgatory , two frescoes 
brought from S. Croce. To the left: 307. Francesco di Giorgio, Nativity; 
361. Fungai, Madonna and saints ; 371. Pinturicchio , Holy Family ; "'355. So- 
doma, Judith ; "347. Pacchiarolto, Madonna and SS. Onuphrius and Eras- 
mus ; 345. Beccafumi, Fall of the angels ; 310. Francesco di Giorgio, Coron- 
ation of the Virgin ; 344. Gir. del Pacchia, Annunciation and Visitation (af- 
ter the picture by Albertinelli in the Uffizi); *343. Sodoma, Descent from 
the Cross ; 342. Beccafumi, Christ in Purgatory ; 326. Fungai, Madonna and 
saints; 331. Pinturicchio, Holy Family; 329. Pacchiarolto, Ascension; 314. 
Francesco di Giorgio, Crucifixion. — XII. Room : '"459. Domenichino, Land- 
scape; 454. Jan Brueghel, Sea-piece; 412. Palma Giovane, Brazen Serpent; 
414. Old copy of EaphaeVs Madonna della Perla (in Madrid); 478. Caravaggio, 
Morra-players ; 419. Palma Vecchio, Madonna; 422. Pinturicchio, Holy Family; 
425. Lucas Cranach, Lucretia; 427. Copy of Amberger, Charles V. ; 429. Mo 
rone, Portrait (1453) ; 430. Beccafumi, St. Catharine ; 436. Alldorfer, Marty 
dom of St. Christina of Bolsena ; 437. Bart, de Bruyn , Portrait ; Sodoma, 
444. Holy Family, 440. Body of Christ and two angels , 441, 442. Madonnas, 
439. St. Catharine, 443. Two guild-brothers worshipping the Cross; 447. 
Paris Bordone, Anuunciation ; 445, 451. Fra Bartolommeo, Two saints. 

Two rooms on the first floor accommodate the G-alleria delle Stampe, 
the bulk of which consists of old Italian engravings, though there is also 

Baedeker. Italy II. Iflth TJMiK«- 3 

34 Route 5. SIENA. BihliotecaComunale. 

a number of Diirer's wood-engravings. The second room contains the 
bust of Count Gori Tannilini (1880), the donor of the collection; to the 
left is an engraved Pieta from a drawing by Michael Angelo (1547). 

Travellers who desire to visit the Monte Oliveto Maggiore (p. 16) 
must obtain a 'permesso' from the 'Ispettore' of the Istituto delle Belle 
Arte, which they should forward to the 'Sopraintendente' at the convent. 

The Biblioteca Comunale (PI. 1 ; D, 4), containing 60,000 vols, 
and 5000 MSS., was founded in 1663 (open daily, 10-2, and 5 or 
6 to 8). In the 17th cent. Siena possessed sixteen libraries, and in 
1654 even one for ■women. 

The chief objects of interest are: the '-'Greek Gospels, formerly in the 
chapel of the imperial palace at Constantinople, of the 11th cent., originally 
bound in silk , with pictures in enamel mounted at a later period in 
silver-gilt; "Treatise on architecture by Francesco di Giorgio, with sketches 
and drawings by the author; :> Sketch-books of Baldassare Peruzzi and 
Giuliano da Sangallo ; letters of St. Catharine. 

Beyond the library, to the left, we descend the Via Costa S. An- 
tonio , and enter the first side-street to the right , which leads 
straight to the upper entrance of the House of St. Catharine (PI. 3; 
D 4) : 'Sponsae Christi Katherine domus'. Visitors knock at the dooT 
to the left (Y2 fr. )• St. Catharine of Siena, the daughter of a dyer 
named Benincasa, was horn in 1347, took the veil at the age of 
eight, and having become celebrated for visions, she prevailed on 
Pope Gregory VI. to retransfer the papal throne from Avignon to 
Rome (1377). She died in the year 1380, and was canonised in 1461. 
The best-known vision is that of her betrothal with the Infant Christ, 
a favourite theme with painters. Her festival is on 30th April. 

The different rooms in the building have been converted into small 
chapels or Oeatoeies, which belong to the Confraternita di S. Caterina. 
Above the altar in one of the Upper Oeatoeies , once a kitchen , is a 
portrait of the saint, by Fungai; the other pictures are by Salimbeni and 
Fr. Vanni; attention should also be paid to the beautiful ceiling, the pil- 
asters, and the "Pavement of glazed tiles in the Renaissance style of the 
15th century. — The pretty little court is attributed to Bald. Peruzzi. — 
The Oratorio del Ceocifisso contains the wonder-working Crucifixion, a 
painting by Giunta Pisano (?), from which St. Catharine, according to the 
legend, received the stigmata. — Below is the Chdech (key kept by another 
custode), containing the following paintings : Girol. del Pacchia, St. Catha- 
rine healing Matteo di Cenni from the plague; St. Catharine rescuing 
Dominicans from murderers ; The dead body of St. Agnes of Montepulciano 
stretching out her foot to be kissed by St. Catharine. The fourth picture, 
representing the saint being attacked by Florentine soldiers , is by Sa- 
limbeni, 1604; over the altar, "Statue of St. Catharine by Neroccio; above, 
"Angels by Sodoma. 

On leaving the church we come to the Via Benincasa (formerly 
dei Tintori; PI. D, 4), which is still inhabited, as in ancient days, 
by dyers and fullers. Over the door of the house on the left is a 
bust of St. Catharine by Cozzarelli. Not far off is the celebrated foun- 
tain of Fontebranda (PI. C, D, 4), picturesquely situated at the base 
of the hill of S. Domenico, mentioned as early as 1081, renovated in 
1198, andpraised by Dante (Inf. 30, 78 : 'Per Fontebranda non darei 
la vista'). Close by is a bathing establishment. — The Via di Fon- 
tebranda ascends to the Campo (left) , and to the cathedral (right). 
— • Passing the fountain, and ascending to the right, we reach — 

8. Domenico. SIENA. 5. Route. 35 

S. Domenico (PI. D, 3, 4), a lofty brick edifice in the Gothic 
style (1220-1465), the massive substructions of which rest on the 
slope of the hill, with a campanile dating from 1340. 

The Interior is destitute of aisles, and has a transept and open roof. 
At the entrance, to the right, is the Cappella delle Volte (closed), con- 
taining an altar-piece of St. Catharine by Andrea Vanni. — Farther on, to 
the right: Monument of the mathematician Oitis. Pianigiani (d. 1850), by 
Becheroni. — Third altar: St. Peter the Martyr, by Balimbeni, 1579. — The 
"Chapel op St. Catharine, in which the head of the saint is preserved 
in a silver reliquary enclosed in a shrine dating from 1466, is adorned 
with admirable free coes by Sodoma (best light about midday). On the 
wall near the altar, St. Catharine in ecstasy, supported by two sisters (the 
so-called 'Svenimento', or faint), and an angel bringing her the host; on 
the wall to the left , The prayer of the saint saving the soul of a decap- 
itated culprit; to the right, Healing of the possessed, by Francesco Vanni, 
1593. The two saints on the right and left of the entrance are by the same 
master; the ceiling was executed by Sodoma. — The pavement of the chapel 
is richly decorated with graffito representations on marble. — Last altar 
to the right: Nativity of Christ by Franc, di Giorgio, executed under the 
influence of Luca Signorelli, to whom the work was formerly attributed ; 
the upper part is probably by Matteo da Siena, the foreground by Fungai. 

Choir. The beautiful "Marble Ciborium at the high-altar, hitherto 
ascribed by the Sienese to Michael Angelo , is more probably the work 
of Benedetto da Majano. — A beautiful :;: View of the lofty and imposing 
Cathedral may be obtained from the door at the back of the high-altar. 
— The 2nd Chapel to the left of the high-altar contains to the right: 
SS. Barbara , Mary Magdalene , and Catharine by Matteo da Siena, 1479 ; 
in the lunette above, a Pi eta by Girol. Benvenuio ; the Madonna with saints 
to the left is by the same master, 1508; the lunette representing the 
Adoration of the Magi is by Matteo da Siena. — The 2nd Chapel to the 
right of the high -altar contains numerous old tombstones with coats- 
of-arms, many of which belong to Germans who studied at the university 
in the 15th and 16th centuries. 

We now return by the Via del Paradiso and the small Piazza 
Giuseppe Pianigiani, in which stands the little church of S. Maria 
delle Nevi (PI. 6 ; E, 4), with a charming Renaissance facade (to- 
wards the Via Cavour), and a good picture by Matteo da Siena (Ma- 
donna with numerous saints, 1477), to the Via Cavour (p. 25), 
which farther on contains the Pal. Mocenni, Pal. Ciaia, and others. 

We next come to the small Piazza S. Petronilla (PI. E, F, 3), 
on the right, whence the Via Garibaldi leads to the Porta S. Lorenzo 
and the railway-station. — The streets to the left of Via Cavour 
open into the Lizza (PI. E, 2, 3), a small promenade which was laid 
out in 1779 on the site of a former fortress erected by Charles V., 
commanding good views of S. Domenico and the Cathedral. These 
walks extend as far as the entrance to Fort St. Barbera, built by 
Cosimo I. in 1560, open to the public and commanding a fine view. 

Farther on, the Via Cavour takes the name of Via di Camollia 
(PI. F, 1, 2). We diverge to the right to the old monastery di Cam- 
pansi, now the poor-house (PI. F, 2; ring); the cloisters are adorned 
with a fresco by Matteo Balducci. Handsome rococo church. 

We follow the Via Camollia for some minutes more ; opposite a 
small piazza we turn to the left under an archway, and descending 
the Via Fontegiusta, arrive at the little church of — 

Fontegiusta (PI. F, 2), belonging to a brotherhood (if closed, 

36 Route 5. SIENA. Excursions. 

ring the bell to the right), and built by Francesco di Cristofano Fe- 
deli and Oiacomo di Giovanni in 1479. The vaulting, borne by 
four marble columns, dates from 1482; the N. Portal from 1489. 
Beautiful *High-altar by Lorenzo di Mariano (1517), one of the 
finest existing sculptures of Raphael's time. The simple but fine 
bronze holy-water basin is by Qiov. delle Bombarde (1480). The 
2nd altar to the right is adorned with a Madonna by L. Vanni, 
with a view of Siena and its towers (1590) ; the 3rd altar on the 
same side has a Coronation of the Madonna by Fungai ■ the 2nd to 
the left a *Fresco by B. Peruzzi, the Sibyl announcing to Augustus 
the Nativity of Christ. Over the entrance are a sword , helmet, 
shield, and some bones of a whale, presented by Columbus. Above 
the side-entrance (outside) is a relief of the Madonna by Neroccio. 

Farther on in the Via Camollia, to the right , No. 48, opposite 
the small Templar church of S. Pietro della Maggione, is the house 
of Baldassare Peruzzi (p. 23), indicated by an inscription. 

A pleasant Walk may be taken by a road skirting the town- 
walls to the right, outside the Porta Camollia (PI. F, 1), with fine 
views of the Tuscan hills. On a height opposite, beyond the railway- 
station, lies the monastery of Osservanza (see below) ; in the valley 
below , outside the Porta Ovile (PI. F, 4), is the picturesque Fonte 
Ovile. In about J /2 nr - we reach the Porta Pispini (PI. F, 8; p. 31). 
— About Y2 M. beyond the Porta Camollia, on the road to Colle, 
stands the Palazzo dei Turchi, generally known as the Pal. dei 
Diavoli, a fine brick building of the close of the 15th century. 

Excursions (most of them best made by carriage). — About 2'/2 M. 
to the N.E. of Siena, beyond the railway-station, is situated the suppress- 
ed Franciscan monastery of l'Osservanza , erected in 1423 and enlarged 
in 1485 by Cozzarelli. The N. aisle of the church contains a "Coronation 
of the Virgin, by Andrea della Eobbia; at the back of the high-altar, in 
which is preserved the silver reliquary of S. Bernardino, by Ant. Fed- 
erighi, are two 'Statues , Mary and the Archangel Gabriel , of the same 
school. Pandolfo Petrucci is interred in this church (d. 1512; p. 22). In 
the sacristy is a Pieta in terracotta, by Cozzarelli. 

S. Colomba, Gelsa, and Marmoraja are most conveniently visited on 
horseback; there and back, with stay, in 5'/2 hrs. ; horse 5 fr. ; one-horse 
carriage (carozzino) 6 fr. For larger carriages the road is only good as 
far as S. Colomba. — Leaving the Porta Camollia, we follow the high-road 
for 2'/2 M. and then diverge to the left by the road descending between 
two cypresses into the valley. This road leads us to the villa <S. Colomba 
(4'/sM.), designed by Bald. Peruzzi, now the property of the Collegio To- 
lomei (p. 29), with handsome staircase, and fine view from the balcony. — 
After descending from S. Colomba we continue to follow the road by 
which we arrived, which leads through beautiful woods to Celsa (3 3 /4 M. 
from Colomba), a castellated villa, also designed by Bald. Peruzzi, where 
Mino Celsi, a defender of the doctrines of Luther, lived at the begin- 
ning of the 16th century. View from the highest story (refreshments sold 
by the fattore of the villa). — About 2'/i M. beyond Celsa is Marmoraja, 
where on 7th Sept., 1187, peace was concluded between the Republic of 
Siena and Bishop Hugo of Volterra. The piazza in front of the church 
affords a fine view of Volterra, Colle d'Elsa, S. Grimignano, etc. 

The Oertosa di Pontignano, 5 M. from the Porta Ovile , was founded 
in 1343, fortified in 1383, and suppressed in 1810. The church was mod- 
ernised in the 17th century. "View from the Parocchia. 

SIECI. 6. Route. 37 

S. Ansano in Dofana, 9 M. from Porta Pispini, is reached by a good 
road diverging from the high-road to the left about l'/4 M. beyond the 
Taverna d'Arbia , near the bridge over the Arbia. The parish - church 
contains a Madonna by Bald. Peruzzi. Visitors should apply at the par- 
sonage for a guide with the keys of the (8 min.) Martirio di S. Ansano, 
a handsome brick edifice by Bald. Peruzzi. 

The Abbazia di S. Eugenio, iy 4 M. to the S. of the Porta S. Marco, 
commonly known as II Monastero , is an ancient Benedictine monastery 
said to have been founded by Warnfried, a Lombard, in 750, fortified in 
1553 by Pietro Strozzi, and secularised last century. The buildings are tho- 
roughly modernised. The church contains several early Sienese pictures, 
some of which hare been ruined by restoration. "View from the garden. 

The high-road next leads to the Osteria delict Volte, about 5 M. beyond 
the Porta S. Marco, whence a road diverges to the right to (4 M.) Cetinale, 
a villa erected by Flavio Chigi, a nephew of Pope Alexander VII., from 
designs by Carlo Fontana in 1680. With the villa is connected the 
'Thebais' park, profusely embellished with sculptures and containing fine 
old timber. "View from the hill ('Romitorio') above the villa. Permessi 
in the Palazzo Chigi at Siena, Via di Citta. 

About l'/j M. beyond the Osteria della Volte lies the venerable 
church of J3. Giovanni di Ponte alio Spino, dating from the beginning of 
the 11th century. About 3 M. further is Rosia, the church of which con- 
tains a holy-water basin of 1332. We may then proceed to (2 M.) Torri 
or S. Mustiola a Torri in Val-di-Merse, an old monastery belonging to the 
Vallombrosians , possessing a church, consecrated in 1189, and a fine 
Romanesque monastery-court, now used as farm-buildings. 

About !) M. to the S. of Rosia (along the road to Massa Marittima, 
and then to the left) lie the ruins of the Cistercian monastery of *S. G-al- 
gano, founded in 1201 by Ildebrando Pannocchieschi, Bishop of Volterra. 
The abbey-church, a building of travertine and brick, erected in 1240-68, 
is imposing even in its ruins. The only relics of the original archi- 
tecture in the secular buildings , now used as a farm , consist of a few 
windows. The monks were distributed among other monasteries in 1652, 
and in 1781 the church, which had been injured by lightning, was closed. 

The chateau of 'Belcaro , to the W. of Porta Fontebranda , reached 
by carriage in l'/2 hr., commands a splendid view of Siena and its envi- 
rons. On the ground-floor is a ceiling -painting by Bald. Peruzzi: Judg- 
ment of Paris. The frescoes in the chapel, by the same master, have 
been sadly injured by recent restorations. 

6. From Florence to Perugia via, Arezzo and Teron- 
tola (Chiusi, Rome). 

103 M. Railway. Express in 41/4 hrs. , fares 20 fr. 10, 14 fr. 5 c; 
ordinary trains in 6-8 hrs., fares 18 fr. 70, 13 fr. 25, 8 fr. 40 c. — To 
Arezzo, 54'/ 2 M., in 2-4 hrs., fares 10 fr. 85 c, 7 fr. 55c, or 9 fr. 85, 6 fr. 85, 
4 fr. 45 c. ; thence to Cortona, 171/-2 M., in i/2" 3 A hr. ; fares 3 fr. 45, 2 fr. 
45 c, or 3 fr. 15, 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 40 c. — Those who wish to see Arezzo and 
Cortona and arrive at Perugia in one day, had better leave Florence in 
the afternoon or evening and sleep at Arezzo. 

The Express to Rome quits the Perugia line at Teronlola (see R. 9), 
where passengers for Perugia generally change carriages. 

Florence, see Baedeker's Northern Italy. The train describes a 
curve round the town and runs along the N. bank of the Arno. By 
degrees the valley contracts ; Fiesole on the height to the left long 
remains visible. 7y 2 M. Compiobbi. To the left rises the mountain- 
chain of the Pratomagno. 10 M. Sieci. 12^2 M. Pontassieve, at the 
influx of the Sieve into the Arno ; to the left a beautiful glimpse of 
the valley of the Sieve. The train passes through a short tunnel, 

38 Bowie 6. AREZZO. From Florence 

and then crosses to the left bank of the Arno. From (17!/ 2 M.) Signano 
a pleasant excursion (a drive of 3 /4hr.) may he made to the fine Villa 
San Mezzano, belonging to Marchese Panciatichi of Florence. The 
train passes through another tunnel and reaches (22 M.) Incisa, 
with a conspicuous castle. The river forces its way here through the 
limestone rock, whence the name of the village. 25 M. Figline. 
The valley of the Arno near Figline, and farther on , near Monte- 
varchi and Arezzo, is very interesting to palaeontologists owing to 
the numerous fossil bones of the elephant, rhinoceros , mastodon, 
hippopotamus, hyaena, tiger, bear, etc. , which have been found here. 
This basin seems to have once been filled with a fresh-water lake. 

30 M. S. Giovanni, a small town to the left, the birthplace of 
the famous painter Masaccio (in 1401) and of Oiov. da 8. Giovanni, 
surnamed Manozzi (1590-1636). The Cathedral contains pictures 
by the latter : Beheading of John the Baptist, Annunciation, etc. 
The sacristy of 8. Maria delle Orazie, on the old town-wall , con- 
tains a Madonna, once ascribed to Masaccio, and other old paintings. 

33y2 M. Montevarchi (Loc, d'ltalia, in the main street), with 
9600 inhabitants. The loggia of the principal church in the piazza 
is embellished with an elaborate relief by Delia Robbia ; opposite 
is the house of Benedetto Varchi (d. 1555), the Florentine historian 
and independent favourite of Oosimo. The Accademia di Val d'Ar- 
nese contains a valuable collection of fossil bones (see above). 

Views as far as Arezzo on the left. The train ascends, passing 
through four tunnels, to (38 M.) Bucine, a village close to the line 
on a hill to the right. Four more tunnels. 41 '^M. Laterina ; Ai l / 2 M. 
Ponticino. The train now gradually ascends to (54!/ 2 ) M. Arezzo. 

Arezzo. — 'Inghilteera, "Vittoeia, R. 2, L. '/ 2 , A. 1/2 fr., opposite 
each other in the Via Cavour; La Stella, Corso Vittorio Emanuele 67 
with a good trattoria. — "Ristor. d'ltalia, Corso Vittorio Emanuele 15. — 
Caffe dei Constanti, Via Cavour. — Italian Protestant Church, Via S Loren- 
tino 10. 

Arezzo (780 ft.), the ancient Arretiurn, the seat of a bishop and 
a prefect, is a clean and pleasant town with 12,000 (or, including 
the neighbouring villages, 39,000) inhab., in a beautiful and fertile 
district, abounding in historical reminiscences. 

Arretiurn was one of the most powerful of the twelve confederate cities of 
Etruria, and (like Cortona and Perusia) concluded peace with the Romans 
in the great war of B.C. 310, after which it continued to be an ally of 
Rome. In 187 the Consul C. Flaminius constructed the Via Flaminia from 
Arretiurn to Bononia (Bologna), of which traces are still distinguishable. In 
the civil war Arretiurn was destroyed by Sulla, but was subsequently colon- 
ised (Colonia Fidens Julia Arretiurn), and agaiD prospered. Its manufactures 
were red earthenware vases, of superior quality, and weapons. — In the 
middle ages the town suffered greatly from the Goths and the Lombards 
and at a later date from the party-struggles of the Guulphs and Ghibellines' 
in which it generally took the part of the latter against the Guelphs of 
Florence. In the 14th cent, it was for a time subject to the rule of the 
Tarlati, and in 1337 temporarily, and in the 16th cent, under Cosimo I 
finally to that of Florence. 

Arezzo is the birthplace of many distinguished men , of whom mav 



I Chilonu>tri. 

to Perugia. AREZZO. 6. Route. 39 

be mentioned: C. Vilnius Maecenas (d. 9 A.D.), the friend of Augustus 
and patron of Virgil and Horace; the Benedictine monk Quido Aretino 
or Outdo Monaco (1000-1050), the inventor of our present system of musical 
notation; Francesco Petrarca, the greatest lyric poet of Italy, born of 
Florentine parents in 1304 (d. 1374); Pielro Aretino, the satirist (1492-1557) , 
several members of the noble family of the Accolti, jurists and historians; 
in the 15-17th cent.; A. Cesalpini, the botanist and physician (1519-1603), 
Franc. Redi, the physician and humourist (d. 1698). — Arezzo has also pro- 
duced several artists : Margaritone (about 1236) , n painter and sculptor of 
no great importance; Spinello Aretino (1318-1410), an able pupil of Giotto, 
whose style he steadily followed and rendered popular (his best works 
are in S. Miniato near Florence, in the Campo Santo at Pisa, and in the 
Palazzo Comunale in Siena); at a later period Giorgio Vasari (1512-74); 
the painter, architect, and biographer of artists. The town, however, 
never possessed a school of its own. Its requirements in the province 
of art, which were at their height in the 13-14th cent., were fulfilled by 
Florentine and Sienese masters, and Giotto, Lippo Memmi, Lorenzetti, 
and others were employed here. 

Leaving the station, we follow the Via Guido Monaco, which 
leads straight into the heart of the town. In the Piazza Guido Mo- 
naco is a statue of Guido Monaco (see above), by Salvini, erected 
in 1882. In the Piazza del Popolo, to the left, is a column, erected 
in 1880 to commemorate the Italian struggles for independence. 

A little farther on the Via Guido Monaco ends in the Via 
Cavour. Here, in the small Piazza Umbbrto, is a Monument to Count 
Fossombroni (b. at Arezzo 1754, d. 1844; PI. 1; p. 43). 

The church of S. Francesco (PI. 2), founded in 1322, at the 
corner of the piazza, contains fine frescoes of the 15th century. 

On the entrance-wall is a fresco representing Christ at table with Mary 
Magdalene, by Spinello Aretino (see above), perhaps the greatest of the 
followers of Giotto. The wheel-window, by Ouglielmo da Marsilia (c. 1500) 
represents St. Francis receiving the rules for his order. — The Left Aisle, 
recently freed from whitewash, contains frescoes by Spinello Aretino, sadly 
injured; the best in the restored chapel of St. Anthony of Padua. At the 
end is the tomb of Antonio Roselli (d. 1467). — At the end of the wall 
on the right is an Annunciation by Spinello Aretino (c. 1385). 

In the Choir : *Frescoes by Piero delta Francesca, the master of Luca 
Signorelli (best light in the evening). They narrate the legend of the 
Holy Cross, according to which a seed of the tree of knowledge, planted 
upon Adam's grave, grew up to be a tree. Solomon caused the tree to be 
felled and a bridge to be constructed of the wood , of which the Queen of 
Sheba afterwards discovered the origin. At a later period it was used 
for making the Holy Cross. The Emp. Heraclius rescued the cross in a 
battle with the Persians , and it was afterwards re-discovered by St. He- 
lena. All these scenes, from the death of Adam down to the finding of the 
Cross, are pourtrayed by Piero with great technical skill, in which respect, 
as well as in his appreciation of the nude, he surpassed all his contem- 
doraries. His pictures , however, are stiff and destitute of gracefulness. 
— The Evangelists on the ceiling have been attributed to Bicci di Lo- 
renzo. — The chamber at the bottom of the Campanile, entered from the 
choir, also contains frescoes by Spinello Aretino: Madonna enthroned, 
St. Michael overcoming the dragon, and St. Michael appearing to Gregory 
the Great above the tomb of Hadrian (castle of S. Angelo) during the 
plague at Rome ; opposite, Gregory distributing alms, St. ^Egidius hunting, 
the Mass of St. Gregory. 

The Via Cavour forms a right angle with the Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele, the principal street of the town. Ascending this street, 
to the left, we observe on the right the interesting church of — 

40 Route 6 AREZZO. From Florence 

S. Maria della Pieve (PI. 3), founded at the beginning of the 
11th cent., which retains the original choir, seen from the Piazza 
Vasari ; the tower and facade were added by Marchione in 1216, but 
the latter was left unfinished till 1330. Above the main portal are 
a Madonna between angels , and figures of the months ; and at the 
door to the right is a Baptism of Christ, of 1221 . The interior consists 
of a nave and aisles with a broad apse, a crypt, and an open wooden 
roof above the crossing, all restored in the ancient style. On the 
entrance-wall is an alto-relief of the Adoration of the Child (11th 
cent.); and behind the high-altar are a *Madonna and saints, 
Annunciation, and other works by Pietro Lorenzetti of Siena (1320). 
The font in front is perhaps of the same date. 

At the back of the church is the picturesque Piazza Vasari, 
with a fountain and a Monument of Ferdinand III. (PI. 4), erected 
in 1822. On the N. side are the Loggie (PL 5) built by Vasari in 
1573. — Adjoining the choir of S. Maria della Pieve is the building 
of the Fraternith della Misericordia (PI. 6) , now occupied by the 
law courts, with a handsome Gothic facade, begun by Florentine artists 
in 1375 , and adorned with figures in 1434 by Bernardo di Matteo 
of Settignano. 

Passing under Vasari's Loggie we now return to the Corso, 
which we reach just opposite the Palazzo Pubblico (PI. 7). This 
edifice, built in 1322, and adorned with numerous armorial bearings 
of the ancient Podesta, is now used as a prison. 

A little farther on the Via dell' Orto diverges to the left, near the 
entrance to which, No. 22, a long inscription indicates the house 
(PI. 8) in which Francesco Petrarca was born (p. 39). Adjacent 
rises the — 

"Cathedral, a fine specimen of Italian Gothic, begun in 1177, 
with later additions ; facade unfinished. 

The Intekioi:, which has no transept and is of handsome and spacious 
proportions, contains stained-glass windows, dating from the beginning 
of the 16th cent., by Guillaume de Marseille; the middle window in the 
choir is modern. G. de Marseille also painted the first three arches of 
the nave, the others bein;^ by Salvi Castelucci (1668). In the Right Aisle 
is the Tomb of Gregory X., by Mar gar Hone (? Pisan school). This inde- 
fatigable prelate expired at Arezzo, 10th Jan., 1270, on Ms return from 
France to Rome, after having proclaimed a new crusade. Adjacent, an 
ancient sarcophagus (lid modern) , with the bones of several martyrs of 
Arezzo. Above are a Gothic tabernacle and a fresco of the Crucifixion by 
Berna (c. 1380). — On the High Altar, marble 'Sculptures by Giovanni di 
Francesco of Arezzo and Belto di Francesco of Florence, executed in 1369- 
1375: Madonna with SS. Donatus and Gregory, and bas-reliefs from their 
lives. — In the Left Aisle, at the E. end, is the "Tomb of Guido Tarlati 
di Pietramala , the warlike bishop of Arezzo , the work of Agostino and 
Agnolo da Siena, about 1330, from the design of Giotto, as Vasari conjec- 
tures, in 16 sections, representing the life of this ambitious and energetic 
prelate, who, having been elected governor of the town in 1321, soon dis- 
tinguished himself as a conqueror, and afterwards crowned the Emperor 
Louis the Bavarian in the church of S. Ambrogio at Milan (d. 1327). — 
Close to the door of the sacristy is a St. Magdalene , al fresco by Piero 
della Francesca. The large Chapel of the Madonna, erected in 1796 , con- 
tains five "Terracottas by Andrea della Robbia. 

to Perugia. AREZZO. 6. Route. 41 

The Marble Statue of Ferdinand de' Medici in front of the cathe- 
dral was erected by Giovanni da Bologna in 1595. In the piazza 
(No. l)is the Palazzo Comunale (PL 9), with old armorial bearings. 

We now follow the Via Ricasoli, and turn to the right into 
the Via Sassoverde , at No. 12 in which, the Palazzo Capel di 
Ferro, is the small municipal Pinacoteca Bartolini (open 10-3; 
7 2 fr.), containing ancient frescoes, old and modern oil-paintings, 
and engravings, but little that is particularly striking. In the first 
large room (No. JV.) : *No. 8. Luca Signorelli , a large altarpiece 
with the Madonna, David, and St. Jerome, and the kneeling donor, 
the jurist Niccolo Gamurrini (painted about 1520). There are also 
some good portraits, a St. Rochus, and drawings by Vasari. 

Above the door of the church of S. Domenico (PI. 10) is a Ma- 
donna 'al fresco' by Angelo di Lorentino (c. 1480). The interior 
contains a Crucifixion by Parri Spinello, and, on the right, a painted 
Gothic *Tabernacle, with coats-of-arms, by Giovanni di Francesco 
of Florence. 

In the Borgo di S. Vito, on the right, is the House of Giorgio 
Vasari (No. 27; PI. 11), containing works by the master. The 
street leads back to the W. end of the Via Cavour (p. 39). 

The municipal *Museum stands at the corner of the Via Gari- 
baldi and the Via S. Loreutino (adm. daily 9-4; fee V2 fr.). 

Room I. Black Etruscan vases, with reliefs ; glass ; stone-weapons ; in 
the middle, Greek vases, with representations of the battles of the Ama- 
zons and the Abduction of Hippodamia. — R. II. : Bronze statuettes, 
coins, etc. — R. III. Cinerary urns , fragments of vases of red glazed clay 
(Vasa Arretina, p. 38), and numerous moulds. — R. IV. Mediaeval articles 
and majolicas with designs after Raphael ; 37. Carved ivory casket of the 
7th cent. ; bronzes ; in the middle, seals ; above, Renaissance figure from 
a fountain. — R. V. Weapons, various utensils ; in the middle , a bronze 
reliquary by Forzore (1488). — R. VI. Antique urns and reliefs (62. Lady 
at her toilet). — RR. VII-XI. : Natural History collections. R. VII. and VIII. 
contain a paleeontological collection, chiefly from the Val di Chiana. 

The same building also contains the Town Libkari, which comprises 
a few MSS. (open 9-12 and 2-5). 

In a small piazza adjoining the Via Cavour stands the church of 
SS. Annunziata (PI. 12), a handsome Renaissance structure chiefly 
by Antonio da Sangallo ; the *Interior, with its barrel and dome 
vaulting, is very picturesque; at the last altar on the right, Ma- 
donna in clouds with St. Francis, by Pietro da Cortona; stained 
glass by Guillaume de Marseille (1525). 

Farther on in the Via Cavour is the Badia di S. Fiore (PI. 13), 
also situated in a small piazza, which is now the seat of the Acca- 
demia Aretina di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti. The Library, formerly 
the refectory, contains the Feast of Ahasuerus by Vasari, 1548. 

At the lower end of the Corso, near the Porta S. Spirito, the 
Via dell' Anfiteatro (to the left) leads to the church of S. Bernardo 
(PI. 14) ; the frescoes in the anterior quadrangle (God the Father 
and the four Evangelists) were painted by Vasari at the age of 
seventeen (1529); below is the Madonna appearing to St. Bernar- 

42 Route 6. FOJANO. From Florence 

dino, attributed to Bartolommeo delta Oatta. — The cloisters to 
the left contain some indifferent frescoes in chiaroscuro (life of 
Guido Monaco and St. Bernardino) and a view of mediaeval Rome. 
In the garden are the insignificant remains of a Roman amphitheatre. 

About 3 /4 M. from the Porta S. Spirito (outside which we take the 
avenue to the left, and then at the corner, after 3 min. , the road to the 
right) is situated the church of S. Maria delle Grazie, with an elegant 
early-Renaissance porch borne by columns, by Benedetto da Majano (?), 
and a handsome marble altar by Andrea delta Robbia. 

Railway from Arezzo to Fosiato, see B. 8. 

From Akezzo to Stia and Pkatovecchio , 28 M., railway in 2 hrs. 
(fares 5 fr. 10, 3 fr. 60, 2 fr. 30 c). — At (5 M.) Giovi, the first station, the 
line enters the valley of the Arno, which it thenceforwards ascends. — 
9 M. Subbiano; 12'/2 M. Santa Mama; 15 M. Rasiina. 

19 1 /2 M. Bibbiena (Albergo Amorosi; carriage from the station to the 
town 1/2 fr.), pleasantly situated on a hill above the Arno, was the birth- 
place of Cardinal Bernardo Dovizio , surnamed Bibbiena (1470-1520), the 
patron of Raphael. A little to the N. of the town is the former monastery- 
church of Madonna del Sasso, a domed structure in which the axis of the 
choir forms a slight angle with that of the nave. It contains some interest- 
ing terracotta work and a good altar-piece. — Bibbiena is the starting- 
point for a visit to the convent of La Verna (about 7'/2 M. ; carriage 8 fr.) ; 
comp. Baedeker's Northern Italy. 

22V2 M. Poppi, on a hill (1425 ft.) on the left bank of the Arno. 23>/2 M. 

28 M. PratoveccMo-Stia. The station lies between Pratovecchio (1410 ft. ; 
Alb. Bastieri) and Stia (1460 ft.-, Alb. delta Stazione Alpina, well spoken 
of), two pleasant little towns, with about 3000 inhab., well-adapted as 
starting-points for expeditions to C'amaldoli (guide 3-4 fr. per day and food) 
and other points in the Casenlino or upper valley of the Arno. Stia has 
an old and partly Romanesque church. — About l'/2 M. to the S.W. of 
Pratovecchio is the large ruined castle of Romena, mentioned by Dante in 
the Inferno (xxx). For farther details see Baedeker's Northern Italy. 

From Arezzo to Monte Sansavino, 121/2 M., diligence daily, in 2 hrs. 
The small town of — 

Monte Sansavino (Alb. del Sole, by the Porta Fiorentina, tolerable) 
was the birthplace of the famous sculptor Andrea (Conlucci da) Sanso- 
vino (h. 1460, d. 1529). — The church of S. Chiara, in the principal piazza, 
contains (left) groups of St. Anthony and the 'Madonna and Christ with 
four saints, designed by Sansovino and executed by the Robbia's. On the 
right SS. Sebastian, Lawrence, and Rochus, \>y Sansovino; '■ Adoration of 
the Shepherds by the Robbia's; on the central pillars Sienese paintings of 
the 15th cent.; to the right and left of the high-altar are prophets by 
Vasari. In the ''Ruga Maestro,'', or principal street, on the right, is the 
Pal. Municipale, erected about 1517; the Sala del Consiglio contains a 
carved ''Door of the 16th century. Opposite the town-hall is a 'Loggia 
by Ant. da Sangallo the Elder. On the right, farther on , is the church 
of the Misericordia, containing a monument of 1498. On the right we 
next observe S. Agostino, with a facade of the 14th cent. ; it contains an 
Assumption by Vasari ; the monastery-court is by Ant. da Sangallo the 
Younger. The Pal. Filippi, on the left, No. 17, has fine balcony-railings 
and lantern-holders in wrought iron, of the 18th century. 

From Monte Sansavino to Sinalunga (p. 18), 9'/2 M.; or a pleasant 
round may he made by Fojano and Betolle to Torrita, another railway- 
station (p. 18; one-horse carr. 8-10 fr.). — Fojano (Alb. delta Vittoria, 
tolerable) is 811. from Monte Sansavino. On the right, near the entrance 
to the town, is <S. Francesco, with a fine loggia, dating from the end of 
the 10th cent.; in the interior are several Delia iiobbia's. S. Domenico 
and the Collegiata in the town also contain Robbia" s ; the latter possesses 
a Coronation of Mary by Luca Signorclli (?). — At Betolle is the Villa of 
Count Passerini, containing a valuable collection of Etruscan antiquities 

to Perugia. CORTONA. 6. Route. 43 

(golden bracelet with rams' heads, huge dish with contests of the giants 
and Bacchic scenes, etc.). One-horse carr. to Torrita ( 3 / 4 hr.) 21/2-3 fr. 

On leaving Arezzo we obtain a beautiful retrospect of the town . 
To the left is the chain of hills which separates the valleys of the 
Arno and Chiana from the upper valley of the Tiber. Beyond a tun- 
nel the train runs straight across the plain to (62 M.) Frassinetto 
and (66 M.) Castiglione Fiorentino, the latter on a mountain spur. 
Farther on, to the left, the dilapidated fortress of Montecchio. The 
high-lying Cortona next becomes visible to the left in the distance. 

The luxuriant Valley of the Chiana, which was anciently a lake, 
was a noisome swamp down to the middle of last century. The level 
was raised and carefully drained, the brooks being so directed as to 
deposit their alluvial soil in the bottom of the valley. This judi- 
cious system was originated by Torricelli and Viviani , celebrated 
mathematicians of the school of Galileo , and carried out by the 
worthy Count Fossombroni, who combined the pursuits of a scholar 
and a statesman (p. 39). The Chiana, Lat. Clanis, which once 
flowed into the Tiber, now discharges most of its waters into the 
Arno by means of a canal , and only one arm , which joins the 
Paglia at Orvieto (p. 61), reaches the Tiber. 

72 M. Cortona. The station lies at the foot of the hill on 
which the town itself is situated, near the village of Camuscia. 

A carriage-road (8/4 hr. ; omnibus 1 fr.) ascends to Cortona, 
passing S. Spirito on the right, and reaching the town on the S. 
side. Pedestrians cut off the windings by following the old road, 
which passes the Madonna del Calcinajo (a small early-Renaissance 
building by Francesco di Giorgio, 1485-1514, with a handsome altar 
of 1519) and leads to the low-lying S.W. gate of the town (p. 44). 

Cortona. — Albekgo della Stella, at the W. entrance of the town; 
Alb. Nazionale, farther up in the Via Nazionale, both clean and good. 
(Enquiry as to charges had better be made beforehand.) Comp. the small 
Plan at p. 38. 

Cortona (2170 ft.), a sm.all, loftily-situated town with 9000 in- 
hab. (whole parish 26,000) , lying above the valley of the Chiana, 
and not far from the Trasimene Lake , is one of the most ancient 
cities in Italy. Its situation and views , its Etruscan antiquities, 
and several good pictures it possesses, render it well worthy of a visit. 

It appears that the Etruscans, immigrating from the plain of the Po, 
wrested the place from the Umbrians , and constituted it their principal 
stronghold when they proceeded to extend their conquests in Etruria. 
Cortona was one of the twelve confederate cities of Etruria , and with 
them shared the fate of being converted into a Roman colony. After various 
vicissitudes and struggles it came under the dominion of Florence in 1410. 

Ldca Signorelli , one of the most distinguished painters of the 15th 
cent., was born at Cortona in 1441. He has justly been called a precursor 
of Michael Angelo. Like his master Piero della Francesca (pp. 39, 56), he 
was a zealous student of anatomy ; in the embodiment of the nude, in the 
conception of movement and foreshortening he surpasses all his contem- 
poraries. On the other hand, his deficiency of refined pictorial sentiment 
forbids the full development of plastic vigour in his pictures. He there- 
fore prefers extensive fresco-paintings to easel-pictures as a suitable field 

44 Route 6. CORTONA. From Florence 

for his abilities. Frescoes of this kind he has executed in the Sixtine 
Chapel at Rome (1508; p. 2S8), at Monte Oliveto (1497; p. 17), and at Orvieto 
(1499; his principal work, p. 63). His native town, where he held several 
municipal appointments and lived almost constantly for the last twenty years 
of his life (d. 1523), still contains a number of his works, none of which, 
however, are of much importance. — Cortona was also the birthplace of 
Pietro Berettini, surnamed Pietro da Cortona (1596-1669), the painter and 
decorator, who was chiefly employed at Rome and Florence. 

From the S. entrance of the town, which we have reached by the 
road, the Via Nazionale leads in 3 min. to a semicircular terrace 
on the left, commanding an unimpeded view of part of the Trasimene 
Lake and the surrounding heights. On the right is the church of — 

S. Dombnico, dating from the beginning of the 13th cent. ; on 
the high-altar an *Assumption by Bart, della Oatta (?); on the 
right, *Madonna with St. Peter Martyr and a Dominican monk , by 
L.Signorelli (1515); on the left, Coronation of the Virgin, by Lor. 
di Niccolb (1440), presented by Cosimo and Lorenzo de' Medici; on 
the right, *Madonna with saints and angels, an early work of Fra 

The Via S. Margherita, which ascends steeply to the right, see 
below. The Via Nazionale leads straight to the Piazza Vittomo 
Emanuele, where the Municipio (PI. 1) is situated. Here, to the 
left, diverges the Via Guelfl, in which are situated, to the right, a 
beautiful palazzo of the 16th cent., and lower down the chuTch of 
S. Agostino, with a Madonna and saints by Pietro da Cortona (be- 
yond this the street leads to the S.W. gate, Porta S. Agostino, p. 43). 

Turning to the right from the Piazza Vitt. Em., we immediately 
reach the small Piazza Signorelli, where we observe, opposite to 
us, the Palazzo Pretorio, and on the left an ancient Marzocco (lion). 

The Palazzo Pretorio (PI. 2), with numerous armorial bearings of 
old magistrates, is now occupied by various public offices, and con- 
tains the Accademia Etrusca , founded in 1726, which possesses a 
*Museum of Etruscan Antio.utties, well worth visiting. (Fee 
Y2-I fr. to the custodian, who lives close by.) 

The gem of the collection is a circular Etruscan "Candelabrum (lam- 
padario), made to hold 16 lights ; on the lower side in the centre a Gorgon's 
head, surrounded with a combat of wild beasts; then wave-like orna- 
mentation; and finally eight ithyphallic satyrs, with dolphins below them, 
alternately with eight sirens ; between each pair of lamps a head of 
Bacchus. — An encaustic painting on slate, representing 'Polyhymnia', is 
said to be ancient. — Remarkable Etruscan Bronzes, a Votive Sand with 
numerous symbols, Vases, Urns, Inscriptions, etc. 

ThePoNBONi Library, in the same building, possesses a fine MS. of Dante. 

The Via Casali descends from the Palazzo Pretorio to the — 

*Cathedbal, a handsome basilica, ascribed to Antonio da San- 
gallo , altered in the 18th cent, by the Florentine Aless. Galilei. 

The Choie contains a Descent from the Cross, and "Institution of the 
Last Supper, with predella, by Luca Signorelli, very quaint compositions 
(1512). Also a Pieta, a Conception of Christ, and a Nativity, by the same 
master. — In the Sacristy, a Madonna by the same. To the left of the 
choir, an ancient sarcophagus, representing the contest of Dionysus 
against the Amazons, erroneously supposed to be the tomb of the Consul 
Flaminius (p. 46). 

to Perugia. TERONTOLA. 6. Route. 45 

Opposite the cathedral is the * Baptistery, formerly a Jesuit church, 
containing three pictures by Fra Angelico da Fiesole : the Annun- 
ciation and two *Predelle , representing scenes from the life of the 
Virgin and S. Domenico. 

Passing the colonnades of the theatre in the Piazza Signorelli, 
we follow the Via Dardano straight to the Porta Colonia, where we 
obtain the best survey of the *Ancient Etruscan Town Walls, 
constructed of huge blocks, and for the most part well preserved, 
which surround the town in a circumference of about 2860 yds., 
and along the outside of which we may descend. Even the gateways 
are still recognisable. 

Ascending the Via S. Margherita from S. Domenico, we reach 
(20 min.) the hill commanding the town, on which are situated the 
church of S. Margherita, and a dilapidated fortress (see below). — 
About halfway up, the Via delle Santucce diverges to the left, and 
leads in a few minutes to the church of S. Niccolb, with a small 
entrance-court planted with cypresses. 

The Interior ( ! /2 fr.) contains a freely-restored fresco and an 'Altar- 
piece, painted on both sides (in front the Body of Christ borne by angels 
and surrounded by saints ; at the back, Madonna della Seggiola with SS. 
Peter and Paul) , by Luca Signorelli. — The sacristan will point out a 
direct route, ascending hence by steps to S. Margherita. 

The church of S. Margherita, a Gothic building by Niccolb 
and Oiovanni Pisano, possesses a handsome rose-window, which 
has of late been partly renewed and enlarged. In the high-altar 
is the tomb of the saint (14th cent.); the silver front with the 
golden crown was presented by Pietro da Cortona. The platform of 
the Campanile commands a splendid view. — The visitor should 
not omit to ascend somewhat higher to the old *Fortbzza, 2165 ft. 
in height (trifling fee ; custodian sometimes difficult to find), from 
the walls of which the noble prospect is entirely uninterrupted, ex- 
cept at the back, where it is bounded by the mountain-chain {Alto 
di S. Egidio, 3430 ft.). 

Besides the town-walls , there are several less interesting anti- 
quities: an ancient vault beneath the Palazzo Cecchetti; near S. 
Margherita, remains of Roman Baths, erroneously called a 'Temple 
of Bacchus'; outside the gate of S. Agostino, an Etruscan tomb, 
the l 6rotta di Pitagora'. 

The visitor may (by presenting a visiting-card) possibly obtain access 
to Ihe private collection of Sig. Colonnese in the Palazzo Madama, Via 
Nazionale 5: beautiful half-length picture of St. Stephen and a Nativity 
by Luca Signorelli. 

76 M. Terontola, an unimportant place near the N.~W. angle of 
the Trasimene Lake, is the junction of the lines to Chiusi, Orte, 
and Rome (see R. 9), and to Perugia and Foligno. Passengers in 
the latter direction change carriages here. 

.The Lago Trasimeno, the ancient Lacus Trasimenus (845 ft.), 
is 30 M. in circumference, and 8-14 M. across, and is surrounded 
by wooded and olive-clad slopes , which as they recede rise to a 

46 Route 7. PERUGIA. 

considerable height. The lake contains three small islands , the 
Isold Maggiore with a monastery, the Isola Minore near Passignano^ 
and the Isola Polvese towards the S. ; on the W. side an eminence 
abuts on the lake , bearing the small town Castiglione del Lago 
(p. 59). Its shores abound with wild-fowl, and its waters with 
eels , carp, and other fish. The brooks which discharge themselves 
into the lake gradually raise its bed. The greatest depth, formerly 
30-40 ft., is now 20 ft. only. In the 15th cent, a drain (emissa- 
rium) conducted the water into a tributary of the Tiber. In an- 
cient times the area of the lake appears to have been smaller. A 
project for draining it entirely, formed by Napoleon I., is still fre- 
quently canvassed. 

The reminiscence of the sanguinary victory which Hannibal gained 
here over the Roman consul C. Flaminius in May, B.C. 217, imparts a 
tinge of sadness to this lovely landscape. It is not difficult to reconcile 
the descriptions of Livy (22 , 4 et seq.) and Polybius (3 , 83 et seq.) with 
the present appearance of the lake. In the spring of 217 Hannibal quitted 
his winter-quarters in Gallia Cisalpina, crossed the Apennines, marched 
across the plains of the Arno, notwithstanding an inundation, devastating 
the country far and wide in his progress , and directed his course towards 
the S. , passing the Roman army stationed at Arezzo. The brave and able 
consul followed incautiously. Hannibal then occupied the heights which 
surround the defile extending on the N. side of the lake from Borghetto to 
Passignano, upwards of 5 M. in length. The entrance at Borghetto, as well, 
as the issue at Passignano, were easily secured. Upon a hill in the centre 
(site of the present Torre) his principal force was posted. A dense fog 
covered the lake and plain , when in the early morning the consul , igno- 
rant of the plan of his enemy, whom he believed to be marching against 
Rome, entered the fatal defile. When he discovered his error, it was too 
late : his entire left flank was exposed, whilst his rear was attacked by 
the hostile cavalry from Borghetto. No course remained to him but to force 
a passage by Passignano, and the vanguard of 6000 men succeeded in 
effecting their egress (but on the following day were compelled to sur- 
render). The death of the consul rendered the defeat still more disastrous. 
The Romans lost 15,000 men, while the remaining half of the army was 
effectually dispersed ; and the Roman supremacy in Italy began to totter. 
The slaughter continued for three hours. From the Gualandro two small 
brooks fall into the lake. One of these, crossed by the road, has been 
named Sanguinetto in reminiscence of the streams of blood with which it 
was once discoloured. 

The line skirts the lake and passes through a tunnel. 80 M. 
Tuoro; 83 M. Passignano Two tunnels. 89 M. Magione, with an 
old watch-tower of the time of Fortebraccio and Sforza ; 97 M. Ellera. 

103 M. Perugia, picturesquely situated on the hill to the left. 

7. Perugia. 

Arrival. Omnibus to the town (1 fr., in i/ 2 hr. ; down 20 min.) in 
great request, so that no time should be lost in taking a seat (rarely cabs). 
(Before the first bend of the road to the left, a good path to the right as- 
cends to the town in 20 min.) 

Hotels. 'Grand Hotel de Peeouse, well situated at the entrance to the 
town near the Prefettura, first class, with corresponding charges (D. 5 fr.); 
English landlady; rooms not always obtainable unless previously ordered! 
— Grande Bretagne or Posta, at the beginning of the Corso Vannucci, 
R. from 2, D. 4, B. l'/s, L. & A. 1, omn. 1 fr. — Second class: Albergo 
& *Rest. Belle Arti, Via Danzetta, a side-street of the Corso, R., L. & 

M c$ "+* 


pq w S3 •— a: r w w <- a a a: - < v 

History of Art. PERUGIA. 7. Route. 47 

A. I 1 /* fr., unpretending but clean; Ale. & Rest. Belvedere, Via Sette, 
another side-street of the Corso. 

Restaurants. Progresso, Via Mazzini 31 (PI. B, C, 4), near the Piazza 
Sopramuro; see also above. — Beer at Via Baglioni 39 a. 

Cafes. "Baduel, Trasimeno, both in the Corso ; Melinelli, in the Piazza 
S. Lorenzo, opposite the cathedral-fountain. 

Post Office (PI. B, 4, 5), Via Baglioni 33. — Telegraph Office at the 
Prefettura, in the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele. —Diligence Office, Corso 38; 
to Umberlide (p. 57), daily at 7 a.m. and 4 p.m., 3 fr. ; to Todi (p. 55), 
daily at 5.30 a.m., 5 fr. 

English Church Service at the Grand Hotel. — Italian Protestant 
Church, Piazza Vittorio Emanuele. 

Perugia is well adapted for a summer-resort , and apartments are not 
expensive. — At least a day or a day and a half should be devoted to 
the town. Guides are not indispensable, and dilettanti are cautioned 
against purchasing their 'antiquities'. 

Perugia, the capital of the province of Umbria, with 17,000 in- 
hab. (including the villages 51,400), residence of the prefect, of a 
military commandant , and a bishop , and the seat of a university, 
lies on a group of hills about 1300 ft. above the valley of the Tiber 
(1705 ft. above the sea). The town is built in an antiquated style, 
partly on the top of the hill , and partly on its slope. Numerous 
buildings of the 14-15th cent, (when the town was at its zenith), 
the paintings of the Umbrian school, and the fine views of the pecu- 
liar scenery, make Perugia one of the most interesting places in Italy. 

Perusia was one of the twelve Etruscan confederate cities, and not less 
ancient than Cortona, with which and Arretium it fell into the hands of the 
Romans, B. C. 310. It subsequently became a municipium. In the war 
between Octavianus and Antony, who in the summer of 41 occupied Pe- 
rusia, and after an obstinate struggle was compelled by the former to sur- 
render (bellum Perusinum), the town suffered severely , and was finally re- 
duced to ashes. It was afterwards rebuilt and became a Roman colony 
under the name of Augusta Perusia. In the 6th cent, it was destroyed by 
the Goth Totila after a siege of seven years. In the wars of the Lombards, 
Guelphs, and Ghibellines it also suffered greatly; in the 14th cent, it acquired 
the supremacy over nearly the whole of Umbria, but in 1370 was compelled 
to surrender to the pope. Renewed struggles followed , owing to the con- 
flicts between the powerful families of Oddi and Baglioni. In 1416 the 
shrewd and courageous Braccio Fortebraccio of Montone usurped the su- 
preme power, whence new contests arose , until at length Giovanni Paolo 
Baglioni surrendered to Pope Julius II. Leo X. caused him to be executed 
at Rome in 1520. In 1540 Paul III. erected the citadel, 'ad coercendam 
Perusinorum audaciam", as the inscription, destroyed during the last revo- 
lution, recorded. In 1708 the town was captured by the Duke of Savoy, on 
31st May 1849 by the Austrians, and in 1860 by the Piedmontese. 

Umbrian School of Painting. As early as the time of Dante an Um- 
brian artist, the miniature painter Oderisi of Gubbio , was celebrated, 
and art was practised in Gubbio , Fabriano , Perugia, etc. The neigh- 
bouring Siena doubtless exercised an influence on the prevailing style 
of art, which was confirmed by the situation of the towns, the character 
of their inhabitants, and the religious atmosphere diffused by Assisi and 
Loreto. Neither dramatic power, nor wealth of imagination is to be 
found in the Umbrian style, its characteristic features being reverie, 
tranquillity, and gentleness of sentiment. The men pourtrayed often ap- 
pear destitute of individuality and vigour, the female figures, on the other 
hand , excite our admiration owing to their winning and devout expres- 
sions. Technical improvements seem to have been introduced but slowly, 
but the old style was thoroughly cultivated and rendered more attractive 
by frequent use of decorative adjuncts. 

48 Route 7. PERUGIA. History of Art. 

Setting aside the painters of the 14th cent., who were dispersed among 
various small towns, we lind that Ottaviano Nelli of Gubbio (15th cent.) 
was the first able representative of this school. Works by this master 
are preserved both at his native town and at Foligno. Nelli was, how- 
ever, eclipsed by Gentile da Fabriano (b. abont 1360), who probably 
had studied the Sienese masters in his youth , and who afterwards un- 
dertook long journeys (.e.g. to Venice and Rome), thus establishing his 
reputation throughout Italy. His style not unfrequently resembles the 
Flemish. Besides Gubbio and Fabriano, other Umbrian towns possessed 
local schools of painting , such as Camerino and Foligno. The latter, 
about the middle of the 15th cent., gave birth to Niccolb Alunno , a man 
of limited ability, which, however, he cultivated to the utmost. His 
prevailing theme is the Madonna, to whose features he imparts beauty in 
happy combination with reverie ; and in this department he may be re- 
garded as the precursor of Perugino and Raphael. 

Meanwhile Pkedgia, the largest city in this district, by no means 
remained idle. In this wider and more enterprising field the old con- 
ventional styles were soon abandoned as unsatisfactory, and the necessity 
of adopting the Florentine style was urgently felt. In the latter half of 
the 15th cent. Benedetto Buonfigli was the first who strove to throw aside 
the local style of painting , and the same effort was made by Fiorenzo di 
Lorenzo, a younger master and perhaps a pupil of Benedetto. 

This improved style was brought to maturity by Pieteo Vannucci of 
Citta della Pieve (1446-1524) , surnamed Perugino , after the chief scene 
of his labours, a master to whom the Umbrian school is chiefly indebted 
for its fame. Perugia was, however, by no means the only sphere of Ms 
activity. He repeatedly spent years together in Florence, and was em- 
ployed for a considerable time in Rome. His endeavours to overcome 
the defects of his native school were crowned with success. In Ver- 
rocchio , s studio in Florence he was initiated into the secrets of perspec- 
tive and the new mode of colouring , and in both respects attained con- 
summate skill. Down to the beginning of the 16th cent, his excellence 
continued unimpaired , as his frescoes in the Cambio, and several works 
in the Gallery at Perugia sufficiently prove. During the last twenty years 
of his life, however, his works show a falling off, occasioned, doubtlessly, 
by his accepting more orders than he could conscientiously execute, 
whereby his art was degraded to a mere handicraft. He seems , indeed, 
to have had more studios than one at the same time , as for example in 
1502-5 both at Florence and Perugia , in the latter of which the young 
Raphael was employed. 

Another great master of the Umbrian school , vying with Perugino, 
is Bernardino Betti, surnamed Pintdricchio (1454-1513). Although he 
exercised no considerable influence on the progress of Italian art, and in- 
troduced no striking improvements like Leonardo , and others , yet he 
thoroughly understood how to utilise the traditional style and the cur- 
rent forms, and was marvellously prolific as a fresco painter. The Va- 
tican and Roman churches, the Cathedral Library at Siena, and the Col- 
legiate Church at Spello, are the chief scenes of his activity. — Amongst 
the younger contemporaries of Perugino we must next mention Giovanni 
di Pielro, surnamed Lo Spagna after his native country, whose paintings 
are hardly inferior to the early works of Raphael, and who, in common 
with all the Umbrian masters, exhibits great ease of execution. 

Other assistants of Perugino, but of inferior merit, were Giannicola 
di Paolo Manni (d. 1541) and Euxebio di S. Giorgio. The latter was so 
successful in imitating Raphael in superficial respects , that several of 
his pictures, amongst others the Adoration of the Magi in the picture-gal- 
lery at Perugia (Sala del Pinturicchio, No. 23, p. 50), have been attri- 
buted to Raphael himself. Of Sinibaldo Ibi and Tiberio d' 1 Assist, who 
flourished during the first twenty years of the 16th cent., little is known, 
and their works are rare. Gerino of Pistoja seems to have been a good 
painter of the average class , and the works of Domenico di Paris Alfani, 
a friend of Raphael, possess considerable attraction. These last masters' 
however, show little individuality, and before the middle of the 16th cen- 

Collegia del Cambio. PERUGIA. 7. Route. 49 

tury the Umbrian school was completely merged In those of Rome and 

At the entrance to the upper part of the town, on the site of the 
citadel, which was removed in 1860, extends the Piazza Vittorio 
Emanuele (PI. B, 5) , in which rises the Prefettura, a simple and 
handsome modern building , adorned with arcades on the ground- 
floor. The garden-terrace affords a superb *View of the Umbrian 
valley with Assisi, Spello, Foligno, Trevi, and numerous other vil- 
lages , enclosed by the principal chain of the Apennines extending 
from Gubbio onwards ; the Tiber and part of the lower quarters of 
Perugia are also visible. (A band plays here two evenings a week.) 

Northwards from the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele runs the Corso 
Vannucci to the left, leading to the cathedral-square ; and the Via 
Baglioni to the right , leading to the Piazza del Sopramuro (p. 53). 

We follow the Corso Vannucci, the busiest and handsomest street 
in the town. On the right (No. 8) is the Palazzo Baldeschi (PI. 21 ; 
B, 4) ; on the 2nd floor is preserved a *Drawing by Raphael (Pintu- 
riochio?) for the 5th fresco in the library of Siena Cathedral (p. 28 ; 

fee 1/2 &•)• 

On the left, farther on, is the *Collegio del Cambio (PL 31; 

B, 4), the old chamber of commerce, with the *Udibnza del Cambio, 
containing celebrated frescoes by Perugino , dating from his best 
period, 1500. (Adm. from 9 a.m.; custodian */2 f r -; Dest light in 
the morning.) 

On the wall to the left of the door. 1st Arch: to the left, Fabius Maxi- 
mus, Socrates, and Numa Pompilius, with Prudence above; to the right, 
Furius Camillus, Pittacus, and Trajan, with Justice above. 2nd Arch: 
to the left, Lucius Sicinius, Leonidas, and Horatius Codes, with Valour; 
to the right, Scipio, Pericles, and Cincinnatus, with Temperance. On the 
pillar between the arches is a portrait of Perugino. — Opposite the en- 
trance: to the left, the Transfiguration as the fulfilment of faith; to the 
right , * Adoration of the Magi , as a revelation of love. — Right "wall. 
1st Arch: to the left, Prophets, to the right Sibyls, as the heralds of 
hope; above, Jehovah. The 2nd Arch is occupied by the finely-carved 
judicial throne and the money-changers 1 bench. — On the ceiling are me- 
dallions of the seven planets , surrounded by admirable arabesques. Ra- 
phael is said to have been one of Perugino's assistants in the execution 
of these frescoes; his style is traceable in the Madonna of the Nativity. 
Perugino received 350 ducats for his work from the guild of merchants. 
The exquisite carved and inlaid work ('tarsia') of the judicial benches, 
doors, etc., by Antonio Mercatello, which are amongst the finest Renaissance 
works of the kind, also deserve notice. — The adjacent Chapel contains 
an altarpiece and frescoes by Giannicola Nanni. 

Immediately adjoining the Collegio is the *PaIazzo Pubblico 
(or Comunale, PI. 22; B, 4), a huge edifice of 1281 and 1333, re- 
cently skilfully restored, with its principal facade towards the 
Corso and a second towards the Piazza del Duomo. It is adorned 
with fine windows , a handsome portal , and Gothic sculptures (the 
armorial bearings of the allied towns, saints, etc.). Over the portal 
in the Piazza del Duomo are a griffin and a lion in bronze (14th 
cent.) ; below are chains and bars of gates , commemorating the 
victory gained by the Perugians in 1358 over the Sienese. The chief 

Baedeker. Italy II. 10th Edition. 4 

50 Route 7. PERUGIA. Palazzo Pubblieo. 

entrance is in the Corso. On the 2nd floor is the Sala dblla Statis- 
tica, with a fine Renaissance door, in a lunette above which is a Ma- 
donna by Fior. di Lorenzo. On the same floor is the Sala del Capi- 
tano del Popolo, an apartment of noble dimensions. On the 3rd floor 
is the municipal *Picture Gallery (Pinacoteca Vannucci), formed 
since 1863 of works collected from suppressed churches and monaster- 
ies , and of great value to the student of Umbrian art. (Adm. from 
9 a.m. ; tickets 1 fr., in the Sala della Statistica.) Catalogues provided. 
The Vestibule contains a few unimportant pictures and also works 
of art for sale. Adjoining it is the Sala dei Cimelii (A): 1. Meo da Siena, 
Madonna and saints, a drawing. No. 2. Two saints, and No. 3. The Apos- 
tles (the latter as predelle) evidently belong to the same work. 12. Am- 
brogio Lorenzetti, Madonna and four saints ; "26. Margaritone d'Arezzo (1272\ 
Large crucifixion ; 22-24, perhaps by the same master. — Sala B (formerly 
the Cappella dei Decemviri) , with frescoes by Benedetto Bonfigli. To the 
right of the windows and on the entrance-wall are scenes from the life of 
St. Louis of Toulouse. Opposite the windows are the Burial of that saint 
and the Martyrdom of St. Herculanus on the occasion of the capture of 
Perugia by Totila. On the adjacent wall is the Burial of St. Herculanus. 
— From the corridor (C) we enter the Sala dei Stacchi (D) : Frescoes of the 
Umbrian School (14th and 15th cent.), transferred to canvas. The glass-cases 
contain codices and choir-books with miniatures. — Sala di Taddeo Baktoli 
(E): Sienese pictures of the 15th cent., most of them valuable. Taddeo Bar- 
otli (1403): 9. Madonna with angels and saints; 10. Descent of the Holy Ghost. 
Torn. d'Arcangelo of Cortona: Exploits of the condottiere Braccio Forte- 
braccio (frieze). — Sala del Angelico (F): "1-20. Fra Angelico da Fiesole, 
Fragments of a large altar-piece (Madonna with angels, Annunciation, 
Saints, Miracles of St. Nicholas of Bari); "21. Piero della Francesca, Madonna 
and four saints, with the Annunciation above. — Sala del Bonfigli (G). 
Bonfigli: 7. Annunciation, with St. Mark ; 10. Adoration of the Magi ; 13. Ma- 
donna with angels playing on instruments. Giovanni Boccati da Camerino: 
16, 19. Madonna and angels. — Sala di Bernardino di Maeiotto (H). Ber- 
nardino: 1. Marriage of St. Catharine; 2. Madonna and saints. 10. Bonfigli, 
'Gonfalone' (sacred banner) of the Fraternity of S. Bernardino di Siena 
(Christ blessing the saints , below which are believers burning objects of 
luxury). 12. Caporali , Christ and the Madonna in glory (fresco). "U. Nic- 
colb Alunno , Gonfalone of the Brotherhood of the Annunziata (1466). - — 
Sala di Fiorenzo di Lorenzo (J): '4. Fiorenzo, Adoration of the Magi 
(among whose followers is the young Perugino to the left); 24. Perugino, 
Coronation of the Madonna. — Gaeinetto di Fiorenzo di Lorenzo (L): 
"2-9. Fiorenzo, Miracles of S. Bernardino (2-6, masterpieces; 7-9, in the 
same style, but inferior); 16. Fiorenzo (?) , Bust of the Madonna in a 
garland, with angels' heads below. — Sala del Perugino (M). Ca- 
rattoli, Marble bust of Perugino. Perugino: 11. Baptism of Christ; 20. 
Nativity; 21, 16, 12, 7. Predelle; 8, 9, 13, 14, 17, 18, 22, 23. Saints; al! 
being fragments of a large altar-piece. Below No. 4. (St. James, by 
Perugino) is an autigraph letter of the master to the Prior of S: Agos- 
tino. — Sala del Pinturicchio (N). Perugino: 2. Transfiguration; 
"3-5. Predelle; 6. Madonna and saints. "7. Spagna, Madonna and saints. 
• Pinturicchio : Large altar-piece in its original frame, the Madonna with 
the infant Child and St. John; on the left, SS. Augustine and Jerome; 
above, the Annunciation; in the pediment, a Pieta; in the predelle, scenes 
from the lives of SS. Augustine and Jerome; 12. Gonfalone with St. 
Augustine (on silk). Perugino : 14. Madonna , worshippers , SS. Francis 
and Bernardino ; 15. Madonna and saints; 16. John the Baptist with saints. 
Raphael: "17. Strip of decorative painting ; 24. God the Father with angels 
(both belonging to the Entombment in the Galeria Horghese at Borne). 
Eusebio di San Giorgio: 18. Madonna with saints; "23. Adoration of the 
Magi. 20. Pupil of Raphael (?), Madonna, resembling the Conestabile 11a- 
.donna, formerly in Perugia. — Sala di Giannicolo Manni e di Berto 

Cathedral. PERUGIA. 7 . Route. 51 

(0). — Sala della Scuola di Perdgino (P): 36. Alfani, Holy Family, 
designed by Raphael. — The following rooms are the Sala Domenico Al- 
fani, Sala della Toebe, and Sala Oeazio Alfani. 

The Biblioteca Fubblica, which has recently been transferred to this 
Palazzo, contains about 30,000 vols., and some fine MSS. of the ll-15th 
cent., with miniatures. 

In the Piazza del Municipio rises the *Fonte Maggiore , dat- 
ing from 1277, and one of the finest fountains of that period in 
Italy. It consists of three admirably-constructed basins, adorned 
with numerous biblical and allegorical figures in relief, executed by 
Niecolb and Giovanni 'Pisano and Arnolfo del Cambio (1280 ; two 
of the statuettes are modern substitutes). — The W. side of the 
piazza is occupied by the Episcopal Palace (PI. 30), behind which 
is the so-called Maesth delle Volte (PI. 32), a relic of the Palazzo 
del Podesta, which was burned down in 1329 and again in 1534. 

The Cathedral ofS. Lorenzo (PI. 11 ; B, 4), dating from the 15th 
cent., is externally unfinished. Adjoining the entrance from the 
Piazza del Municipio is a pulpit. 

The "Interior, consisting of nave and aisles with a short transept, is of 
spacious but heavy dimensions. — On the right of the entrance is the 
tomb of Bishop Baglioni by Agostino di Duccio (1451) , beyond which is 
the Cappella S. Bernardino, with a Descent from the Gross, the master- 
piece of Baroccio (1569) ; the painted window representing the Preaching 
of St. Bernardino of Siena is by Constantino di Eosato and Arrigo Fiam- 
mingo of Malines (1565; restored in 1863). — Opposite, in the left aisle, 
is the Cappella dell' Anello , which down to 1797 contained the cele- 
brated Sposalizio by Perugino, now at Caen in Normandy. The beauti- 
fully carved stalls were begun by Giulio da Majano and finished by Do- 
menico del Tasso in 1491 ; the elegant tabernaculum was executed by the 
goldsmith Gesarino del Boscetto, in 1519. — Farther on in the nave is a 
Pieta in relief, by Agostino di Duccio(1). — In the Eight Transept, a 
marble sarcophagus containing the remains of Popes Innocent III. (d. 1216), 
Urban IV. (d. 1264), and Martin IV. (d. 1285). — The adjoining Winter- 
Choir contains an * Altar-piece by Luca Signorelli: Madonna with SS. John 
the Baptist, Onuphrius the Hermit, Stephen, and a bishop as donor. Be- 
low the 2nd window to the left: Christ imparting his blessing, and saints, 
by Lodovico di Angelo. 

In the Library are preserved precious MSS., such as the Codex of St. 
Luke of the 6th cent., in gold letters on parchment. 

On the W. and N. side of the Cathedral is situated the Piazza 
Danti (PI. B, C, 3, 4), with a bronze statue of Pope Julius III. by 
Vine. Danti (1556). — From the N. angle of the Piazza Danti the 
Via Vecchia descends to the *Arco di Augusto (PL 2 ; 0, 3), an an- 
cient town-gate with the inscription Augusta Perusia. The founda- 
tions date from the Etruscan period, and the upper part perhaps from 
the Augustan epoch after the conflagration. From this point the 
partly preserved walls of the ancient city, which occupied the height 
where the old part of the present town stands, maybe distinctly traced. 

The small space in front of the Arco di Augusto is called the 
Piazza Foetbbraccio (PI. C, 3); to the left is the Palazzo Qalenga, 
formerly Antinori, by Alessi. — A little to the N. lies the church 
of S. Agostino (PI. 5 ; C, 2), to the right of which is an oratory con- 
taining several pictures by Alfani, Scaramucci, etc. 


52 Route 7. PERUGIA. University. 

From the Palazzo Galenga the Via dell' Universita leads in a few 
minutes to the University (PI. B, 2), established in 1320 in a mon- 
astery of Olivetans, which was suppressed by Napoleon. It possesses 
a small Botanic Garden, Natural History and Art History Collections, 
and a Museum op Etruscan and Roman Antiquities (curator, 
Sig. Angelo Lupatelli). 

The Museum of Antiquities is on the first floor. On the Staircase are 
Etruscan and Latin inscriptions and unimportant Roman sculptures. The 
Corridor chiefly contains Etruscan urns and a few casts from antique 
and Renaissance sculptures. "No. 279. Terracotta urn in the form of a 
recumbent man, who is being seized by a goddess of death with the 
features of a fiend; the hollow interior once contained the ashes of the 
deceased. The Qabinetlo di Antiquaria contains stone weapons, urns, and 
Etruscan and Roman anticaglias. In the 3rd Room, Mountings of a chariot 
with figures and ornamentation resembling the most ancient Asiatic style (in 
a cabinet opposite the windows) ; large gold Earring with a female head (in a 
the cabinet in the middle of the room); two Mirrors with scenes from the 
myths of Meleager and Helen. In the 4th Room, Vase of admirable Attic 
workmanship, with red figures of Dionysus and Ariadne (cabinet opposite 
the windows). — The Guardabassi Collection , at the end of the second 
corridor, contains various interesting objects from Etruscan graves. In 
the 1st Room, Collection of cut stones. In the 2nd Room, fine 'Mirror- 
case, with a representation of Dionysus on the panther, toilette articles, 
and amber and coral ornaments (catalogue 1 fr.). — Gabinetto Cristianoy 
Central Room, Coffin of Bishop Baglioni, with a sumptuous velvet covering 
(15th cent.) ; episcopal vestments of the 16th cent. ; richly carved slabs 
from the confessionals of S. Agostino, perhaps by Barili; voting-urn used 
in municipal elections, with the arms of the Guilds (15th cent.). 2nd 
Room (to the right), Reliquary containing the remains of the condottiere 
Braccio Fortebraccio , who fell at the siege of Aquila on 5th June , 1424 
(formerly in S. Francesco dei Conventuali) ; Seal of Card. Bembo by Lav- 
tirio di Perugia; Madonna by Agostino di Duccio, and other terracottas; 
fine marble "Relief of St. Francis, by Luca delta Rolbia; bust of one of 
the Baldeschi family (15th cent.); weapons; majolica. In the 3rd Room 
(to the left) three masterpieces of enamel-work ('champs leveY): a goblet 
which once belonged to Pope Benedict XI. (d. 1304), and a cup and plate 
or saucer executed by Catalorzio di Pietro of Todi (14th cent.); to the right, 
ivory carvings, including a circular piece with chessmen, and a represen- 
tation of French knights starting for the chase (14th cent.). — The Cor- 
ridor contains mediaeval sculptures ; statues from the Maesta delle Volte 
by Agostino di Duccio; and a model of the Fonte Maggiore (p. 51). 

The Natural History Collections are unimportant. 

The University Church, the key of which is kept by the curator of the 
Museum, contains mediaeval works of art and plaster casts, including 
those of an 8th cent, tabernaculum and an early-Christian sarcophagus. 

Near the Gate of S. Angelo (PI. A, 1), to which the Via Longaia 
leads from the Piazza Fortebraccio , is situated the architecturally 
interesting church of S. Angelo, a circular structure with 16 antique 
columns in the interior, in the style of S. Stefano Rotondo in Rome, 
probably dating from the 6th cent., with additions of a later period. 
— On the other (S.) side of the Longara is S. Agnese, adorned with 
frescoes from the later period of Perugino and his pupils. 

Ascending from the Piazza Fortebraccio (see above) by the Via 
Pinturicchio to the S.E. (or from the Piazza Danti, p. 51, by the 
Via Bontempi to the E.), crossing the Piazza de' Gigli, and then 
taking the first side-street (Via Kaffaello) to the left , we reach *S. 
Severo (PI. 14; C, 3), formerly a convent of the order < f Camaldoli, 

S. Severo. PERUGIA. 7. Route. 53 

now a college, in the chapel of which Raphael painted his first fresco, 
probably in 1505, having left Perugino's school the year before, and 
gone to Florence. Entrance adjoining the chapel (custodian 1/2 fr.). 
The freaco, which was seriously damaged, and of late has been restored 
by Consoni, resembles the upper part of Raphael's Disputa in the Va- 
tican; above, God the Father (obliterated) with three angels and the 
Holy Ghost ; below, the Redeemer and the saints Maurus, Placidus, Bene- 
dict, Romuald, Benedict the Martyr, and John the Martyr. The inscription 
(added at a later period) runs thus : Raphael de Urbino dom. Octaviano Ste- 
phano Volaterrano Priore Sanctam Trinitatem angelos astanies sanctosque 
pinxit, A. D. MD V. At the sides, lower down, St. Scholastica, St. Jerome, 
St. John Ev., St. Gregory the Great, Boniface, and St. Martha, by Pietro 
Perugino. Inscription : Petrus de Castro Plebis Perusinus, tempore domini 
Silvestri Stepkani Volaterrani a dextris et sinistris div. Christipherae sanctos 
sanctasque pinxit A. D. MDXXI. 

A vaulted passage under the clock of the Palazzo Pubblico (p. 49) 
leads from the Corso Vannucci to the Via be' Priori, the best route 
to the sights of the W. quarter. The Via Deliziosa, diverging to the 
left near the small piazza in front of the Chiesa Nuova (PI. 10 ; B, 4), 
contains (PI. 18) the House of Perugino (? ; denoted by a tablet). 

We continue to descend the Via de' Priori, passing the mediae- 
val Torre degli Sciri, or degli Scalzi (PI. 34 ; A, 4), and the Madonna 
della Luce (PI. 4), a pleasing little Renaissance church of 1518, and 
reach an open space on the right. Opposite us here rises the — 

*Oratorio di S. Bernardino {^Confraternith della Oiustizia; PI. 
A, 3). The facade , executed by Agostino di Duccio , a Florentine 
sculptor , in 1459-61 , is a magnificent polychrome work , in which 
both coloured marble and terracotta are employed, while the ground 
of the numerous and very elaborate sculptures is also coloured. A 
picture in the interior, representing the festival of the church, con- 
tains an admirable view of the facade. 

Immediately adjacent is- the church of S. Francesco dei Con- 
ventuali, or del Prato (PI. 9 ; A, 3), for which Raphael painted the 
Entombment now in the Borghese Gallery at Rome (p. 185). Sev- 
eral frescoes of the 13th cent, have recently been discovered in 
the crypt (Betrothal and Death of the Virgin). The church is in a 
very precarious state. 

To the E. of the Corso, and parallel with it, stretches the 
Piazza del Sopramuro (PI. C, 4), resting on extensive substructions, 
part of which belong to the ancient Etruscan town-walls. On the 
E. side of the Piazza rises the Palazzo delCapitano delPopolo, after- 
wards the Palazzo delPodesta (PI. 29), dating from 1472; adjoining 
it is the Old University, built in 1483 ; both edifices are now occu- 
pied by courts of justice (PI. 35). 

The Via Baglioni leads hence towards the S. to the Piazza Vittorio 
Emanuele (p. 49). We descend here immediately to the left, passing 
the substructions of the old citadel , where an ancient gate , called 
Porta Marzia (PI. 33 ; C, 5), with interesting sculptures , and the 

54 Route 7. PERUGIA. 8. Pietro de 1 Casinensi. 

inscriptions Augusta Perusia and Colonia Vibia, which was removed 
from its old site to make way for the fortress, has been re-erected. — 
We turn to the left here, and follow the broad main street with an 
avenue of acacias, at the end of which, to the left, rises the small 
Gothic church of S. Ercolano (PI. 6 ; 0, 5), with an altar consisting 
of an ancient sarcophagus. 

Following the Corso Cavouk , the continuation of the Via S. 
Ercolano, to the left, we reach a small square in which stands the 
church of — 

S.Domenico (PI. 7; C, 6), originally a Gothic edifice of the 13th 
and 14th cent., built by Giov. Pisano in 1304, and almost entirely 
re-erected by Carlo Maderna in 1614, with a lofty campanile, part 
of which has been taken down. 

In the Left Tbansept is the "Monument to Pope Benedict XI., who 
fell a victim to the intrigues of Philip IV. of France , and died in 1304 
from eating poisoned figs. It was executed by Giovanni Pisano, and is one 
of the most famous monuments of its kind ; above the recumbent figure 
of the pope rises a lofty canopy, borne by spiral columns and adorned 
with mosaics (above is a Madonna between St. Dominicus and the kneeling 
pope on one side and St. Herculanus on the other). On the adjacent 
wall is the monument of Bishop Benedetto Guidolotti (1429). — The 
Choir , with a rectangular termination , contains a huge Gothic window 
filled with rich stained glass, the largest of its kind in Italy (218 sq. yds.), 
executed in 1441 by Fra Bartolommeo of Perugia, and recently restored. 
This window belonged to the original church of Giov. Pisano. — The in- 
laid Choir Stalls (tarsia) date from 1476. 

After a few minutes more we pass through the Porta S. Pietro, 
richly decorated by Agostino di Duccio (1473), and reach the old 
monastery and church of — 

*S. Pietro de' Casinensi (PI. 13 ; D, 7, 8 ; entrance in the first 
court in the corner diagonally opposite, to the left). The church, 
founded about the year 1000 by S. Pietro Vincioli of Perugia, is a 
basilica, consisting of nave, aisles, and a transept, with a richly 
gilded flat ceiling, borne by 18 antique columns of granite and 
marble and two pillars, and contains numerous pictures. 

In the Nave, above, are eleven large pictures by Ant. Vasillacchi, sur- 
named VAliense, of Perugia, a pupil of Tintoretto and Paolo Veronese, exe- 
cuted in 1592-94. — The Right Aisle contains several Umbrian pictures. 
The chapel of St. Joseph, adorned with modern frescoes, contains, on 
the left , the monumental "Relief of a Countess Baldeschi , in terracotta, 
from a drawing by Fr. Overbeck ; on the right, Holy Family, a copy from 
Andrea del Sarto, by Pontormo. — Then, above the door leading to the 
monastery, Two saints by Snsso/errato, after Perugino, and a Holy Family 
after Bonifacio of Venice. Above the door leading to the Sacristy, Three 
saints, also after Perugino by Sassoferrato. — In the Sacristy (shown by 
the custodian , 5 soldi) are five small half-figures of "Saints, by Perugino 
(which formerly surrounded the Ascension by the same master, removed 
by the French, now in Lyons); Holy Family, by Parmeggianino ; 'Infant 
Jesus and St. John, after Perugino, by Raphael (?) ; S. Francesca Bo- 
mana, by Caravaggio. — The Choir-books are embellished with good min- 
iatures of the 16th century. 

The "Choie Stalls, in walnut, are admirably carved and inlaid (tarsia) 
by Stefano da Bergamo, 1535; the doors at the back are by his brother 
Damiano. — Under the arch of the Choir, on each side, are ambones (pul- 
pits) in stone, with reliefs on a golden ground, by Franc, di Gvido, 1517-21. 


The Left Aisle, beginning at the upper end by the choir, contains a picture 
by Buonfigli (1), Mary with the body of Christ and two saints, 1469. In the 
adjoining chapel is a marble altar with reliefs, partly gilded, by Mino da 
Fiesole , 1473. In the next two chapels : pictures by G. Rent, Giorgio Va- 
sari, and others. Between these, on the wall of the aisle: Judith, by Sasso- 
ferralo. Then, Adoration of the Magi, by Eusebio di S. Giorgio; Annun- 
ciation, after Raphael, by Sassoferrato ; Pieta, a late work of Perugino, 
part of a large dismembered altar-piece from the church of S. Agostino. 

Close to S. Pietro , on the opposite side of the street, are the 
gardens of the Passeggiata Pubblica (PI. D, 8), extending to the 
Porta S. Costanzo, and commanding a magnificent *Prospect of the 
valley of Foligno and the Apennines. 

The visitor may also inspect the following private collections : 
the collection of Aw. Romualdi, Via del Bufalo, No. 5 (near the Alb- 
ergo Gran Bretagna), comprising bronzes, coins, cameos, drawings 
and paintings by An. Carracci, Perugino(jf), etc. (for sale). — The 
Oalleria Monaldi (PL 26 ; B, 5), in the palazzo of that name, at the 
corner of the Via Baglioni and the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele , and 
the Oalleria Meniconi (PI. 25; C, 5), Via di Porta Romana , both 
chiefly contain works of later masters (end of 16th and 17th cent.). 

Outside the Porta del Carmine lies the Cemetery (PL E, 3), con- 
taining a monument to the champions of liberty in 1859. 

Outside the Porta S. Costanzo, on the road to Assisi, lies the church 
(restored) of S. Costanzo (PI. D, E, 8), dating from the 11th cent., with an 
ancient portal. — About 3M. to the E. of Perugia, 3 /4 M. on this side of Ponle 
S. Giovanni (p. 72), the first station on the route to Foligno and Rome, the 
Ancient Etruscan Necropolis of Perugia was discovered in 1840. Carriage 
there and back, a drive of H/2-2 hrs., 12 fr. — The most interesting of the 
tombs, and one of the handsomest, though not oldest in N. Etruria, is 
the 'Sepolcro de' Volumnii (the tomb of the Volumnii, 3rd cent. B. C.), 
close to the road, where it is intersected by the railway. It consists of 
ten chambers, hewn in the coarse-grained tufa. A number of cinerary 
urns, with portraits of men and women, and various kinds of decoration, 
were found here. Some of the objects found in the tomb have been left 
in their original positions, but most of them are now preserved in a 
chamber built above it. The custodian is to be found at the neighbouring 
Villa Baglioni (fee ! /2 fr-j for a party 1 fr.). 

The convent of Monlefiorentino, between Perugia and Assisi, contains 
a Madonna by Giov. Santi (1489). 

From Perugia to Todi, about 28 M. (diligence, see p. 47). This road, 
once greatly frequented, but now of merely local importance, descends 
rapidly into the valley of the Tiber , which it crosses , and then remains 
on its left hank. The scenery presents no great attractions. About half- 
way between Perugia and Narni, and 19 M. to the E. of Orvieto, lies — 

Todi {Posta, at the gate), the ancient Umbrian Tuder, a high-lying town 
(1495 ft.) with 4-5000 inhab. (commune 15,500) ; the hill is so abrupt that the 
upper part of the town is not accessible to carriages. Its ancient importance 
is indicated by the fragments of walls and the extensive ruin of a Temple, 
or Basilica, usually styled a temple of Mars. Although poor in treasures of 
art, the town boasts of several interesting edifices, among which are the Ca- 
thedral and the Town Hall in the Piazza. The church of 8. Fortunato pos- 
sesses a handsome portal. The finest building of all, however, is the 
pilgrimage-church of *5. Maria delta Consolazione, in the form of a Greek 
cross and covered with a dome. The arms of the cross are also sur- 
mounted with domes, and are polygonal in shape with the exception 
of the choir, which is semicircular. The exterior is remarkable for its 
simple and massive style, and the interior for its symmetrical proportions 
and the delicately graduated ornamentation of its pillars. Being one of 

56 Route 8. CITTA DI CASTELLO. From Arezzo 

the noblest creations of the Renaissance period, this edifice was naturally 
attributed to Bramante. Documents , however , name Cola di Matteuccio 
da Caprarola (1508) as the architect , and Baldassare Peruzzi as his ad- 
viser. The progress of the building was remarkably slow, and it was 
not completed till 1604. — Todi was the birthplace of Jacopone da Todi 
(d. 1306), author of the 'Stabat mater dolorosa'. 

Fkom Todi to Naeni, 28 M., by the villages of Rosaro, Castel Todino, 
and San Gemine. About l>/ 2 M. from the last, on the ancient, now abandoned 
Via Flaminia , are the interesting ruins of the once prosperous Carsulae. 
From San Gemine (7'/2 M. from Narni) two roads descend gradually to 
the beautiful valley of the Nera, one leading S.E. to Terni (see p. 84), and 
the other S. to Narni (p. 87). 

8. From Arezzo to Fossato. 

84 M. Railway (Ferrovia dell" Appennino Centrale): one through-train 
daily in about 5 hrs. (fares 12 fr. 25, 7 fr. 65 c). 

Arezzo, see p. 38. — For a short distance the train follows the 
line to Rome (p. 20), but it soon diverges and begins to ascend more 
rapidly towards the hills to the E. of Arezzo, affording a picturesque 
retrospect of the town and plain. It mounts as far as the Scopettone, 
the W. parallel chain of the Umbrian Apennines, separating the 
valleys of the Arno and Tiber. This part of the line, the most in- 
teresting from an engineering point of view, traverses 20 tunnels 
and several viaducts. — Beyond (11 M.) Palazzo del Pero we descend 
to the N. E. through the wooded valley of the Cerfone, a tributary 
of the Tiber. — 19'/;>M. Ville Monterchi, situated in a hollow, from 
which a steeper ascent leads to (20!/ 2 M) Citema. — 24!/2 M. An- 
ghiari, a small town picturesquely situated on a hill, commands an 
extensive view of the upper valley of the Tiber, here about 7 M. wide. 

The train traverses the highly cultivated plain, crosses the Tiber, 
and reaches (28y 2 M.) Borgo S. Sepolcro (Alb. Venezia), a little 
town at the foot of the Monte Maggiore (4430 ft.). The churches 
and the Palazzo del Comune contain several pictures by Piero delta 
Francesco, (b. 1423 ; teacher of Luca Signorelli ; comp. p. 39) and 
Raffaello dal Colle (16th cent. ; a pupil of Raphael), both of whom 
were born here. In 8. Antonio Abbate, a fine Crucifixion by Sig- 
norelli, originally a church-banner. 

From Borgo S. Sepolcro a road crosses the Central Apennines to 
Urbania (31 M.), formerly Castel Durante, the probable birthplace of Bra- 
mante, and Urbino (p. 88). — The Source of the Tiber, near the village of 
T,e Baize, about 16 M. to the N., may be visited from Borgo S. Sepolcro. 

The railway proceeds to the S.E. along the left bank of the 
river. 31 M. S. Oiustino ; 33 l /2 M. Selci Lama, a little to the right 
of the village of that name. 

38 M. Cittk di Castello (Locanda la Cannoniera), with 7000 
inhab. (commune 24,000), occupying the site of Tifernum Tiberi- 
num, which was destroyed by Totila. In the 15th cent, it belonged 
to the Vitelli family, and afterwards to the Church. The town, 
built in the form of a rectangle, and still surrounded by the walls 
erected in 1518, contains many interesting small buildings of the 
early-Renaissance period, but few mediaeval monuments. 

to Fossato. GUBBIO. '8. Route. 57 

Of the numerous churches S. Domenico alone has preserved a 
Gothic character. All that remains of the old Cathedral of S. 
Flobido, founded in 101*2, is the campanile and the N. portal; the 
present building, an admirable specimen of the Renaissance style, 
was begun in 1480 and completed in 1540. Bramante has been 
frequently named as the builder, but Elia di Bartolommeo Lom- 
bardo is mentioned in the records as the architect. 

Among the secular buildings, the Palazzo Comunale, built in 
the 14th cent, by a certain Angelus of Orvieto, in the style of the 
Florentine palaces,* retains most closely its original form. The 
Vitelli, the lords and masters of the town, like most of the mag- 
nates of the Renaissance period, were passionately addicted to build- 
ing. The oldest of the four palaces of the 15th and 16th cent, 
bearing their name is the Palazzo di Alessandro Vitelli; the hand- 
somest is the Palazzo Vitelli a S. Oiacomo , and the largest the 
Palazzo Vitelli a Porta S. Egidio. The small summer-house (Pa- 
lazzino) of the latter deserves special notice. 

The Pinacoteca, newly opened, now contains the more impor- 
tant paintings and works of art formerly in the churches. 

Raphael , it is well known , painted his first independent works for 
churches in Citta di Castello, hut they have since disappeared, or (like the 
Sposalizio now in the Brera at Milan) have been carried elsewhere. The 
only work of his now here is a church-banner, with (No. 32) the Trinity 
and (No. 16) the Creation, painted on linen. An Adoration of the Shepherds 
by Luca Signorelli, a Coronation of the Virgin of Signorelli's school 
(No. 8), and several terracottas by Luca delta Robbia and his school, are 
also noteworthy. 

The church of S. Cecilia contains a Madonna by Luca Signorelli, 
and the Palazzo Mancini a *Nativity by the same master, as well as 
several other valuable pictures. 

Beyond Citta di Castello the train follows the right bank of the 
Tiber. 43 M. S. Secondo , at the mouth of a lateral valley. On a 
height to the right, 1 3 / 4 M. from this station and as far from(45 1 / 2 M.) 
Trestina, the next, lies Canoscio, a frequented pilgrim-resort. Be- 
yond (50 M.) Montone Monte Castelli we cross the Tiber and reach 
(53 M.) Vmbertide (Alb. Guardabassi), a small town on the left 
bank of the Tiber, the valley of which is here somewhat narrow. In 
the church of S. Croce is a Descent from the Cross by Luca Signo- 
relli. Diligence to Perugia, see p. 47. 

Beyond (55 M.) Monte Corona the railway quits the Tiber and 
ascends to the N. through the narrow valley of the Assino, crossing 
the stream six times. — 57 M. Serra Partucei; 591/2 M. Campo 
Beggiano. At (64 M.) Pietralunga we reach the fertile tableland of 
Gubbio. To the left rise the Monte Calvo (2965 ft.) and the Monte 

70 M. Gubbio {Albergo del Oiardino , formerly the Leon d'Oro ; 
Rosetta or Colomba, both in the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele and 
well spoken of), with 5000inhab., lies at the foot and on the slopes 
of Monte Calvo, at the entrance to a gorge flanked by steep cliffs. 

58 Route 8. GUBBIO. From Arezzo 

The town presents quite a mediaeval appearance , and the proximity 
of the Apennines also siives it a different character from most other 
Italian towns. Conspicuous among the houses is the huge Palazzo 
dei Consoli, and ahove them towers the church of S. Ubaldo. 

Gubbio is the ancient Iguvium or Eugubium, mentioned by Cicero and 
Csesar. It was destroyed by the Goths, was besieged in 1155 by the Emp. 
Frederick I., then became an independent state, afterwards belonged to the 
duchy of Urbino, and with it finally accrued to the States of the Church. 

Gubbio was the native place of Oderisi, a famous miniature painter 
(d. about 1300), who is called by Dante in his Purgatorio (xi,80) TOnor 
d'Agobbio' ; but no authentic work by his hand now exists. In the 14th 
and 15th cent, a branch of the Umbrian school flourished here, and among 
its masters, whose renown extended even beyond their native place, were 
Guido Palmerucci (1280-1345?) and several members of the Nelli family, 
particularly Ottaviano Nelli (d. 1444). — Gubbio occupies a still more 
important page in the history of Artistic Handicrafts. Like Urbino, 
Pesaro, and Faenza, it was noted for the manufacture of Majolica, or earthen- 
ware vases and tiles which were covered with a white coating of colour 
before being baked. One of the most distinguished majolica painters was 
'■Maestro Giorgio'' of Gubbio , who is said to have invented, or rather re- 
discovered and perfected, the metallic, ruby-coloured glazing for which the 
Italian majolicas are remarkable. 

At the bottom of the spacious Piazza Vittorio Emanuele is the 
church of S. Francesco. We ascend hence by old-fashioned streets 
to the Piazza della Signoria, on the slope of the hill, supported 
by massive vaults, where the most conspicuous building is the — 

*Palazzo dei Consoli, a huge pinnacled edifice with a tower, 
erected in 1332-46 by Giovanello Maffei of Gubbio, surnamed 
Oattapone, and at present disused. The ground-floor contains a 
slab with an inscription of the Augustan period. The Loggia affords 
a beautiful view, embracing the ruins of the Roman theatre in the 
plain (p. 59), and on the other side, the old facade of the Palazzo 
Ducale (fee ^2 fr.). 

The Palazzo Pretorio, now 'Residenza Municipale', contains 
several collections recently united here (fee y 2 -l fr.). 

On the first floor are the so-called Eugubian Tablets, which were dis- 
covered in 1440 near the ancient theatre. They are of bronze, and bear 
inscriptions, four in Umbrian, and three in Latin characters, which long 
baffled the investigation of the learned. They contain in the Umbrian 
language, an old Italian dialect akin to Latin, liturgical regulations and 
formulae of nearly uniform import, dating from different periods. The 
older, in the Umbrian character, are read from right to left. The later, in 
Latin letters, date from about the 2nd cent. B.C. 

The upper saloon (handsome door) contains a number of pictures, 
including several fine works , chiefly of the Umbrian school ; admirable 
'Wood-carving of the 15th and 16th cent.; cabinets, chairs, and a num- 
ber of ancient and modern "Majolicas. 

The third side of the piazza is occupied by the modern Palazzo 
Ranghiasci-Brancaleone. — Conte Fabiani-Beni, Piazza S. Martino, 
possesses several good pictures. 

Ascending the Via dei Duchi to the left, and then following the 
Via di S. Ubaldo, we reach the *Palazzo dei Duchi, an old Go- 
thic edifice, which was remodelled by Luciano Lauranna, the archi- 
tect of the palace of Urbino. The colonnaded court is almost an 

to Fossato. GUBBIO. 8. Route. 59 

exact reproduction of that of Urbino. The interior is quite a ruin 
and accessible only with difficulty. 

Opposite the entrance to the court of the Pal. dei Duchi rises 
the Cathedral op SS. Mariano e Jacopo Martire , a structure 
of the 13th cent., destitute of aisles and so built against the slope 
of the hill that its back is embedded in the ground. The facade is 
adorned with sculptures of the Evangelists (13th cent.). 

Among the pictures in the interior (first altar on the left) is a Ma- 
donna with SS. Ubaldo and Sebastian, by Sinibaldo Ibi of Gubbio. By 
the .2nd altar a "Coronation of Mary Magdalene by Timoteo della Vile. The 
sacristy contains a Flemish vestment, presented by Pope Marcellus II. 

The church of S. Maria Nuova, situated near the E. end of the 
Via delle Fonti, running above and parallel with the Corso , at the 
corner of the Via Nelli, contains an admirably-preserved Madonna 
by Ottaviano Nelli, 1403 (apply to the sacristan), a Madonna in 
fresco by Bernardino di Nanni , frescoes by Guido on the entrance- 
wall, and a St. Anthony by Guido, on the wall to the left of the door. 

The Via Paoli leads from the end of the Corso Garibaldi to the 
fine Gothic church of S. Giovanni (13th cent.). — At the other end 
of the Corso is the church of S. Pietro, with a 12th cent, facade 
(decayed). — 8. Domenico, S. Agostino (frescoes in the choir ascribed 
to Ottaviano Nelli), and S. Maria della Piaggiola (outside the Porta 
Vittoria ; over the high-altar , *Madonna by Gentile da Fabriano) 
also contain pictures of the same period. 

The ancient town extended farther into the plain than the mod- 
ern. Among the ruins still existing is a Theatre, discovered in 
1863, apparently of the republican era. It is not entirely excavated, 
but part of the external row of arches is preserved , and the stage, 
facing the town, is distinctly traceable. (We quit the Piazza Vitto- 
rio Emanuele by the Porta Trasimeno, turn to the right, and lastly 
pass through a modern gateway on the left, towards a farm.) 

73 M. Padule. Beyond (78y 2 M.) Branca we cross the Chiascio 
and traverse the valley of that stream to — 

84 M. Fossato, see p. 109. 

9. From Florence to Rome via (Arezzo) Terontola 
and Chiusi. 

195 M. Railway. This is the shortest route from Florence to Rome. 
Express in 7y 2 -7»/ 4 hrs. (fares 39 fr. 5, 27 fr. 30 c); ordinary train in 
12V4 hrs. (fares 35 fr. 50, 24 fr. 80, 16 fr.); no change of carriages. 

From Florence to Terontola, 76 M., see pp. 37-46. The main 
line to Rome diverges to the right (S.) from the branch-line to Pe- 
rugia, Assisi , and Foligno, and at first skirts the W. bank of the 
Trasimene Lake (oomp. p. 45). 

82 M. Castiglione del Lago, lying to the left on a promontory 
extending into the lake, possesses an old palazzo of the Duchi della 
Cornia, built by Alessi. 

60 Route 9. CHIUSI. From Florence 

SB 1 ^ M. Panicale, a small place with unimportant frescoes in its 
churches by Perugino and his school. The line takes a W. direction 
and joins the line from Siena in the valley of the Chiana (R. 4). 

93V2 M- Chiusi. — The Railway Station (* Restaurant) is about 
l'/s M. from the town, on the hill to the right. 'Posto' (seat in a carriage) 
to the town 1 fr., two 'posti 1 l»j 2 fr. 

Aquila d'Oro, well spoken of; Corona, Via Porsenna 1, unpretend- 
ing and moderate; Etrdria, at the station. 

Travellers who wish to inspect the Etruscan Antiquities should en- 
quire for the custodian , who sells tickets for the museum (J/2 fr.) where 
he is generally to be found, and accompanies visitors to the tombs (2 fr. ; 
or, for the whole day, 3-4 fr.). The road to the tombs is very muddy in 
wet weather. — Travellers are cautioned against making purchases of 
Etruscan antiquities at Chiusi. as 'antiquities' from Etruscan tombs are 
largely manufactured here. 

Chiusi (5000 inhab.), the ancient Clusium, one of the twelve 
Etruscan capitals, frequently mentioned in the wars against Rome, 
and as the headquarters of Porsenna, was fearfully devastated by 
malaria in the middle ages; but under the grand-dukes of the House 
of Lorraine the Val di Chiana was gradually drained, and the town 
recovered from these disasters. The walls are mediaeval; a few re- 
lics of those of the Etruscan period are traceable near the cathedral, 
outside the Porta delle Torri. A walk thence round the town to 
the Porta Romana, also called Porta di 8. Pietro, affords pleasing 
views of the S. portion of the Chiana Valley, Citta della Pieve, the 
mountains of Cetona, to the N. the lakes of Chiusi and Montepul- 
ciano, and the latter town itself. Under the town extends a laby- 
rinth of subterranean passages, the precise object of which is un- 
known (inaccessible) ; but they probably belonged to an elaborate 
system of drainage, as the ancient Etruscans excelled in works of 
this kind, and were even in advance of many modern nations. 

The interesting Musbo Etktjsco, founded a few years ago, con- 
tains a valuable collection of objects found in the Etruscan tombs 
around Chiusi, such as vases (including several curious polychrome 
urns), dishes, bronzes, mirrors, sarcophagi, and especially cinerary 
urns, chiefly of terracotta, with a few of alabaster and travertine. 

The Cathedral of S. Mustiola consists almost entirely of frag- 
ments of ancient buildings ; the eighteen columns of unequal 
thickness in the interior, and the tomb of S. Mustiola are derived 
from a similar source. The sacristy contains a mass-book illumin- 
ated with admirable miniatures of the 15th cent., chiefly by ar- 
tists of the Sienese school. The walls of the arcades in the cathedral 
square bear numerous Etruscan and Roman inscriptions. 

The great attraction of Chiusi are the Etkuscan Tombs (tickets 
of admission and guido, see above), situated in isolated hills at 
some distance from the town. The most important are the following: 
to the N.E. the Deposito del Oranduca, 3 M. ; near it, the *Deposito 
della Scimia, with mural paintings representing gladiatorial com- 
bats. The Deposito delPoggio Oajelli, which is supposed, but without 
authority, to be the Mausoleum nf Porsenna mentioned by Pliny and 

to Rome. CITTA DELL A PJEVE. 9. Route. 61 

Varro, is 3 M. distant and much dilapidated. To the N.W., the 
Deposito delle Monache, 2 M. ; then, to the S.E., the Deposito del 
Colle, with mural paintings, 1 M. from the town. 

Near S. Caterina, on the way to the station, are small cata- 
combs of the early-Christian period, and near them a Roman tomb. 

About 37'i M. to the S.W. of Chiusi lies the little town of Sarteano 
(about 1970 ft.), above which rises an ancient castle. The Villa Bargagli 
contains a collection of sarcophagi, vases, small bronzes, and other anti- 
quities found in the neighbourhood, to which admission is courteously granted. 

A diligence runs from the Chiusi station in 1 hr. to the (5 M.) loftily 
situated town of Citta. della Pieve (1010 ft.), with 6000 inhab., the birth- 
place of Pietro Vannucci (1446-1524), surnamed Perugino after Perugia, which 
was the chief scene of his labours (comp. p. 48). The town possesses sev- 
eral of his pictures, but they are works of his later period, hastily 
painted and chiefly done by his pupils, as the master apparently deemed 
his native place not capable of appreciating works of a more elaborate 
kind. — The oratory dei Disciplinati , or S. Maria dei Bianchi, contains 
an Adoration of the Magi, one of the largest pictures by Perugino; two 
letters of the artist from Perugia (1504) are shown with regard to the 
price of this fresco, reducing it from 200 to 75 ducats. — In the Cathedral 
(interior modernised) is the Baptism of Christ (first chapel to the left), 
and in the choir a Madonna with SS. Peter, Paul, Gervasius, and Prota- 
sius , 1513. The picture of St. Antony with St. Paulus Eremita and St. 
Marcellus, now (since 1860) in S. Agostino, belonged originally to the church 
of S. Antonio. All these pictures are by Perugino. — Outside the Orvieto 
gate is the church of S. Maria dei Servi, containing remains of a Cruci- 
fixion by Perugino, dating from 1517. 

The road leading from Citta della Pieve in an E. direction to Perugia 
(31 M.) was formerly much frequented. 

About 7 [ /2 M. to the S.W. of Chiusi (carriage in l'/4 hr.), and at the 
same distance to the W. from Citta della Pieve, lies the small town of 
Cetona, commanded by a medifeval castle. The Palazzo Terrosi contains 
a small collection of antiquities found in the neighbourhood (visitors gen- 
erally admitted on presenting their cards) , such as handsome poly- 
chrome and richly gilded urns ; an "Elephant's tusk with archaic reliefs 
from the Odyssey, etc. — Picturesque grounds at the back of the palace. 

The Railway descends the Chiana valley. 104y 2 M. Ficulle ; 
the village, 2 ] / 2 M. distant, lies on a hill to the right. Ill M. 
Allerona. Near Orvieto the Chiana falls into the Paglia, a turbul- 
ent tributary of the Tiber, which causes great damage in rainy 
seasons. The rock here is tertiary sandstone, while at Orvieto the 
volcanic district begins , of which the central point is the lake of 
Bolsena (p. 65). 

U8I/2 M. Stat. Orvieto (440 ft.), at the base of the hill oc- 
cupied by the town, to which a cable-tramway (Funicolme; 5min. : 
30 c), 520 yds. in length , ascends at a gradient of 27 : 100, pass- 
ing through a tunnel under the Fortezza. 

Orvieto. — Grand Hotel delle Belle Aeti (Palazzo Bisenzi), Corso 
Cavour, well spoken of; R. from 3, D. 5, dej. 3, B. Vfe, L. & A. l'/t, omn. 
l>/4 fr. — Alb. d'Italta, near the Piazza del Popolo, fair; Aqoila Bianca, 
Via Garibaldi, behind the Palazzo Comunale , unpretending , B. 2 fr. — 
"Locanda Valentini, Via S. Andrea 17, unpretending. — Caffe Benedelti, 
Piazza Vittorio Emanuele. 

The Wine of Orvieto is esteemed both here and at Borne. 

Photographs of Signorelli's frescoes sold by Armoni, near the Cathedral 

62 Route 9. 


From Florence 

Orvieto (1165 ft. ; 8000inhab.; whole parish 16,000), a small 
town and episcopal residence , on an isolated tufa rock, the Urbi- 
bentum of Procopius, was called Vrbs Vetus in the 8th cent.,' and 
thence derives its modern name. In the middle ages it was a great 
stronghold of the Guelphs, and often afforded refuge to the popes. 

From the E. entrance to the town, where the terminus of the 
cable-tramway is situated, near the old castle mentioned below, 
runs the Corso, the principal street of Orvieto. Two mediaeval towers 
rise in this street; opposite the first of these is the Via del Duomo, 
which leads us straight to the Piazza S. Maria with the far-famed — 

**Cathedral (PL 1), a magnificent example of the Italian Gothic 
style, and one of the most interesting buildings in Italy, founded in 
consequence of the 'Miracle of Bolsena' (comp. p. 66). The first stone 
was solemnly laid by Pope Nicholas IV. on 13th Nov. 1290, and the 
edifice begun under the supervision and according to the plans of 
Lorenzo Mnitani of Siena. The work progressed so rapidly that 
in 1309 Bishop Guido di Farnese was able to read the first mass in 
the church. It consists of a nave and aisles , witli transept and 
rectangular choir. It is lM 1 ^ yds. long and 36 yds. wide, and like 
the cathedrals of Florence and Siena is constructed of alternate 
courses of black and white marble. This cathedral, like those in 
other towns, once constituted a great arena for the display of artistic 
skill. The guardians of the building were unwearied in providing 
for its ornamentation , and like the curators of modern museums 

to Borne. ORVIBTO. 9. Route. 63 

who are zealous in their endeavours to secure works by the best 
artists, they did all in their power to obtain the services of the first 
masters of the day for the embellishment of their church. 

The **Facadb (1310-30) , with its three gables, 44 yds. wide 
and 160 ft. high , is gorgeously enriched with sculptures and mo- 
saics, and is probably the largest and most gorgeous 'polychrome' 
monument in existence. 

The excellent "Bas-Reliefs on the lower parts of the pillars, which in 
many respects are characteristic of the transitional style preceding the 
Renaissance, represent scenes from the Old and New Testament: 1st pillar 
to the left, from the Creation down to Tubal Cain; 2nd, Abraham, ge- 
nealogy of the Virgin ; 3rd, History of Christ and Mary ; 4th, Last Judgment 
with Paradise and Hell; above are the bronze emblems of the Evangelists, 
by Lor. Maitani. Above the principal portal, a Madonna under a canopy, 
in marble, by Andrea Pisano. On the margin of the large square panel, 
in the centre of which is a rose-window, are small marble statues of 
prophets, and above, of the Apostles, executed by Sienese sculptors. 

Above the doors and in the three pointed gables are "Mosaics on 
a golden ground, of various periods (14- 19th cent..): Annunciation, Nup- 
tials of the Virgin, Baptism of Christ, Coronation of the Madonna; the 
latter, the principal picture, is the highest. 

The -Interior is at present undergoing restoration, and, except to the 
Cappella Nuova (see below) , admission is only granted by leave of the 
superintending engineer (Pal. de' Papi, to the S. of the Cathedral; p. 64). 
It is constructed , like that of the Siena cathedral, of alternate layers of 
dark and light stone (black basalt and greyish - yellow limestone from the 
vicinity). On each side four columns and two pillars separate the nave, 
which is 131 ft. in height, from the lower aisles. Above the round- 
arched arcades is a gallery adorned with rich carving. The windows are 
pointed, and the upper parts filled with stained glass. The visible frame- 
work of the roof was formerly richly ornamented. 

At the sides of the principal entrance, to the right, St. Sebastian by 
Scalza, to the left, St. Rocco. In the Left Aisle, Madonna and St. Ca- 
tharine, a fresco by Gentile da Fabriano. Before this stands a marble "Font, 
the lower part by Luca di Giovanni (1390), the upper by Sano di Matteo 
(1407). — In the Nave, to the right, a fine marble holy water basin in 
the Renaissance style ; in front of the columns, statues of the Apostles, by 
Mosca, Scalza, Toti, Giov. da Bologna, and other masters. — In the Choib, 
frescoes from the life of the Virgin by Ugolino d'llario and Pielro di 
Puccio. By the high-altar the Annunziata and Archangel, by Mocchi, one 
on each side. The beautifully inlaid stalls in the choir are by artists 
of Siena, of the 14-15th cent.; on each side is an altar with reliefs in 
marble: on the left, Visitation of Mary, executed by Moschino when 15 years 
of age, from designs by Sammicheli; to the right. Adoration of the Magi, 
by Mosca. 

Right Transept. The "'Cappella Noova, containing a miraculous image 
of the Virgin (Madonna di J3. Brizio), may be entered from the back at 
any time by passing round the cathedral to the left. This chapel occupies 
an important page in the annals of Italian art. Don Francesco di Barone, 
the superintendent of the cathedral-mosaics, having heard that the 'famous 
painter and monk 1 Fra Angelico da Fiesole was not engaged during the summer 
in Rome (p. 299), invited him to Orvieto, and secured his services for the 
decoration of the chapel. In 1447 Fra Angelico accordingly worked here, 
but for three months only, during which time he executed two panels of 
the vaulting above the altar, representing Christ in the glory as Judge, and 
saints and prophets to the right. Nothing more was done till 1499, when 
the work \\ as continued and completed by Luca Signorelli. These ""Mural 
Paintings are the chief attraction here. The first fresco to the left of 
the entrance shows the overthrow of Antichrist, who is represented in 
the foreground, preaching ; the two devout figures, in the corner to the 

64 Route 9. ORVIETO. From Florence 

left, are said to be portraits of Signorelli and Fra Angelico. The wall on 
the side by which we enter has been skilfully covered with represen- 
tations of (left) the Last Judgment, and (right) the Fall of the Condemned. 

Next in order are the Resurrection of the Dead and the Punishment 

of the Condemned; then, on the wall of the altar, (right) Descent into 
Hell, and (left) Ascent into Heaven, and lastly, adjoining the first picture, 
Paradise. — Below these pictures runs a series of scenes from Dante's Divine 
Comedy, and mythological subjects. On the ceiling: Apostles, 'signa judi- 
cium indicantia', patriarchs and doctors, virgins and martyrs. — These 
paintings are the most important work produced during the 15th century. In 
the mastery of form, in the boldness of motion and of foreshortening, and 
in the acquaintance with the nude, Signorelli is by no means unworthy 
of comparison with Michael Angelo, who, according to Vasari, borrowed 
several motives from these works for his Last Judgment in the Sixtine 
Chapel. — Signorelli also completed the decoration of the vaulting, and 
painted the 'Entombment in the niche behind the Pieta of Scalza (1572). 

Opposite, in the Left Transept, is the Cappf.lla del Corpoeale, where, 
behind the principal altar , is a canopy of marble mosaic, containing a 
silver reliquary , in which is preserved the blood-stained chalice-cloth 
(corporale) connected with the Miracle of Bolsena (p. 66). The reliquary, 
executed by Ugolino di Vieri of Siena in 1338, and resembling in form the 
facade of the cathedral, is about 4>/2 ft. broad, 2 ft. high, and 440 lbs. in 
weight. The Passion and the 'Miracle' are represented on it in brilliant 
enamel; it is exhibited to the public on Corpus Christi and on Easter 
Day , but at other times it is shown only by permission of the Sindaco. 
Modernised frescoes of the 'Miracle of Bolsena' by Ugolino. Over the altar 
on the left, a Madonna by Lippo Mernmi. 

Opposite the cathedral are Conte Faina's private collection of 
Etruscan antiquities, and, to the right, the *Opbra del Duomo 
(PI. 2), containing the Museo Municipale. Tickets are obtained 
at Armoni's photograph- shop (p. 61), at the corner of the Piazza 
S. Maria and the Via del Duomo. 

Ground Floor. Room I. Weapons, bronzes, pottery, etc., from the 
Etruscan Necropolis (p. 65). Plan of the excavations. (The formation of 
an Etruscan Museum in the Palazzo del Capitano, in the Piazza del Popolo, 
is contemplated.) — Room II. Architectural ornaments in terracotta, from 
a Roman temple, the remains of which were discovered in a new street 
near the Giardino Pubblico. Reconstruction of an Etruscan tomb. 

The First Floor contains mediaeval works of art belonging to the 
Opera del Duomo. Designs on parchment for the facade of the cathedral, 
and for a pulpit, which was never completed; a beautifully carved and 
inlaid reading-desk; a precious "Reliquary by Ugolino di Vieri and Viva 
da- Siena; vestments; two statues representing the Annunciation, by Fried- 
rich of Freiburg (Ibth cent.) -^ two specimen frescoes by Signorelli, represent- 
ing himself and a certain Niccolo Franceschi; a "Madonna, a statue by 
Giov. Pisano, partly coloured, etc. 

Adjoining the cathedral on the right, hehind, are the Palazzo 
Vescovile (12-13th cent.), and more in front the Palazzo dei Papi, 
or Palazzo Soliano, founded by Pope Boniface VIII. in 1294, with 
a large meeting-hall. — In the street behind the latter is the Pa- 
lazzo Marsciano ('degli Uffizi governativi'), by Ant. da Sangallo. 

The Via del Duomo leads to the N.W. from the cathedral to 
(8 min.) the Pinzz i delMercato, with the Pal. del Popolo or del Ca- 
pitano, the rear of which is interesting (12-1 3th cent.). — S. Olo- 
venale(V], 5), at the N.W. angle of the town, is an 11th cent, church, 
with early-Gothic choir, altar of 1170, and fragments of old frescoes 
(1312, 1399). 


to Rome. ORVIETO. 9. Route. 65 

The Corso leads to the Piazza Maggiore, now VittorioEmanuele 
'ith the Palazzo del Comune (PI. 4), dating from the 12th cent., the 
still unfinished facade of which was renewed by Scalza in 1585 — 
Adjacent is the church of S. Andrea (PI. 3), with a twelve-sided 
tower of the 11th cent, and a restored favade. In the interior are 
paintings of the 14th and 15th cent., and a late-Gothic pulpit the 
ornamentation on the back of which dates from the 9th century 

In the S. transept of S. Domenico (PI. 6J is the monument of 
Cardinal de Braye, by Arnolfo di Cambio (1282); the crypt was 
built by Sammichell. 

The Fortress, constructed by Cardinal Albornoz in 1364 and sit- 
uated at the N.E. entrance of the town (p. 62), has been converted 
into a garden with an amphitheatre for public performances. Fine 
view of the valley of the Tiber and the Umbrian mountains — The 
custodian of the garden keeps the key of the famous adjacent 
well, 11 Pozzo di 8. Patrizio, which was begun by Sangallo in 1527 
and completed by Mosca in 1540. It is partly hewn in the tufa rock' 
partly built of masonry, and is 203 ft. deep, and 43 ft. wide. Two 
separate spiral staircases wind round the shaft; the traveller may 
descend by one, and ascend by the other (fee >/.,-l fr.). 

On the N.W. slope of the hill on which the" town stands, below 
the ancient town-wall, an extensive *Etruscan Necropolis has re- 
cently been discovered (most conveniently visited on the way back 
to the station, about halfway, a digression of less than 200 paces- 
comp. Plan, p. 63). The tombs, which are arranged in groups and 
rows, date chiefly from the 5th cent. B. C, and some of them were 
found intact. Their facades, as elsewhere, are constructed of three 
large stones, two of which, placed nearly upright, are roofed by the 
third. Adjoining the entrance is inscribed the name of the deceas- 
ed in the ancient Etruscan character. The inner chamber is square 
in form, and covered with the primitive kind of vaulting in which 
the stones are laid horizontally, each overlapping the one below it 
Ihe tombs contained many painted vases, of Greek, and particu- 
larly of Corinthian and Attic workmanship, and articles of native 
manufacture, the most important being black terracotta vases with 
patterns impressed on them (now in the Opera del Duomo, p 64) 
— Since 1863 a number of similar tombs have been discovered 
I / 2 M to the S.W. of Orvieto, near a suppressed Capuchin mon- 
astery (comp. Plan). Two of these contain paintings. The route 
to them is rough. The custodian must be enquired for in the 
town — About H/ 2 M. beyond the Porta Romana is La Badia, the 
ruined abbey-church of San Severo, dating from the 11th century. 
On the lake of Bolsena, 12 M. to the W. of Orvieto, is the little 
town of Bolsena (Hotel in the Piazza), with 3000 inhab., situated 
below the site of the Roman Volsinii, the birthplace of Sejanus, the 
favourite of Tiberius. It was one of the twelve capitals of the Etruscan 
League, and after various vicissitudes was at length conquered and 
Baedeker. Italy II. 10th Edition. 

66 Route 9. LAKE OF BOLSENA. From Florence 

destroyed by the Romans. The spoil is said to have included 2000 
statues. Its wealth has been proved by the discovery, in the vicinity, 
of numerous vases, trinkets, and statues. The present town contains 
inscriptions , columns , and sculptures of the Roman municipium 
which replaced the Etruscan city. The ancient site is reached in 
a few minutes by an antique causeway of basalt. Among the ruins 
is an amphitheatre, worthy of special attention, now converted into 
a vegetable-garden. Beautiful views of the lake. 

The church of S. Cristina was founded in the 11th cent., and 
embellished with its fine Renaissance facade by Cardinal Giov. 
Medici, afterwards Pope Leo X., in 1503. Above the doors are two 
terracotta reliefs by Andrea della Robbia. 

Interior. To the right of the choir is a bust of S. Lucia, of the 
school of the Robbia, beneath a wooden crucifix of the 14th century. A 
portal in the left aisle dates from the 11th cent.; the reliet represents 
the Five Wise Virgins and the Adoration of the Magi. Beneath the 
church, in the space before the entrance to the Catacombs, stands a terra- 
cotta altar, of the school of the Robbia; to the right, above the stone 
with which St. Christina was drowned, is the Altar del Miracolo (see he- 
low), beneath a canopy of the 8th century. Adjacent is the Tomb of the 
Saint, below a modern canopy. The church also contains a small Museum, 
with inscriptions and glass vessels from the catacombs , Lombard anti- 
quities, and a terracotta 'Statue of St. Christina, dating fiom the be- 
ginning of the 16th century. 

The '■Miracle of Bolsena', the subject of a celebrated picture by Raphael 
in the Vatican, occurred in 1263. A Bohemian priest, who was somewhat 
sceptical as to the doctrine of transubstantiation, was convinced of its 
truth by the miraculous appearance of drops of blood on the host which he 
had just consecrated. In commemoration of this, Pope Urban IV. in- 
stituted the festival of Corpus Domini in 1264 and ordered the erection 
of the superb cathedral of Orvieto (p. 62). 

The Museum Comunale, in the Piazza, contains a Roman sarco- 
phagus, with the triumph of Bacchus. 

The Lake of Bolsena, the ancient Lacus Vulsiniensis, 995 ft. above the 
sea-level, a circular sheet of water, 28 M. in circumference, is the vast 
crater of an extinct volcano, which formed the central point of a wide 
sphere of volcanic agency, extending as far as Orvieto. The lake 
abounds in fish (its eels are mentioned by Dante, Purg. xxiv, 24); but the 
banks, especially on the W. side, are bleak and deserted, owing to the 
malaria confined in the basin of the lake, which is not easily dispelled 
by the wind. The monotony of the surface is relieved by the two pic- 
turesque islands of Bisenlina and the rocky Mariana. On the latter 
Amalasuntha, Queen of the Goths, the only daughter of Theodoric the 
Great, was imprisoned in 534, and afterwards strangled whilst bathing, 
by order of her cousin Theodatus, whom she had elevated to the rank 
of co-regent. The church in the island of Bisentina was erected by the 
Farnese family and embellished by the Carracci. It contains the relies 
of St. Christina, a native of Bolsena. 

From Bolsena the road ascends towards the S. on the bank of the 
lake, through woods, to (7 N.) Montefiascone (p. 69). 

The Railway fkom Orvieto to Oetb and Rome now traverses 
the wooded valley of the Tiber, the broad, stony bed of which bears 
traces of numerous inundations. To the left lies Baschi. 12f)i/ 2 M. 
Castiglione Teverino ; the river is crossed. 135 M. Attigliano (junction 
for Viterho, p. 69) ; 138 1 /.) M. Iliiwmo Teverino, on a hill to the right. 

to Rome. ORTE. 9. Route. 67 

The small Lake of Bassano, formerly Lacus Vadimonis, now much di- 
minished in extent, is famous in ancient history as the scene of the great 
victories of the Romans over the Etruscans, B.C. 309 and 283. Pliny the 
Younger (Ep. viii. 20) has described the lake with its 'floating islands'. 
— About 3 M. farther to the W. is Bomarzo , picturesquely situated on a 
precipitous rock, near the ancient Polimartium , where extensive exca- 
vations have been made. 

The train passes through several tunnels , and afterwards skirts 
the right bank of the Tiber, till it approaches Orte, which becomes 
visible on the height to the left. It then traverses a longer tunnel 
and reaches the Station of Orte, where the railway from Foligno 
(Perugia and Ancona; R. 11) unites with the main line. 

144 M. Orte (*Rail. Restaurant), loftily situated about 2 M. to 
the N., the ancient Horta, presents no object of interest beyond its 
situation. — The train descends the valley of the Tiber on the right 
bank, affording pleasant glimpses of both banks. The lofty and indent- 
ed ridge of Mount Soracte (p. 68) becomes visible, at first to the left, 
then to the right. To the left, on the other side of the river, lie S. 
Vito and Otricoli, the latter a small place 6 M. distant from Orte, 
near the site of the ancient Otriculum , where numerous antiqui- 
ties, including the celebrated Bust of Jupiter in the Vatican (p. 306), 
have been excavated. — 149*/2 M. Oallese. Farther on, high above 
the left bank, is the small town of Magliano. 

152 M. Borghetto , with a ruined castle on the height to the 
right. The Tiber is crossed by the handsome Ponte Felice, construct- 
ed by Augustus, and restored in 1589 by SixtusV., over which most 
of the traffic between Rome and the N.E. provinces formerly passed. 

About 5 M. to the S.W. of Borghetto (carriages at the station) lies 
Civita Castellana (Alb. Natalucci, good table), picturesquely situ- 
ated 500 ft. above the sea, near the site of Falerii, the town of the 
Falisci, which was captured by Oamillus in B.C. 396. A lofty bridge, 
erected in 1712, and recently restored after having been damaged 
by an earthquake, carries the road into the town across a ravine, 
120 ft. in depth. The Cathedral of 8. Maria, rebuilt in the 16th 
cent., Tetains a handsome portico erected in 1210 by Jacobus Ro- 
manus and his son Cosmus; the bust in mosaic of Christ over the 
door to the right is by Jacobus. The choir-screens also date from 
the 13th century. A flight of steps leads from the high-altar to a 
chapel on the left with two tablets of rich Cosmato work. Some of 
the columns in the crypt are ancient. — The Citadel, erected by 
Alexander VI. in 1500 from a design by Sangallo, was enlarged 
by Julius II. and Leo X. The deep ravines by which the town is 
enclosed testify to vast volcanic convulsions. They contain a few 
fragments of ancient walls and numerous Etruscan tombs hewn in 
the rock, especially near the citadel. 

Interesting excursion to the ruins of Falerii (pronounced Falleri), 3 M. 
distant. Near the citadel the Ponte del Terreno is crossed to the left, where tombs 
honeycomb the rocks on all sides , this being the more direct route to Fa- 
lerium Novum or Colonia Junonia, founded by the Romans about 240, situated 
in the plain, 3 M. to the N. of Civita Castellana. Etruscan and Roman tombs 

68 Route 9. SOKAOTE. 

are here seen side by side. The town was nearly in the form of a triangle, 
IV2 M. in circumference ; the well-preserved walls are protected by strong 
square towers and penetrated by gates , one of which on the W. (Porta di 
Qiove) is still in good condition. Another gate towards the S. E., the Porta del 
Bove, is also worthy of a visit ; near it are the theatre (of Roman construction), 
the piscina, and what is regarded as the forum, at the back of the theatre. 
— At the Porta di Giove , within the walls, is the '" Abbadia di S. Maria, 
of the 12th century. In the nave, antique columns ; in 1829 the roof fell 
in, but the damage has been repaired. The adjoining building contains 
inscriptions, statues , etc. , the result of excavations made here. An am- 
phitheatre has also been recently discovered. 

Civita Castellana is the best starting-point for the Soracte; there and 
back about 7 hrs. A good road (one-horse carriage 6-8 fr. ; about 2 hrs.) 
leads to S. Oresle, formerly called S. Rest(i)o and in the 10th cent. S. Edistio, 
a village about 1/2 hr. from the summit. 

*Soracte , mentioned by Horace (Carm. i. 9: Tides ul alia stet nive 
candidum Soracte) and Virgil (jEn. xi, 785: Summe deum sancti custos So- 
ractis Apollo), is a limestone-ridge, descending precipitously on both sides, 
extending 3-4 M. from N.W. to S. B., and culminating in several peaks 
of different heights. On the central and highest summit (2260 ft.) stands 
the church of S. Silvestro. On the slope which gradually descends towards 
the S. E. is situated the village of S. Oreste. Leaving the miserable 
village to the right, the path ascends gradually to the left, and in 1/2 hr. 
reaches the monastery of S. Silvestro (2120 ft.), founded in 746 by Carlo- 
man, son of Charles Martel and brother of Pepin. The summit, with the 
church and a small disused monastery, may now be reached in a few 
minutes. In ancient times a celebrated Temple of Apollo occupied this 
site. The view, uninterrupted in every direction, embraces several snow- 
clad peaks of the Central Apennines, the Volscian and Alban Mts., the sea 
(to the W.), and the Ciminian Forest (to the N\). — We may descend from 
S. Oreste to Siimigliano (see below) in about 2^2 hrs. (mule 5 fr.) 

The Borghetto and Civita Castellana road next leads to (7'/2 M.) Nepi 
(p. 74). Halfway a track diverges on the right to Caprarola (p. 73). 

Beyond Borghetto, to the right, Civita Castellana (p. 67) be- 
comes visible for a short time. The train crosses to the left bank of 
the Tiber. 160'/ 2 M. Siimigliano, and 165 M. Poggio Mirteto, both sit- 
uated in the mountainous district of the Sabina, where olive-trees 
abound. 172 M. Passo di Correse. The name is a corruption of Cures, 
the ancient Sabine town, where Numa Pompilius was born, the ruins 
of which are in the vicinity. 

The line follows the left bank of the Tiber to (180 M.J Monte 
Rotondo. The village, to the left, 2 M. higher (fine view of the 
Sabine Mts.), has an old castle of the Orsini, now belonging to the 
Piombino family. It was stormed by Garibaldi on 26th Oct., 1867. 
About 1 M. to the S.E. is Mentana (p. 343), where he was defeated 
on 3rd Nov. by the Papal and French troops, and forced to retreat. 
From Monte Rotondo to Rome, a journey of 3/ 4 nr ^he line 
follows the direction of the ancient ViaSalara. At(186 1/ 2M.) Castel 
Oiubileo (p. 341) we catch our first glimpse of the dome of St. 
Peter's at Rome, which vanishes again as we approach the Anio 
(p. 341). To the left are the Sabine and Alban mountains; then 
Rome again, with the dome of St. Peter, becomes visible to the right. 
A wide circuit round the city is described, and near the Porta Maggiore 
(p. 180) the so-called temple of Minerva Medina (p. 180) is passed. 
195 M. Rome, see p. 111. 


10. From Attigliano to Viterbo. 
The Etruscan Towns in the neighbourhood of Viterbo. 

Fkom Attigliano to Vitekbo, 25 M., railway in I'/i-l'/a hr. (fares 4fr. 
55, 3 fr. 20, 2 fr. 5 c). 

Attigliano , see p. 66. — The train crosses the Tiber, passes 
(31/2 M.) Sipiniano and (1072 M.) Grotte S. Stefano, and reaches — 

I6Y2 M. Montefiascone. The station, at which omnibuses and 
carriages meet the trains, lies on the Viterbo road, nearly 3M. from 
the high-lying town. Shortly before we reach the latter, we pass 
*S. Flaviano, a church of 1030, restored by Urban IV. in 1262, 
in the Gothic and circular styles combined. The subterranean chapel 
contains the tomb of the Canon Johannes Fug get of Augsburg, -with 
the inscription — 

Est, Est, Est. Propter nirnium est, 
Johannes de Fuc, D. meus, mortuus est. 

It is recorded of this ecclesiastic, that, when travelling, he directed his 
valet to precede him and to inscribe the word 'Est' on the doors of the 
hostelries where the best wine was to be had. On the door of the inn at 
Montefiascone ('bottle mountain') the 'Est' was written three times , and 
the good canon relished the wine here so highly that he never got any 
farther. The best muscatel of the district is still known as Est Est (1 fr. 
per 'naschetto'). 

The little town (2010 ft. ; Albergo Garibaldi, new) , with 7500 
inhab., commands a magnificent view: N. the lake of Bolsena as far 
as the chain of M. Amiata, E. the TJmbrian Apennines, S. as far 
as the Ciminian Forest, W. as far as the sea. The extensive 
plain of ancient Etruria with its numerous villages may be sur- 
veyed from this point ; and it has therefore been reasonably con- 
jectured that the celebrated Fanum Voltumnae, the most sacred 
shrine of the Etruscans, once stood here. The uncompleted Cathe- 
dral ofS. Margareta, with an octagonal dome, was one of the earliest 
works of Sammicheli. 

To (I 1 /? M.) Bolsena, see pp. 66, 65. The direct road to Orvieto does 
not touch Bolsena, but remains on the height to the E. A branch to the 
right leads to (3 M.) Bagnorea (the ancient Balneum Regis), picturesquely 
situated on a hill surrounded by ravines, and interesting to geologists. 

The railway to Viterbo runs to the S. through a bleak and un- 
attractive plain. Midway between Montefiascone and Viterbo, 3 / 4 M. 
to the E. of the high-road, near the Casale del Fontanile, are 
the ruins of Ferento, the Etruscan Ferentinum, birthplace of the 
Emperor Otho. In the 11th cent, it was destroyed by the inhabi- 
tants of Viterbo on account of its heretical tendencies, for the Feren- 
tines represented the Saviour on the cross with open eyes , instead 
of closed, as was thought more orthodox. Such at least is the account 
of the chroniclers. Among the extensive mediaeval , Roman , and 
Etruscan remains, a Theatre of peculiar and primitive construction, 
with later additions , deserves notice. To the "W. of the high-road 
lies part of the ancient Via Cassia. 

25 M. Viterbo. — Station to the N. of the town, outside the Porta 

Hotels. Albergo Gkandoki, at the Porta Fiorentina, E. from l'/j fr , 

70 Route 10. V1TERBO. From Attiylkmo 

also restaurant and cafe; Anuklo (tolerable, R. IV2 fr.). Tre Re, both in 
the Piazza; adjacent, & Trattoria Schenardi ; Albergo Piccolo 
Parigi, near the station. — Scheuardi's is the best cat . 

Post Office, Piazza del Plebiscito. — Photographs at Leonardo Primfs, 
S. Giovanni in Zoccoli 7, and Polozzfs, Vicolo della Ficunaccia. 

Viterbo, an episcopal residence with 16,000 inhab. (commune 
19,000), surrounded by ancient Lombard walls and towers, is sit- 
uated in a plain on the N. side of the Ciminian Forest, 1210 ft. 
above the sea-level. It was the central point of the extensive grant 
called the 'patrimony of St. Peter', made by the Countess Matilda 
of Tuscia (d. 1115) to the papal see, and is frequently mentioned in 
history as a residence of the popes , and as the scene of the papal 
elections in the 13th century. Viterbo, called by old Italian authors 
the 'city of handsome fountains and beautiful women', still presents 
an abundance of fine architectural details and picturesque points. 

The centre of the town is occupied by the Piazza del Plebiscito, 
in which rises the *Palazzo Pubblico, with a beautiful portico of 
the 15th century. The court contains an elegant fountain and six 
large Etruscan sarcophagus-lids with figures and inscriptions. To 
the right is the entrance to the Museo Municipale. 

This contains Etruscan and Roman antiquities; also the 'Decree of 
Desiderius, king of the Lombards', and the Tabula Cibellaria, forgeries of 
the notorious Annius of Viterbo, a Dominican monk who died at Rome in 
1502; mediaeval sculptures, including a "Sphinx from S. Maria in Grado 
(1235); portrait-bust in terracotta (1510); an Aquamanile of the 12th cent. ; 
and a few paintings (*Pieta from the church of S. Francesco, painted by 
Seb. del Piombo under the influence of Michael Angelo ; an ancient but 
ruined replica of the Scourging of Christ, by the same; and a Madonna, 
by Lorenzo da Viterbo). 

Opposite the Palazzo Pubblico , to the left , is the small church 
of 8. Angelo, on the facade of which is a Roman sarcophagus, with the 
Hunt of Meleager; above is a 16th cent, inscription in honour of the 
beautiful Galiana (1138), on whose account , like Helen of old, a 
war was once kindled between Rome and Viterbo , in which the 
latter was victorious. 

Opposite, at the corner of the Via dell' Indepeudenza, are a lion 
and a palm-tree, corresponding to a similar group at the other cor- 
ner of the Piazza, whence the ViaS. Lorenzo leads to the cathedral. 
Before reaching the latter we cross a square, with a mediaeval foun- 
tain, and a large bridge. 

In the piazza in front of the cathedral is the spot where in July, 
1155, Pope Hadrian IV. (Nicholas Breakspeare, an Englishman) 
compelled the Emp. Frederick I., as his vassal, to hold his stirrup. 
Among the mediajval buildings to the left is the dilapidated Episcopal 
Palace of the 13th cent., in which, by order of Charles of Anjou 
the Conclave elected Gregory X. pope in 1271, John XXI. in 1276 
and Martin IV. in 1281. ' 

The Cathedral of S. Louenzo , a handsome basilica of the 
12th cent., was restored in the 16th century. 

Interior. The fantastic capitals of the columns should be noticed. 
At the end of the right aisle is the new tomb of Pope John XXI.- the 

to Viterbo. VITERBO. 10. Route. 71 

ancient tomb of 1277 is opposite, in the left aisle, behind the door. In the 
sacristy is a fresco, Christ with four saints, ascribed to Lorenzo da Viterbo 
(1472). — At the high-altar of this church, in 1279, Count Guido de Mont- 
fort, the partisan of Charles of Anjou, assassinated Henry, son of Count 
Richard of Cornwall, King of the Germans and brother of Henry III., in 
order thereby to avenge the death of his father, who had fallen at the 
battle of Evesham in 1265 when fighting against Henry III. Dante men- 
tions this deed and places the assassin in the seventh region of hell (Inf. 
xn, 120). Other versions of the story mention the church of S. Silvestro 
(now del Gesu) as the scene of the crime. 

Passing through the archway to the right of the Palazzo Pub- 
biico (j>. 70), we reach in a few yards the elegant portal of the 
church of the Madonna della Salute (i.'Jth cent.). — Some of the 
oldest houses in the town are to be found in the Vicolo del Pelle- 
grino, hetween the Piazza del Plebiscite and the gate leading to 

In the market-place rises the Fontana Grande, begun in 1206. 
The Via Vittorio Emanuele and the Via Margherita lead hence to 
the Porta Fiorentina, in the direction of the railway-station. At 
the end of the former we ascend to the right to the church of S. 
Rosa, which contains the blackened mummy of that saint , who was 
born here in the J 3th century. She urged the people to rise against 
the Bmp. Frederick II., and was expelled by the Ghibellines. Her 
festival is Sept. 3rd. — The Vicolo della Ficunaccia and the fol- 
lowing street lead to the little Romanesque church of £. Giovanni 
in Zoceoli (lith cent.) and thence through the Porta S. Matteo 
to — 

iS. Maria della Verila, in which the chapel to the right is adorned 
with * Frescoes by Lorenzo da Viterbo (1469), representing the 
Marriage of the Virgin, the Annunciation, the Nativity, the Ascen- 
sion, saints, and prophets, with numerous portraits. The tiled floor 
in front of the altar dates from the 15th century. Fine monastery- 
court. The foundations of a palace built by Frederick II. have been 
excavated between S. Maria della Verita and the station. 

Near the Porta Fiorentina, in the Piazza della Rocca, stands a 
fountain of 1566, ascribed to Vignola, adjacent to which is the 
Gothic church of S. Francesco. In the right transept of the latter 
are the tombs of Pope Clement IV. (d. 1268), to the right, and 
Hadrian V. (d. 1276), to the left; to the left of the high-altar is a 
cardinal's tomb of 15iS6, and in the left transept another of 1445. 

Outside the Porta Fiorentina lies the Giardino Pubblico, with 
its gay flower-beds , and busts of Victor Emmanuel, Cavour, and 

Excursions. About I1/4 31. to the N.E. of Viterbo, towards Orte (one- 
horse cab 1 lifv.), is the handsome pilgrimage-church of S. Maria della 
Quercia, the facade of which is said to have been designed by Bramanle. One 
of the two courts of the adjoining Dominican monastery has a Renaissance 
loggia supported on Gothic foundations ; both courts have interesting 
fountains. — About l'/t 31. farther on is the small town of Bagnaia, witli 
the charming "Villa Lante, built in the 15-lGth cent., the summer-residence 
of the ducal family of that name (visitors admitted; carr. to the Querela 
and Bagnaia and back, with stay at both places, 2 fr.). 

72 Route 10. CASTEL D'ASSO. Excursions 

About 2 M. to the "W. of Viterbo ia Bulicame, a warm sulphurous 
spring:, mentioned hy Dante (Inf. xiv, 79) and still used fop baths. The 
attractive road thither ( 3 /t hr. ; turn to the right behind the Palazzo Pub- 
blico) commands a fine view of Viterbo. 

Several expeditions interesting both to antiquarians and to lovers 
of the picturesque may he made from Viterbo to the surrounding 
ruins of ancient Etkuscan Cities. The volcanic nature of the dis- 
trict, indicated by the profound ravines and Assures of the surface, 
and the dreary desolation which prevails, combined with the proxi- 
mity of graves of 2000 years' antiquity, impart an impressive sadness 
to the scene. — The inns are generally very unpretending. 

A Vettura-Corriera, which takes passengers, leaves Viterbo daily 
for Toscanella, 12 1 / 2 M. to the "W., on the road to Corneto (p. 4), 
and a diligence also plies thither thrice a week in 3 his. 

Toscanella (625 ft. ; Mancinelli), the ancient Toscania, is a small 
and mediaeval-looking town of 4000 inhah., with walls and towers. 
Outside the Viterbo gate is a picturesque ravine, with several 
Etruscan tombs. Amidst the ruins of the ancient Arx, on the height 
to the right, is the Romanesque church of *S. Pietro, dating from 
the 9th cent,, and restored in 1039, though part of the florid facade 
is later. In the interior are a tabernacle of 1093, choir-screens 
from the original church, and (to the right of the choir) fres- 
coes of the lith century. The crypt is ancient. The custodian 
lives adjacent, in the dilapidated bishop's palace. — The somewhat 
later church of *<S. Maria, in the valley, is essentially an edifice 
of the close of the 11th cent., but the picturesque facade dates from 
the following century. The pulpit has been put together out of 
ancient and modern fragments. Custodian at the Palazzo Comu- 
nale. Both churches are now disused. — The small Garden of the 
Countess Campanari, in the lower part of the town, containing 
several sarcophagi with lifesize portraits of the deceased on the 
lids and an imitation of an Etruscan tomb, is interesting. Siynor 
Carlo Campanari, late husband of the proprietrix, and his fatber 
conducted many of those extensive excavations which have filled 
the museums of Europe with Etruscan vases, goblets, mirrors, etc. 
Castel d'Asso, popularly known as Castellaccio , 5 M. to the W. of 
Viterbo, may be visited on horseback or on foot (guide necessary; lights 
should not be forgotten by those who intend to explore the tombs). Pass- 
ing the Bulicame (see above), the road traverses a moor and leads to the valley, 
which contains a succession of Etruscan Tombs, hewn in the rock. The 
fronts of these are architecturally designed, and bear some resemblance to 
tlie rock-tombs of Egypt; numerous inscriptions. On the opposite hill are 
the picturesque ruins of a media-val castle and the scanty remains of 
an ancient village, probably the Casfetltim Axia of Cicero. 

About 9 M. to the S."W. of Viterbo, with which it is connected 
by diligence, lies Vetralla, near the Roman Forum Cassii. At the 
entrance to the little town, near the Osteria (bargaining advisable) 
is S. Francesco, a basilica of the 12th cent., witli a tomb of the 
14th. From V'tralla a visit may be paid (with guide) to the *AV- 

from Viterbo. SUTRI. 10. Route. 73 

cropolis of Norchia. We follow the road to Corneto for about 2*/4 M. , 
and then a rough track over a bleak moor for 3 M. more. The valley 
of graves here is similar to that of Castel d'Asso, but more imposing. 
Two of the tombs are Greek in style. On the other side of the 
valley a town named Orcle stood in the 9th cent., of which only the 
ruins of thu castle and church now remain. — Bieda, the ancient 
Blent, now a poor village, 4 l / 2 M. to the S. of Vetralla, possesses 
similar rock-tombs and two ancient bridges. The scenery is striking'. 

The high-road from Viterbo forks at Vetralla : the W. branch 
proceeds via Monte Romano to Corneto (diligence on fixed days ; 
see p. 4), the S.E. to (11 M.) Sutri (see below). 

The high-road from Viterbo to Rome (47 M.J is now rarely 
traversed by tourists. It gradually ascends the wooded height of 
Mons Ciminius, once considered the impregnable bulwark of central 
Etruria, until the Consul Q. Fabius , B.C. 308, successfully tra- 
versed it and signally defeated the Etruscans. The culminating 
point of the pass (2850 ft. above the sea), on which lies an old post- 
station, commands an admirable view. To the right, below, lies the 
small, round Lago di Vico, the Lacus Ciminius (1700 ft.), an ex- 
tinct crater surrounded by woods. 

About 9 M. from Viterbo a road diverges to the left from the 
road to Rome , and leads in i/ 2 hr. through wood to the little hill- 
town of Caprarola (about 6000 inhab.). The lofty * Palazzo Farnese 
here, built about 1547-49 by Vignola for Cardinal Alexander Far- 
nese, nephew of Paul III., is one of the most magnificent chateaux 
of the Renaissance. 

The chateau is the property of the ex-king Francis of Naples, whose 
steward, Dr. K. Oklsen, has carefully maintained the building and filled the 
rooms with works of art. The ground-plan is pentagonal , with a central 
rotunda; the round central court, with its arcades, is adjoined by five wings 
of equal size. The chief facade looks towards the town (N.E.). The 
saloons and other apartments are adorned with frescoes of scenes from the 
history of the Farnese family, allegories, etc., by Federigo, Giovanni, and 
Taddeo Zuccaro and Antonio Temj'esta. The fine view ranges across the 
hilly country with the ancient Ktruscan cities of Nepi, Sutri, and Falerii, 
to the Soracte ; in the distance rise the dome of St. Peter's and the Vols- 
cian hills, to the E. the Apennines, and to the S.E. the Abrnzzi. The 
beautiful gardens are embellished with fountains and statues, and with the 
charming Palazzina, also designed by Vignola. — The fruit-trees cultivated 
by Dr. Ohlsen enjoy a wide reputation. 

Farther on, on the road to Rome, about lS^ail. from Viterbo, is 
Ronciylione, a beautifully situated little town, commanded by a ruined 

About 2'/ 2 M. to the S. of Ronciglione, on the road from Ve- 
tralla (p. 72), picturesquely situated on the crest of an isolated 
volcanic hill, is Sutri, the ancient Etruscan Sutrium, frequently 
mentioned in history as the ally of Rome in the wars against tho 
Etruscans, from whom it was wrested by Camillus in B.C. 3S9 
(Claustra Etruriae). In 383 it became a Roman colony. The deep 
ravine contains numerous Etruscan toinbs, and, on the S. side. 

71 Route 10. NEPI. 

fragments of the ancient walls. Three of the Ave gates are ancient, 
two towards the S., and the Porta Furia on the N. side (said to he 
so named because once entered by M. Furius Camillas), now built 
up. Outside the Porta Romana, at the foot of an eminence near the 
Villa Savorelli, is situated an admirably preserved * Amphitheatre, 
hewn in the rock, dating from Augustus, erroneously regarded by 
some as Etruscan (axes 55 and 44 yds. respectively). The rocks 
above contain numerous tomb-chambers, one of which has been 
converted into a *Churcri, where, according to various local tra- 
ditions, the early Christians used to celebrate divine service. A 
legend attaching to the Orotta d' Orlando, near the town, describes 
it as the birthplace of the celebrated paladin of Charlemagne. 

A bridle-path leads in 2 hrs. from Sutri to the Lake of Bracciano and 
Treviynano (p. 391). 

The road from Vetralla intersects the road to Rome , 5i/ 2 M. to 
the E. of Sutri and 12'/2M. to the S.E. of Ronciglione, and reaches, 
3 M. farther to the E., the little town of — 

Nepi, the Etruscan Nepete or Nepet, afterwards Colonia Nepensis, 
now an episcopal seat and surrounded by medheval walls and towers. 
The elegant Renaissance Palazzo Municipale, in the market-place, 
contains a few Roman sculptures and inscriptions. The Cattedrale 
dates from the Tlth cent., but its crypt is older. The picturesque 
ruined Castello , to the E. of the town, occupies the site of an 
ancient castle rebuilt by Pope Alexander VI. , and restored by 
Paul III. Lucretia Borgia resided here in 1500 after the death of 
her first husband. Below the castle, near the Porta Romana , are 
some squared blocks of tufa belonging to Etruscan Walls. 

A road, beginning beside tire imposing aqueduct which crosses the 
Rio Falisco at the entrance to the town, leads to the right to (V4 M.) Castel 
S. Elia. The ancient church of "S. Elia, built about J000, containing nu- 
merous frescoes of the 11th cent., an old pulpit, and crypts, is now preserved 
as a 'rnonumento nazionale 1 (key at the sindaco's). The view from the 
t ampo Santo is strikingly beautiful. 

From Nepi a high-road runs to (71/., M.) Civita-Castellana(p. 67). 

11. From Perugia to Foligno and Orte (Rome). 

77 31. Railway in 3 3 /4-4i/ 4 hrs. (lares 14 fr. 5, 9 fr. 75, 6 fr. 90 c. ; ex- 
press 14 fr. 95, 10 fr. 55 c). — The most interesting points are Assist, 
tipoleto, and Tend. It is sometimes advisable to exchange the railway for 
the road; in this way the Tomb of the Volumnii may be visited by driv- 
ing from Perugia to Assisi, and the temple of Clitumnus between Fo- 
ligno and Spoleto (pp. 80, 81). — Fkom Perugia to Rome , 128 M., in 
5V4-73/4 hrs. 

Perugia, see p. 46. The train descends, passing through 
several tunnels. To the left we obtain a glimpse of the tomb of the 
Voliininii (p. 55). 7 At. Ponie K. Giovanni. The train crosses the 
Tiber, the ancient frontier between Etruria and Umbria, and the 
Chiaseio. 13 Al. Bastia. 

15 M. A. is L*i. The town lies 011 a hill to the left (omn. '/2fr.). 

ASSISI. 11. Route. /5 

Before ascending to Assisi the traveller should visit the magnifi- 
cent church of *S. Maria degli Angeli, about 1 / i M. to the W. of 
the station, on the site of the original oratory of St. Francis. It was 
begun in 1569 by Vignola, after whose death in 1573 it was con- 
tinued by Qaleazzo Alessi and completed by Oiulio Danti. The 
nave and choir were re-erected after the earthquake of 1832, but 
the dome had escaped injury. 

The Interior contains, below the dome, the Oratory of the saint (called 
Portiuncula) , the cradle of the Franciscan order, on the facade of which 
is the '"Miracle of Roses', a vision of St. Francis, a fresco by Fr. Over- 
beck (1829) ; built in on the other side , to the left , is part of an altar of 
the 9th century. — In the Cappella di S. Giuseppe in the left transept is 
an altar with terracotta reliefs by Andrea delta Robbia (Coronation of the 
Virgin, St. Francis receiving the stigmata, St. Jerome). — To the E. of 
the sacristy is a little garden in which the saint's thomless roses bloom. 
Adjacent are the Cappella delle Rose, containing frescoes from the life of 
the saint by Tiberio a" Assisi (1518), and the hut of St. Francis, over which 
an oratory was erected by Bonaventura and adorned with frescoes by Lo 

A beautiful path leads from S. Maria degli Angeli to Assisi in 
3 / 4 hr. The services of the guides who importune travellers at 
S. Maria degli Angeli and at Assisi are quite superfluous. 

Assisi. — Hotels. "Albergo del Subasio (PI. a; C, 3), with a fine 
view, adjoining the monastery of S. Francesco, E., L., & A. 2'/2, B. 1> 
luncheon 2'/2, D. 3'/2 fr. ; *Leone (PI. b; D, 3), near the Piazza; Minerva, 
near the Porta S. Pietro (PI. C, 3), unpretending. 

Photographs from Giotto's frescoes sold by P. Lunghi, in the Piazza 
near S. Francesco, and by 0. CarlofoHi, Via Portica 8. 

Assist (1050 ft.), a small town and episcopal see (pop. 3200), the 
ancient Umbrian Assisium, where in B.C. 46 the elegiac poet Pro- 
pertius, and in 1698 the opera-writer Pietro Metastasio (properly 
Trapassi, d. at Vienna in 1782) were born, stands in a singularly 
picturesque situation. 

It is indebted for its reputation to St. Francis, one of the most 
remarkable characters of the middle ages , who was born here in 
1182. He was the son of the merchant Pietro di Bernardone, and spent his 
youth in frivolity. At length, whilst engaged in a campaign against Perugia, 
he was taken prisoner and attacked by a dangerous illness. Sobered by 
adversity, he soon afterwards (1208) founded the monastic order of Francis- 
cans, which speedily found adherents in all the countries of Europe, and 
was sanctioned in 1210 by Innocent III., and in 1223 by Honorius III. Pov- 
erty and self-abnegation formed the essential characteristics of the order, 
which under different designations (Seraphic Brethren, Minorites, Observan- 
tes, and Capuchins, who arose in 1526) was soon widely diffused. St. Francis 
is said to have been favoured with visions, the most important of which 
was that of 1224, when Christ impressed on him the marks of his wounds 
(stigmata). From the 'apparition of the crucified seraph' the saint is also 
known as Pater Seraphicus. St. Francis died on 4th Oct., 1226, and in 1228 
was canonised by Gregory IX. He wrote several works. Dante (Paradiso 
11, 50) says of him that he rose like a sun and illumined everything with 
his rays. In the 18th cent, the Franciscan Order possessed 9000 convents 
with 150,000 monks. 

Having reached the town, we proceed to the left to the conspicu- 
ous old *Monastery op the Franciscans on the brow of the hill, 
which was finished soon after 1228 upon massive substructures. 
It was suppressed in 1866, but a few monks have been allowed to 

76 Route 11. ASSISI. From Perugia 

remain here till their death. Part of the building has been con- 
verted by government into a school for the sons of teachers. Visi- 
tors are admitted by the iron gate to the left of the entrance to the 
lower church. An official acts as guide. Besides several frescoes 
of the 16th and 17th cent, in the refectories, the *Ohoir-Stalls by 
Domenico da S. Severino, brought from the upper church, dating from 
1500, and adorned with admirable carving and inlaid figures of 
saints, are particularly worthy of attention. From the external 
passage a magnificent *View of the luxuriant valley is enjoyed. 

The two *Churches, erected one above the other, are objects 
of great interest. The Crypt, with the tomb of the saint, was 
added in 1818, when his remains were re-discovered. 

The *Loweb. Chukch, still used for divine service, is always acces- 
sible ; entrance by a side-door on the terrace (best light in the fore- 
noon). It was begun in 1228, according to Vasari, by Jacopo Tedesco ; 
but after 1232 Filippo da Campeilo appears as the architect in 
charge. Originally the church consisted of a nave of four bays 
with groined vaulting supported by wide circular arches , a W. 
transept, and a semicircular apse. About 1300 the Gothic chapels 
and the E. transept were added, while the S. portal dates from about 
the same period, though the vestibule in front of it , with its rich 
Renaissance decoration, was not erected till the 15th century. 

To the right of the entrance is a tomb of the 14th cent., with an urn 
of porphyry, beside which is the magnificent 'Tomb of the Queen of Cyprus', 
of the close of the 13th cent., the recumbent figure on which probably 
represents Jean de BHeitne , king of Jerusalem and Byzantine emperor 
Id. 1237). — The adjoining Cappella di S. Antonio Abbate contains the 
tombs of a count of Spoleto and his son (14th cent.). — Opposite the 
entrance is the Cappella del Ckocefisso , with some unimportant fres- 
coes ; by the pillar to the left, consecration as cardinal of Egidius Albornoz 
(d. 1367), founder of the chapel, who is buried here. Fine stained-glasa 
windows of the 11th century. 

The Nave was painted by predecessors of C'imabue. The hexagonal 
Cappella di S. Martino , the first on the left, is adorned with frescoes 
of scenes from the life of the saint, by Si/none Martino of Siena. — Above 
I In: pulpit: Coronation of the Virgin, by Giottmo. — To the right of the 
nave are (1) the Cappella di S. Stefano, with frescoes from the life of 
the saint, by Dono dei Doni (1560); (2) Cappella di S. Axtonio da Padova, 
the frescoes in which have been repainted; and (3) the Cappella di S. 
Maddalena, adorned with frescoes, representing scenes from the life of 
the saint and of Maria vligyptiaca, by a Pupil of Giotto , who did not 
scruple to paint copies here of his master's pictures at Padua. 

The Right Transept contains on its right wall 'Scenes from the life 
of Jesus, by Giotto, assisted by his pupils. Adjacent, "Madonna with 
angels and St. Francis, by Cimabue. — On the left wall the series of fres- 
coes from the life of Jesus is continued: Flight into Egypt, Massacre of 
the Innocents, Jesus in the Temple; St. Francis, and Death as Conqueror. 
— On the N. transverse- wall : Miracles of St. Francis and the Annun- 
ciation, by Giotto; Saints and Madonna, by Simone Murtino. — At the end 
of the S. transept is the Cappella del Sacramento, with frescoes from the 
life of St. Nicholas, by a Pupil of Giotto, and the tomb of Cardinal Gian 
Gaetano Orsini (d. 1339), who is represented in the stained-glass windows. 

The High Altar occupies the spot where the remains of St. Fran- 
cis once reposed. Above it are four triangular spaces on the groined 
vaulting, contiining the famous -Frescoes of Giotto, illustrative 
of the vows of the Franciscan order: poverty, chastity, and obed- 

to Foligno. ASSISI. 11. Route. 77 

ience; the fourth painting is an apotheosis of St. Francis. The first pic- 
ture represents the nuptials of St. Francis with Poverty in rags; Hope, 
next to whom is Love, has handed the ring to the hride. In the next 
picture Chastity appears in a tower , while in the foreground a monk is 
being baptised by angels. Purity and Bravery are bestowing on him a 
banner and shield, while on the right angels, with penances as their 
weapons, are combatting the demons of lust. Obedience, enthroned between 
Prudence and Humility, is further symbolised by the laying of a yoke on a 
monk. Each scene, moreover, is replete with allegorical allusions (chiefly 
from Dante), most of which will be readily understood by those who are 
versed in the fanciful combinations of the period. 

The Left Transepj contains Scenes from the Passion, on the right 
wall, and in front, on the left wall, a *Madonna between SS. Francis and 
John, by Pietro Lorenzelti. ■ — In the Cappella di S. Giovanni, to the 
left, is a Madonna with saints, by Lo Spagna (1516). 

In the Sacristy, over the door of the second apartment, is a portrait 
of St. Francis, dating from the close of the 13th century. 

The Crypt (p. 76) is approached by a double staircase, and is lighted 
with candles when visited by strangers. — Behind the tomb stand colossal 
statues of Popes Pius VII. and IX. 

The *Upper Church (completed in 1253), the frescoes of 
which are undergoing restoration , is entered either by the prin- 
cipal portal, or (by applying to the sacristan) from the lower church. 
The church is in the form of a Latin cross , with fine Gothic 
windows. The E. side possesses a Gothic portal. The pulpit in the 
nave dates from the 14th century. 

The W. end of the church is adorned with much-damaged frescoes 
by Cimabue (or according to some, by Giunta Pisano). In the S. Teansept, 
as we enter from the lower church , are a Crucifixion , Scenes from the 
Apocalypse, angels, and saints; in the Choir, Assumption and Death of 
the Virgin, and a bishop's throne of 1260; in the N. Transept, a Cruci- 
fixion , and History of St. Peter. In the vaulting of the choir and nave 
are Evangelists and Church Fathers. • — Nave. In the upper section of 
the S. wall are sixteen scenes from Old Testament history, from the 
Creation of the world to the Recognition of Joseph by his brethren; on 
the N. side , sixteen scenes from the New Testament, from the Annun- 
ciation to the Descent of the Holy Ghost, by Pupils of Cimabve, show- 
ing gradual improvement in execution. The lower section contains 
twenty-eight scenes from the life of St. Francis, probably by Giotto and 
his contemporaries: 1. (at the right transept) St. Francis receives honour 
while a youth; 2. He clothes the poor; 3. His vision of a palace and 
weapons ; 4. Warned by the crucifix in S. Damiano ; 5. Restores his 
apparel to his father, and is enveloped in a bishop's cloak; 6. Appears 
to Pope Innocent III., supporting the Lateran; 7. Receives licence to 
preach; 8. Appears to his brethren in a fiery chariot; 9. Vision of bis 
appointed seat in heaven; 10. Expels evil spirits from Arezzo; 11. Offers 
the ordeal of fire to the Sultan; 12. Hovers in the air while praying; 13. 
The infant Christ awakes in the saint's arms, as the latter is constructing 
a manger for the Christmas festival; 14. Miraculous production of a 
spring of water; 15. Sermon to the birds; 16. Predicts the death of a 
nobleman; 17. Preaches before Honorius III.; 18. Appears at the Council 
of Aries; 19. Receives the stigmata; 20. His death; 21. Appears to a 
dying man; 22. A doubter convinced by the stigmata; 23. Parting from 
St. Clara; 21. Canonisation; 25. Appears to Pope Gregory IX.; 26. Cures 
a wounded man in Spain ; 27. Confesses a dead woman ; 28. Frees a re- 
pentant heretic. 

Quitting the upper church and emerging on the space in front 
of it, we may descend the steps to the right and follow the street 
ascending thence to the Via Principe di Napoli, which leads us to 
the Civile Nosocomio (a hospital on the right, No. 11), the chapel 

7S Route 11. ASSISf. From Perugia 

of which is adorned with frescoes by Mezzastris (p. 80) and Matteo 
da Oualdo ( 1468") , representing the miracles of SS. Anthony and 
James the Great. Farther on, to the right of the fountain , is an 
arcade of the 13th cent., formerly the Monte Frumentario. 

In the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele rises the beautiful portico 
of a Temple op Minerva (PI. 9; D, 3), with six columns of traver- 
tine, converted into a *Church of 5. Maria della Minerva. Ancient 
inscriptions immured in the vestibule. Adjacent to the church is 
the entrance to the ancient Forum , which corresponded to the pre- 
sent Pia/.za, but lay considerably lower. In the forum a Basement 
for a statue, with a long inscription (fee !/ 2 * r -)- 

The Chiesa Nuova (PI. D, 3), a small but tasteful edifice of 
1615, reached by descending to the right, near the S.E. angle of 
the Pia/.za, occupies the site of the house in which St. Francis was born. 

The Piazza S. Rupino, in the upper town, is embellished with 
a Statue of St. Francis, by Giov. Dupre', erected in 1882. 

The Cathedral op S. Rupino (PI. E, 3), named after the first 
bishop (240), was completed in 1140, and the crypt in 122S. The 
ancient facade is adorned with three fine rose-windows. The in- 
terior was modernised in 1572. In the nave, to the right, is a Ma- 
donna with four saints by Niccolb Alunno. *Choir-stalls by Gio- 
vanni da Sanseverino (1520). 

From the cathedral an unpaved road descends to the left to the 
Gothic church of S. Chiara (PI. E, 4), near the gate, probably 
erected by Fra Filippo da Campello in 1257. The massive buttresses 
have been recently restored. Beneath the high-altar are the remains 
of S. Clara, who, inspired with enthusiasm for St. Francis, abandoned 
her parents and wealth, founded the order of Clarissines, and died 
as first abbess. A handsome crypt of different coloured marbles has 
recently been constructed about her tomb. On the arch above the 
high-altar, frescoes by Oiottino; those in the Cappella di S. Agnese 
(rislit transept) are attributed to Oiotto. 

The Giardino Pubblico ( PL F, 4), between the Porta Nuova and 
the Porta Cappuccini, was laid out in 1882; it contains some fine 
oaks and commands a good view of the town and its fertile valley. 
A little way beyond the Porta Cappuccini , at the E. end of the 
town, are the ruins of a Roman Amphitheatre (PI. F, 3). 

A magnificent *View of the town and environs is obtained from 
the Castello or Rocca Magiji.ore (PI. D, E, 2), above the town, 
reached from the piazza in about i/ 2 hr. The tower should not be 
ascended without the assistance of a guide, who is to be obtained, 
with ladders and lights, at the hotel. 

In a ravine of the lofty Monte Subasio (3fil0 ft.), at the back of Assisi, 
is situated the hermitage delle Carceri, to which St. Francis was wont to 
retire for devotional exercises. Near the little chapel are a few apart- 
ments built in the 14th cent., and the rock-bed of the saint (on foot I'/a, 
with donkey 1 hr.). 

to Foligno. SPELLO. 11. Route. 79 

From Assisi to Spello a very beautiful drive of 6 M. (one- 
horse carr. 4-5 fr.). By train it is reached in 13 minutes. To the 
right of the road as the town is approached are the ruins of an amphi- 
theatre of the imperial period, but they are not visible from the railway. 

22 M. Spello, with 5000 inhab., picturesquely situated on a 
mountain-slope, is the ancient Hispellum [Colonia Julia Hispellum). 
The gate by which the town is entered, with its three portrait-sta- 
tues, as well as the Porta Urbana, the Porta Veneris , and portions 
of the wall, are ancient. 

The *Cathedral of S. Maria Maggiore , built in the 16th cent, 
by Rooca da Vicenza (facade later), contains good paintings. 

The benitier to the right of the entrance is formed of an ancient 
cippus. To the left the Cappella del Sacramento with "Frescoes by 
Pinturicchio (1501) : on the left, the Annunciation (with the name and 
portrait of the painter); opposite to lis the Adoration; to the right, Christ 
in the Temple; on the ceiling, four Sibyls. — The Choir contains a magni- 
ficent canopy in the early-Renaissance style. On the left a Pieta, on the 
right a Madonna by Perugino , 1521. — In the Sacristi, a 'Madonna by 

8. Francesco (or Andrea~), consecrated in 1228 by Gregory IX., 
contains in the right transept an altar-piece, Madonna and saints, 
by Pinturicchio (1508), with a copy of a letter by G. Baglione to 
the painter painted upon it. 

Among other antiquities the 'House of Propertius' is shown, 
although it is certain that the poet was not born here (p. 75). 
In the Pal. Comunale and on the church-wall of S. Lorenzo are Ro- 
man inscriptions. The church of S. Girolamo, outside the town, 
contains an interesting Betrothal of the Virgin by Pinturicchio. 
The upper part of the town commands an extensive view of the 
plain, with Foligno and Assisi. Ruins occasioned by the earth- 
quake of 1832 are still observed. 

The train crosses the Topino and reaches — 

25 M. Foligno, the junction of the Ancona line (R. 14). 

Halt of 20 min.; mediocre Refreshment Room. — One-horse Carriage to the 
town (1/4 M.) 40 c. — Inns. -Posta, by the gate, E. frnrn 2, D. 4, L. & A. 
1 fr. , with restaurant and cafe ; Trattoria Falcone, both in the main 
street, the Via della Fiera. 

Foligno. near the ancient Fidginium, a town with 10,000 (incl. 
sviburbs 23,000) inhab., and an episcopal residence, lies in a fertile 
district. In 1281 it was destroyed by Perugia, from 1305 to 1439 it 
was governed by the celebrated family oftheTrinci, and in 1439 
annexed to the States of the Church. The earthquake of 1832 
occasioned serious damage. 

At the entrance to the town a marble statue was erected in 
1872 to the painter Niccolb di Liberatore, surnamed VAlunno, the 
head of the school of Foligno (p. 48). Public grounds behind it. 

The Corso Cavour leads straight to the Piazza Vittorio Ema- 

The first side-street on the right conducts us to the Pinaco- 
tbca , in the old Ospizio di Mendicitd , which contains a few Ro- 

SO Route 11. FOTJGNO. From Perugia 

man sculptures (relief with circus games) and some paintings by 
Unibrian masters: Pier Antonio Me:.:astris of Foligno, 1. Madonna 
and angels, 3. Madonna with SS. John and Dominic, 4. Cruci- 
fixion, f). Madonna with SS. Francis and John; in the middle, 
57. Dono deiDoni, St. Catharine. — Hence we follow the Via 
Umberto I. , pass through the gate on the right, and turn once 
more to the left to the church of S. Annunziata (beginning of the 
Kith cent.), which contains a Baptism of Christ, by Perugino- in 
the sacristy is an *Entombment by Montagna (or Lorenzo Lotto f). 

In the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele is the side-facade of the 
Cattedralb S. Felictano, with a Romanesque portal (1201). 
The interior was modernised in the 16th and 17th centuries. To 
the left of the choir is an octagonal chapel, by Antonio da Sangallo 
(1527); some of the columns in the crypt date from the 9th cen- 
tury. — Opposite the side-portal is the Palazzo Orfini , with a Re- 
naissance facade, unfortunately much injured. On the E. side of 
the piazza rises the Palazzo del Ooverno , the seat of the Trinci in 
1398-1439. The chapel on the upper floor (custode in the Muni- 
cipio, at the other end of the market-place] contains frescoes by 
Oltaviano iVeJJi (1424 ; history of the Virgin, Joachim, and Anna; 
in the vestibule, Romulus and Remus). 

The Via Salara, No. 64 in which, on the right, is the handsome 
Palazzo Deli (1010), leads to the Piazza S. Domenico. The old 
church of S. Maria infra Portas , in this piazza, with a portico of 
the 8th cent., contains numerous but mostly faded frescoes of the 
Umbrian school. The Gothic church of S. Domenico, opposite, is 
now a riding-school. 

The Scuola d'Arti e Mestieri, in the street of that name diverging 
from the Via Salara , contains casts of many almost inaccessible 
monuments of Umbrian art, including the 'Temple of Clitumnus'. 
— In the Piazza S. Niccolo is the. church of S. Niccolo, the second 
chapel to the right in which contains a large *Altar-piece (Nativity) 
by Niccolo Alunno (1492) ; the chapel to the right of the high-altar 
is adorned with a Coronation of the Virgin, by the same master. 

About 4 M. to the E. of Foligno, on the slope of the hills, is situated 
the Abbadia di tinssovivo, with cloisters built in 1229, resembling those of 
K. Paolo Fuori at Rome (p. 352). 

About 5 M. to the W. of Foligno is Bevagna, on the Clitumnus, the 
ancient Mevania of the Umbri , celebrated fur its admirable pastures, with 
remains of an amphitheatre and other antiquities. The little churches of 
»S'. Silveslro and S. Michele, dating from the 12th cent., have facades by 
Jlinellus (1195) and Rodulfus (1201) respectively. The former is undergoing 
restoration us a 'national monument 1 . 

From Bevaena (or from Foligno direct, 6 M.) we mav visit the lofty 
Hontefalco (Alb. delV Orso, poor; I'usla, near the gate), probably on the 
site of the Umbrian Urviaum JJortense, one of the best places for the 
study of Umbrian painting. The church of S. Lkonakdo, by the Porta 
di Spoleto, contains a Madonna and saints by Francesco Melanzio of Montefalco 
(15151. In S. Aoostino are a Madonna, St. James, and St. John of the Unibrian 
School (1522; left wall), and God the Father, Madonna, Apostles, and Saints 
by Benozzo Qozzoli (V rig lit wall). — The church of ' S. Fkanoksoo, built in 

to Orte. TREVI. 11. Route. 81 

the 14th cent., with a portal ofl5S5, contains numerous interesting paint- 
ings. On the entrance-wall, Annunciation and Nativity, by Perngino; wall 
of left aisle , Madonna and saints by Tiberio d'Assisi (1510) ; Crucifixion, 
Miracles of St. Anthony, School of Benozzo Gozzoli; Madonna, an arch- 
angel , four saints , Umbrian School (1506) ; last chapel in the left aisle, 
Crucifixion and Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene, School of Oiotto. The 
choir is adorned with 'Frescoes by Benozzo Gozzoli (1452), representing the 
legend of St. Francis, with portraits of popes, cardinals, and church-fathers ; 
below the window, portraits of Dante, Petrarch, and Gintto. The frescoes 
on the wall of the right aisle are still partly concealed by the whitewash; 
the most important are those by Benozzo Gozzoli (1452; Crucifixion, Christ 
blessing, four church-fathers, Madonna and four saints). — The Pinacoteca, 
in the principal piazza , adjoining the Municipio , contains three saints 
by Lo Spagna (?), a Madonna by Benozzo Oozzoli (.'), and numerous other 
unimportant works. — The church of S. Fortunato, 1 M. beyond the 
Porta di Spoleto , also possesses several interesting paintings. In the 
Cappella di S. Francesco (to the left in the court), Legend of St. Francis, 
by Tiberio d'Assisi (1512); in the nave, seven angels by Benozzo Gozzoli; 
in the choir, Madonna and saints, by Franc. Melanzio (1528) ; right aisle, 
^Madonna adoring the Holy Child, Angel with a musical instrument, by 
Ben. Gozzoli (1450). — A walk round the walls of the town affords magni- 
ficent "Views of the Umbrian plain. 

The Railway traverses the luxuriant, well-watered valley of 
the Clitumnus, whose herds of cattle are extolled by Virgil, to — 

30 M. Trevi {Locanda, near the Porta del Lago, poor). The 
small town, the ancient Trebia, lies picturesquely on the steep slope 
to the left. The Pinacoteca in the Municipio contains three works 
by Lo Spagna (1. Coronation of the Virgin, 61. St. Cecilia, 65. St. 
Catharine). The church of S.Emiliano, of the 12th cent., possesses 
an interesting portal (St. jEmilian between two lions) and three 
richly-ornamented * Altars by Rorco da Vicenza (1521). 

About •/« M - beyond the Porta del Lago lies the church of S. Mar- 
tino (key at the Cafe' Cecchini). In the outer chapel is a "Madonna in 
glory, surrounded with four saints , by Lo Spagna (1512) ; above the 
entrance, Madonna and two angels, by Tiberio d'Assisi; in the interior, 
St. Martin by Lo Spagna (? to the left), and Madonna, St. Francis, and St. 
Anthony, of the School of Foligno (to the right). — The church of S. 
Maria delle Lagrime, 3 /4 M. from the Porta del Cieco, on the way to 
the railway-station, was built in 1487 by Antonio da Firenze and poss- 
esses a fine portal by Giovanni di Gian Pietro da Venezia , added in 1511. 
In the 1st chapel to the left is a Resurrection, by an Umbrian Painter; 
in the transept, to the left, ''Entombment by Lo Spagna; 2nd chapel to 
the right, Adoration of the Magi, by Perugino; 1st chapel to the right, 
Annunciation, Umbrian School. 

The small village of Le Vene, on the Clitumnus, is next passed. 
Near it, to the left, we obtain a glimpse of a small ancient *Temple, 
usually regarded as that of Clitumnus mentioned by Pliny (Epist. 
8, 8), but probably not earlier than the fifth cent. , as the Christian 
emblems, the vine and the cross, on the facade testify. The temple, 
now a church of S. Salvatore , lies with its back towards the road, 
about 2y 2 M. from Trevi. Near Le Vene the abundant and clear 
Source of the Clitumnus, beautifully described by Pliny, wells forth 
from the limestone-rock, close to the road. On the height to the 
left is the village of Campello. On the way to Spoleto, to the left, 
in the village of S. Oiacomo, is a church the choir of which is 
adorned with frescoes by Lo Spagna (Coronation of the Virgin, 

Baedeker. Italy II. 10th Edition. 6 

82 Route 11. SPOLETO. From Perugia 

Legend of St. James of Compostella ; 1526). Beautiful road through 
richly cultivated land. 

40'/2 M. SpoletO. The town is 3 /t M. distant; one-horse carr. l fe fr. 

'Albergo & Ristorazione di Filippo Lucini , in the upper town, 
near the theatre, R., L., & A. 2V2, luncheon 21/2, D. 3fr. ; Posta, in the 
lower part of the town, near the railway-gate. — Trattoria delta Ferrovia, 
to the right of the gate. — "Cafi delta Nazione and Birreria, Corso Vitt. 
Emanuele. — Baths, Piazza S. Luea. 

Spoleto, the ancient Spoletium, the seat of a bishop as early as 
A.D. 50, now an archiepiscopal see, is a "busy town, beautifully situ- 
ated , and containing some interesting objects of art. The chief 
occupations of its 11,000 inhab. (commune 21,600) are the gather- 
ing of truffles in the surrounding woods and the preparation of pre- 
served meats, vegetables, and fruits. Mining is also carried on. 

In B. C. 242 a Roman colony was established in the ancient TJmbrian 
town , and in 217 it vigorously repelled the attack of Hannibal, as Livy 
relates (22 , 9). It subsequently became a Roman municipium , suffered 
severely during the civil wars of Sulla and Marius, and again at the hands 
of Totila and his Goths, after the fall of the W. Empire, though Theo- 
doric the Great favoured it. The Lombards founded a duchy here (as in 
Benevento) in 569, the first holders of which were Faroald and Ariulf. 
After the fall of the Carlovingians, Guido of Spoleto even attained the dig- 
nity of Emperor, as well as his son Lambert, who was murdered in 898. 
In 1155 the then prosperons town was destroyed by Frederick Barbarossa; 
and in the beginning of the 13th cent, it was incorporated with the States 
of the Church. The Castle of Spoleto, known as La Rocca, originally 
founded in pre-Roman times, was rebuilt in 1364 by Cardinal Albornoz, 
and completed by Pope Nicholas V. In 1499 it was inhabited by Lucretia 
Borgia. It fell into the hands of the Piedmontese on 18th Sept., 1860, after 
a gallant defence by Major O'Reilly, an Irishman. 

Entering by the town-gate and following the main street which 
traverses the lower part of the town, we reach (5 min.) a gateway 
of the Roman period, called the Porta d'Annibale, or Porta delta 
Fuga, in allusion to the above-mentioned occurrence. 

"We may continue to follow the Strada Umberto, ascending the 
hill in a wide curve, or take one of the direct but steep side-streets. 
Inclining towards the left, near the top, we come to the — 

*Cathkdral of S. Mama Assunta, raised to its present dignity 
in 1067 and restored in the 12th century. On each side of the por- 
tico, added in 1491, is a stone pulpit. Above, Christ with Mary and 
John, a large mosaic by Solsemus (1207). The richly ornamented 
portal, of the 11th cent., bears on the left the name of Gregorius 
Meliorantius . The lower part of the tower contains many ancient 

To the right of the vestibule is a Baptistery (Cappella Eroli), con- 
taining frescoes in the style of Giulio Romano; the travertine font, with 
sculptures from the life of Christ, is of the 16th century. 

The Interior of the cathedral was restored in 1644. In the chapel 
immediately to the right of the entrance are some fragments of frescoes 
by Pinturicchio and a Crucifixion (1187), from SS. Giovanni e Paolo. — The 
Choir contains "Frescoes by Fra Filippo Lip pi, completed after his death 
by Fra Diamante in 1470, Annunciation, Birth of Christ, and 'Death of 
Mary; in the semicircle her Coronation and Assumption (unfortunately 
damaged). At the entrance to the chapel on the left of the choir, to 
the left, is the Tomb of Fra Fil. Lippi (d. 1469). The monument was 

to Orte. SPOLETO. I 1 - Route. 83 

erected by Lor. de' Medici; the epitaph is by Poliziano. Opp OS it e ia the 
monument of an Orsini, by Ambrogio da Milano (1499). — The Wintek- 
Choik, in the left aisle, contains good carving of the 15th cent., and a 
Madonna by Lo Spagna. 

In the Piazza del Duoino , in front of the cathedral , probably 
stood the palace of the Lombard dukes. Adjacent is the tasteful 
Chiesa della Manna d'Oro, founded in 1527. — On leaving the ca- 
thedral we prooeed in a straight direction , slightly ascending, to 
the Palazzo Arroni (on the left) with a fine portal and Graffiti of 
mythological scenes (16th cent.) and to the Palazzo Pubblico, 
containing several inscriptions and the small Pinacoteca. 

On the entrance-wall, early mediaeval sculptures. — Room II. En- 
trance-wall, Handsome chimney-piece of the beginning of the 16th cent. ; 
centre, Archaic inscription regulating the felling of timber in a sacred 
grove. — R. III. Entrance-wall, : Madonna with saints, by Lo Spagna; 
right wall, Virtues and Putti, by Lo Spagna. — R. IV. Right wall, Ma- 
donna, by Bern. Campello(l5C&) ; Adoration of the Holy Child, by Lo Spagna (?). 

On the other side of the Palazzo Pubblico, and in some of the 
neighbouring houses, Roman foundations have been brought to light. 

The half-sunken * Triumphal Arch of Drusus and Gerrnauicus 
stands in the narrow street which leads to the S. from the Piazza 
del Mbrcato, the ancient Forum. The small staircase adjoining 
it leads to a picturesque monastery court. — Prom this point we 
may enter the lower church of S. Ansano, with its damaged frescoes 
of the 11th cent., formerly dedicated to St. Isaac, who founded the 
hermitages on the Monte Luco. — Farther on traces of Roman 
construction have been discovered in S. Agata, now a prison, and 
its little piazza. — The small church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, gener- 
ally difficult of access, has a subterranean oratory, with 11th cent, 
frescoes. — Outside the Porta S. Luca, to the right, are the church 
and convent of S. Paolo (13th cent.), now a poorhouse ; adjacent is 
8. Madonna di Loreto, founded in 1572, with a later facade. 

The broad street in front of the Porta S. Luca leads to the left 
to the church of S. Pietro, the cathedral until 1067, restored after 
its destruction in 1329. The reliefs on the facade are of different 
dates : the representations from the bestiaries (the wolf preaching ; 
the fox feigning death) at the central portal are the oldest, and 
may date from the 11th or 12th cent. ; those above (deaths of the 
righteous and of the sinner) are later. — At the top of Monte Luco 
is the small church of S. Giuliano, where St. Isaac, a Syrian monk, 
founded a monastery about 500. 

A road issuing from the Porta S. Gregorio on the other side of 
the town and skirting the river to the right, then turning to the 
left to the new Campo Santo, with its conspicuous arcades, brings 
us to the church of *<S. Agostino del Crocifisso, formerly S. Sulvatore. 
This church was erected in the 5th or 6th cent, on the site of a 
Roman temple, and was destroyed at an early date. The fine ancient 
Roman doors have been preserved, but the ivy wreaths and consoles 
with which they are adorned and also the three magnificent windows 


84 Route 11. TERNI. From Perugia 

which pierce the facade are the work of the Christian architects. In 
the interior the nave was separated by twenty Doric columns from 
the aisles, which were built up on the conversion of the church into 
a monastery. Six antique columns with a Doric entablature are still 
preserved in the choir ; and the octagonal dome rests upon eight 
gigantic columns, with curious imposts. — In the neighbourhood 
is the small 13th cent, church of S. Ponziano. 

The Conte Francesco Toms valuable Collection of Petrefactions, 
in the Palazzo Toni, Piazza S. Luca, is of great interest to geologists 
(visitors readily admitted). 

Travellers should not omit to extend their walk beyond the ca- 
thedral and the Palazzo Pubblico as follows. Continuing to ascend, 
after a few minutes we cross the Piazza Brignone in a diagonal 
direction, where a memorial slab commemorates the capture of the 
fortress in 1860. Passing the fountain, we leave the upper part of 
the Piazza by a street to the right, which passes immediately below 
the lower entrance of the fortress of La Rocca, now a prison. A 
little farther on, near a gate which here forms the entrance to the 
town, we perceive, to the left, polygonal foundations, being remains 
of the ancient castle-wall. Outside the wall is a profound ravine, 
spanned by the imposing aqueduct *Ponte delle Torri, built of brick, 
which is used as a viaduct, uniting the town with Monte Luco. It 
rests on ten arches , and is 290 ft. in height, and 231 yds. in 
length. Its construction is attributed to Theodelapius, third duke 
of Spoleto (604J. The ground-plan is apparently Roman, while the 
pointed arches indicate a restoration in the 14th century. A window 
midway affords a view. To the left on the height is perceived the 
monastery of S. Giuliano ; below is S. Pietro ( see p. 83). Beyond 
the bridge we turn to the left, generally following the direction of 
the aqueduct. After 10-15 min. a more unbroken *Prospect is ob- 
tained, embracing the fortress and town, and the spacious valley. 

The ascent of Monte Luco, l'/2 hr. , is somewhat fatiguing. Refresh- 
ments at the Franciscan convent near the top (adequate remuneration 
expected). The hermitages are now used as summer-dwellings. The 'Fra 
Guardiano' conducts visitors to the best points of view. To the N. and E. 
lies the valley of the Clitumnus with Trevi, Foligno, Spello, and Assisi; 
then Perugia and the Central Apennines near Citta di Castello and Gubbio. 
In the other directions the view is intercepted by the mountains in the 
vicinity. Towards the E. these are overtopped by the rocky peak of the 
Sibilla, snow-clad until late in the summer. — Returning to the right we 
pass the former Capuchin monastery of S. Maria delle Ovazie, an ancient 
resort of pilgrims. 

The Railway now ascends for 3 / 4 hr. to its culminating point 
on Monte Somma (2230 ft.). — Passing through a long tunnel , it 
reaches (51 M.) Oiuncano. 

58^2 M. Terni. — The town is about »/ 4 M. from the station. The hotel- 
omnibuses meet the trains ; a seat in a carriage ('un posto') to the piazza 
30-50 c, box 20 c. 

Hotels. "Eoeopa & Ingmlterra, in the piazza, with restaurant, 
It. from 2, A >/'A B - f'A, dej. 2"/2, D. inch wine 5 fr. ; Italia; Alb. Nuovo 
with trattori • — Cafi fflvezia, near the Europa. 

to Orte. TERNI. 11. Route. 85 

Carriage to the Waterfalls ( 3 /4, back V2 br.) : 1 person 5, 2 pers. 7, 
3 pers. 9 fr., etc. (bargaining advisable); or at the hotels 7, 10, and 15 fr. 
respectively, besides which a fee of I-I72 fr. is expected. — Guide (quite 
unnecessary) 3 fr. — The traveller should be abundantly provided with 
copper coins. At the different points of view contributions are levied by 
the custodians (3-4 soldi); flowers and fossils from the Velino are offered 
for sale, also for 3-4 soldi ; besides which the patience is sorely tried by 
the importunities of a host of beggars and guides. 

Terra* , situated in the fertile valley of the Nera, with 15,900 
inhab. (incl. villages) and several manufactories , is the ancient 
Interamna , where , it is believed , the historian Tacitus and the 
emperors Tacitus and Florianus were born. Remains of an amphi- 
theatre (erroneously styled a ' Temple of the Sun'") in the grounds 
of the episcopal palace, Roman inscriptions in the Palazzo Pubblico, 
palaces of theUmbrian nobility, etc., are objects of interest. Pleasant 
walk on the ramparts, whence the beautiful Nera Valley is surveyed: 
to the left Collescipoli, to the right Cesi, opposite the spectator Narni. 

The Waterfalls of Tbeni may be reached on foot in l J / 2 hr. ; 
the whole excursion, including stay, requires about 4 hrs. (by car- 
riage 3 hrs.). Pedestrians may return by railway. Carriages and 
fees, see above. 

The Railway to Rieti (see Baedeker's Southern Italy) gradually 
ascends to the S. , across the plain of the Nera, to (5 J /2 M.) Stroncone, 
the station for a village of the same name on the hill. Thence the 
line ascends rapidly in curves, threading six tunnels. As the train 
emerges from the last two, we catch fine glimpses of the upper val- 
ley of the Nera. — 10 M. Marmore (50 min. from Terni, in the re- 
verse direction 40min.; fares 1 fr. 85, 1 fr. 30, 85c), about V2M. 
from the waterfalls. The railway now ascends the valley of the Ve- 
lino. — 11 M. Piediluco (55 min. from Terni; fares 2 fr. 5, 1 fr. 45, 
95 c), on the W. bank of the lake, opposite the village of that name 
(p. 86). A boat for the transit (}/ 2 hr. ; 1 / 2 -l fr.) is not always to 
be had without delay. A road (2 M.) is being made. 

To reach the Waterfalls from the station of Marmore ('Rail. Re- 
slaurant) we turn first to the right, and 80 paces beyond the pointsman's 
hut No. 214, cross the railway. Paying no attention to the 'Custodi delle 
Cascate' here lying in wait, we keep to the left, passing some cottages. 
We then pass through the gate on the right (when closed, fee of 2-3 soldi), 
and still keep on to the left till we reach (6 min.) the upper fall (p. 86). 

Two carriage -roads lead from Terni to the waterfalls. The 
Nbw Road (41/2 M.), following the right bank of the Nera, and 
flanked with poplars, leaves the town near the Porta Spoletina, 
and crosses the plain in a straight direction. On the right rises a 
government manufactory of weapons ; on the left an armour-plate 
factory. We now approach the stream, the valley of which contracts. 
On each side tower lofty rocks, to which the luxuriant vegetation of 
the slopes forms a beautiful contrast. — The Old Road is reached 
from the piazza at Terni by passing the Albergo Europa and descend- 
ing the Strada Garibaldi. We at first follow the Rieti and Aquila 
road, which crosses the Nera just outside the gate, traversing gardens 
and olive-plantations ; after 2M. (near a small chapel on the right), a 

86 Route 11. TERNI. 

broad road to the left descends into the valley of the Nera, while the 
high-road ascends gradually to the right. The former descends in 
windings past the village of Papigno, picturesquely situated on an 
isolated rock, ( 3 / 4 M.) crosses the Nera, and on the right bank, near 
the villa of Count Castelli-Graziani, reaches the new road mentioned 
above (1-11/ 4 M. to the falls). 

The celebrated falls of the Velino (which here empties itself into 
the Nera), called the **Cascate delle Mar more, are about 650 ft. 
in height, and have few rivals in Europe in beauty of situation and 
volume of water. The rivulet is precipitated from the height in three 
leaps of about 65, 330, and 190 ft. respectively, the water falling 
perpendicularly at some places, and at others dashing furiously over 
rocks. The spray of the falls is seen from a considerable distance. 

The Velino is so strongly impregnated with lime that its deposit con- 
tinually raises its bed ; and the plain of Rieti (1400 ft.) is therefore 
frequently exposed to the danger of inundation. In ancient times Manius 
Curius Dentatus endeavoured to counteract the evil by the construction 
of a tunnel (B. C. 271), which, though altered, is to this day in use. 
The rising of the bed of the river, however, rendered new measures 
necessary from time to time. Two other channels were afterwards 
excavated, the Cava Beatina or Qregoriana in 1417, and the Cava Paolina 
by Paul III. in 1546 ; these, however, proving unserviceable, Clement VIII. 
re-opened the original 'emissarium'' of Dentatus in 1598. In 1787 a new 
cutting was required, and another has again become necessary. The 
regulation of the Velino fall has long formed the subject of vehement 
discussions between Rieti and Terni , as the unrestrained descent of the 
water in rainy seasons threatens the valley of Terni with inundation. 

Fine views of the falls are obtained from several points. Before 
reaching the falls, we may ascend a rough path to the left, leading 
in 10 min. to the finesi view of the upper and central falls. — We 
now return to the road, retrace our steps (80-90 paces) to the path 
on the left, and cross the Nera by a natural bridge, below which 
the water has hollowed its own channel. Where the path divides, 
we ascend gradually to the left. The surrounding rocks (in which 
there is a quarry) have been formed by the incrustations of the Ve- 
lino. The channel on the right (Cava Paolina) is full in winter 
only. In 12-15 min. we come to a point, where the division of the 
cascade is surveyed; the central fall, in the spray of which beautiful 
rainbows are occasionally formed, may be approached more nearly. 
A farther steep ascent of 15-20 min. leads to a small pavilion of 
stone on a projecting rock, affording a beautiful view of the principal 
fall and the valley of the Nera. We next ascend a flight of steps 
(4 min.) , and soon reach another point of view on the left, in the 
garden of the first cottage (20 c). — Following the same path for 
a few minutes more , we turn to the right and come to a small 
house; passing through its garden (10-15 c), and between several 
houses, we reach in 10 min. the road to Rieti and Aquila (see above), 
and, after crossing the railway, a good osteria (No. 153). The station 
of Marmore (p. 85) is seen to the left. 

If time permit, the excursion may be extended to the beautiful 

NARNI. 11. Route. 87 

*Lake of Piediluco, V/ 2 M - farther on. Following the road, which 
skirts the indentations of the lake, we arrive at the village of Pie- 
diluco, with its ruined castle, in l / 2 hr. (tolerable inn). On the 
opposite (S.W.) bank lies the railway-station mentioned at p. 85. 

The Railway intersects the rich valley of the Nera. To the 
right on the hill lies Cesi, 5 M. to the N.W. of Terni , to the right 
of the S. Gemine and Todi road (p. 55), with remains of ancient 
polygonal walls and interesting subterranean grottoes. To the left, 

66Y2M, Narni (Angelo, tolerable), the ancient Umbrian Narnia 
(originally Nequinuni), birthplace of the Emperor Nerva, Pope John 
XIII. (965-72), and Erasmus of Narni, surnamed Gattamelata, the 
well-known 'condottiere' of the 15th century. It is picturesquely 
situated, 3 / 4 M. from the station, on a lofty rock (11 90 ft.) on the Nar, 
now Nera , at the point where the river forces its way through a 
narrow ravine to the Tiber. The old castle is now a prison. — The 
Cathedral, erected in the 13th cent., with a vestibule of 1497, and 
dedicated to St. Juvenalis, the first bishop (369), is architecturally 
interesting. — The Town Hall contains the Coronation of Mary 
by Ohirlandajo (formerly in the monastery of the Zoccolanti , the 
strictest branch of the Franciscans), spoiled by retouching. 

From Narni via Perugia by Todi, see pp. 56, 55. 

From Narni a road leads to the N.W. to the (6 M.) venerable and 
finely situated Umbrian mountain-town of Amelia, Lat. Ameria (inn outside 
the gate) , mentioned by Cicero in his oration Pro Roseio Amerino, with 
admirably preserved "Cyclopean Walls and other antiquities (1390 ft.). 

The train turns towards the narrowing valley of the Nera, and 
passes close to the *Bridge of Augustus (on the left), which spanned 
the river immediately below Narni in three huge arches , and be- 
longed to the Via Flaminia (p. 101), leading to Bevagna (p. 80). 
The arch next to the left bank, 60 ft. in height, alone is preserved, 
while of the two others the buttresses only remain. 

The train continues to follow the valley of the Nera , with its 
beautiful plantations of evergreen oaks. Beyond (71 M.) Nera Mon- 
toro we pass through two tunnels, and then (near the influx of the 
Nera) cross the Tiber, which in 1860-70 formed the boundary be- 
tween the Kingdom of Italy and the Papal States. — Near — 

77 M. Orte (*Rail. Restaurant) we reach the main line fromOhiusi 
to Rome (see p. 67). 

12. From Bologna to Rimini, Falconara (Rome), 
and Ancona. 

127 M. Railway in 5-7i/ 2 hrs. (fares 23 fr. 10, 16 fr. 15, 10 fr. 40 c. ; 
express 25 fr. 40, 17 fr. 80 c.) — Beautiful views of the sea between Rimini 
and Cattolica, and beyond Pesaro. A seat on the left should therefore be 
secured. — From Bologna to Rome, 300 M., express in 133/4 hrs. (via. Flor- 
ence in 13 hrs.). This train diverges to the S.W. at Falconara, the last 
station before Ancona. 

88 Route 12. FAENZA. From Bologna 

The towns on the coast of the Adriatic are far inferior in attraction 
to those in the W. part of the peninsula (Tuscany and Umbria); hut 
without a visit to them the traveller's acquaintance with Italy would be 
but imperfect. The views of the Adriatic to the E., and of the Apennines 
to the AV. are often charming, and the situation of some of the towns, 
especially Ancona , is strikingly beautiful. Rimini , an ancient Roman 
colony and frontier fortress, possesses several fine monuments of antiquity, 
and its church of S. Francesco is an admirable Renaissance work. Roman 
triumphal arches are also preserved at Ancona and Fano ; and Loreto boasts 
of valuable sculptures in the Renaissance style (p. 106). Urbino, too, the 
birthplace of Raphael, lies within a short distance of this route. Many of 
the towns now have galleries of pictures collected from the suppressed 
monasteries, but of second-rate importance. The provinces of Pesaro- Ur- 
bino, Ancona, Macerala, and Ascoli are called the Marches (Le Marche). 
In Roman times the S. part as far as Ancona was called Picenum, while 
the N. part belonged to Umbria (comp. p. 92). 

From Bologna via (22 M.) Imola to (26 M.) Castel Bolognese, 
junction for the branch-line to Ravenna, see Baedeker's Northern 
Italy. The line follows the ancient Via AZrnilia , which ran from 
Placentia to Ariminum. 

We cross the river Senio, the ancient Sinnus. 

31 M. Faenza (*Alb. Firenze, Corona, near the Piazza Maggiore ; 
Tre Mori), a pleasant town with 14,500 inhab. (commune 36,100), 
on the Amone (ancient Anemo), the Faventia of the Boii, was the 
scene of Sulla's victory over Carbo. In the middle ages it witnessed 
numerous feuds, and in 1509 it was annexed by Julius II. to the 
States of the Church. The town was famous in the 15th cent, for its 
pottery, the manufacture of which has lately been revived ('faience'), 
and contains considerable silk and weaving factories. Faenza was 
the birthplace of Torricelli, the inventor of the barometer in 1643, 
to whose memory a monument has been erected in front of the 
church of S. Francesco, to the left as we enter the town. 

The main street leads direct to the Piazza Maggiore, which is 
surrounded by arcades. In this square, to the left, is the Cathedral 
of S. Costanzo, a handsome basilica of the 15th cent., named after 
Constantius, the first bishop of Faventia (313). It contains the tombs 
of Giov. Bosi (d. 1542; 1st chapel to the right) and Africano Seve- 
roli (d. 1522; 5th chap, on the right), both by Bariloto ; a Holy 
Family by Innocenzo da Imola (4th chap, on the right) ; and the 
tomb of St. Savinus, by Benedetto da Majann, 1472 (chap, on left of 
high-altar). In the Piazza Maggiore are also the Palazzo Municipale 
and the Torre dell' Orologio; the fountain in the centre, embellished 
with bronzes, dates from 1621. 

The street at the end of the piazza, adjoining the post-office, 
leads to the right to the gymnasium, on the first floor of which is 
the municipal Pinacoteca. 

At the end of the Vestibule : Colossal group of Mary with the two 
SS. John, by Alfonso Lombardi. — Room I. To the right: Pace da Faenza, 
Madonna with saints (14th cent.); "Lionardo Scaletti, Madonna with angels 
and saints (1484); Crucifixion, St. Dominic and St. Peter; Oiambattista 
Berlucci, Madonna with saints (1506); Bagnacavnllo, Betrothal of St. Ca- 
tharine; Palmezzano , Madonna with saints (1495); Palmezzano , Bearing 
of the t'ross (1535); Dosso Dossi, Two heads. — Room II. Giacomo Berlucci 

to Ancona. FORLI. 12. Route. 89 

the Younger, Madonna with saints (1565), Descent from the Cross; Cotignola, 
Baptism of Christ; Michele Manzoni, Martyrdom of St. Eutropius; Tiepolo, 
Judith; Ferrau Fenzoni, Bethesda; Massimo oVAzeglio, Landscape; Ouido 
Reni, Madonna, with SS. Francis and Christina; Van Dyci, Two royal 
portraits. — In the Small Rooms: Two fine 'cassoni', formerly belonging 
to the Manfredi, and a wax-mask of the Dominican Paganelli. — In the 
Room to the eight or the Entrance: Marble *Bust of John the.Baptist, 
and wooden statue of St. Jerome, both by Donatello; terracotta bust of 
the 16th cent., and a Madonna of the school of the Robbia. 

In the Via Torricelli, at the end of the piazza, to the left, lie 
the old Palazzo Manfredi and , opposite , the church of S. Michele, 
with tasteful brick ornamentation. 

The street beside the clock-tower crosses the bridge to the Borgo. 
The second church in it, to the right, La Maggione, contains a fine 
fresco by Oirolomo Pennacchi da Udine (1533), representing the 
Madonna and saints (in a recess in the choir). 

Beyond Faenza the train intersects the plain in a straight direc- 
tion. It crosses the Amone, then the Montone, which, united with 
with the Ronco (Bedesis), falls into the Adriatic near Ravenna. 

40 M. Forli {Alb. Masini, tolerable; 8. Marco, small, good 
cuisine ; Vapore, unpretending but well spoken of) , the ancient 
Forum Livii , founded by M. Livius Salinator after the defeat of 
Hasdrubal, is a well-built provincial capital with 16,000 inhab. 
(including suburbs 41,000). 

Forli, where in 410 the marriage of Athaulf , king of the Visigoths, 
with Oalla Placidia, sister of the Emp. Honorius was solemnised, was 
long an independent state in which the Guelphs retained their ascendancy 
down to 1315. The Ordelaffl then usurped the supreme power, which they 
retained till 1480, when they were succeeded by Oirolamo Riario, a favour- 
ite of Sixtus IV. This prince was assassinated in 1488, and his widow. 
Caterina S/orza, was afterwards banished by Cesare Borgia. At length, 
in 1504, Pope Julius II. annexed the city to the States of the Church. — 
Forli was the birthplace of the poet Cornelius Gallus (d. B.C. 27), of the 
historian Flavio Biondo (15th cent.; p. 128), and of the talented painter Melozzo 
da Forli (end of 15th cent.) , who was closely allied to Piero della Fran- 
cesca, was recognised by his contemporaries as a master of perspective, 
and was afterwards engaged at Rome. 

The Piazza Vitt. Emanuele, the principal square (comp. Plan, 
p. 90) is enclosed by handsome palaces. Here, too, is the church of — 

S. Mbrcuriale (so named after the first bishop of Forli). In the 
3rd chapel to the right, Palmezzano, Crucifixion, with saints and 
the donor ; 5th chap, to the right, Palmezzano, Madonna with saints ; 
4th chap, to the left, the decoration in which is by Oiov. Veneziano 
(1536), the Conception by Palmezzano ; in the choir, carved stalls 
by Alessandro de 1 Bigni (1535); in the sacristy, Tura, Visitation. 
-— Opposite the church is the restored Municipio, with a tasteless 
tower of the 18th century. 

Proceeding southwards from the piazza, we reach the Cathedral 
op S. Croce. In the left transept is the Chapel of the Madonna del 
Fuoco, the dome of which was adorned in 1686-1706 with frescoes 
of the Assumption by Carlo Cignani of Bologna. The painter is bur- 
ied in the chapel. At the end of the S. aisle, to the left, is a St. Seb- 

90 Route 12. OESENA. From Bologna 

astian by Bondinelli. A reliquary of the 14th cent., and the sculp- 
tures of the principal door (15th cent.) also deserve notice. 

SS. Biagio e Girolamo contains in the double chapel (1st & 2nd) 
on the right *Frescoes by Melozzo and Palmezzano : History of St. 
James and (in the dome) prophets and angels. To the left is the 
tomb of Barbara Manfredi (15th cent.). In the 3rd chapel on the 
right is an Immaculate Conception, by Ouido Rent In the 4th chapel: 
* Palmezzano, Madonna and saints, with Girolamo Riario and Oath- 
arina Sforza and their sons (1486). The frescoes in the dome are 
also by Palmezzano. 

The Pinacoteca and other municipal art- collections are preserved 
in the Ginnasio Comunale, in the Piazza di S. Pellegrino. The 
school of Fori! is represented in the Pinacoteca by Melozzo and Pal- 
mezzano, and also by Agresti, Menzocchi, Morolini, and Cignani. 
The names of the artists are attached to each painting. 

In the Coukt: Monument to the anatomist Morgagni (d. 1771), unveiled 
in 1875. On the Staircase : Sarcophagus of the 14th cent. ; Sarcophagus 
of St. Marcolinus, by Antonio Rosellim (1458). Fine door-frame and lunette, 
Madonna with angels (formerly in the cathedral), by Simone di Giov. Ohini. 

Pinacoteca. Passing through a corridor with engravings we enter 
Room I. To the left: 5. Marcello Venusii, Resurrection (restored) ; 20. 
Tapestry from the design of a Lower Rhenish master (ascribed to Perugino) ; 
35. Tapestry from the design of a South German master (ascribed to Wohl- 
gemuth); 34. Cigoli, St. Francis; Fra Angelico, 43. Christmas night, 45. 
Christ on the Mount of Olives ; 44. Simone Memmi, Two saints; 54. Bassano, 
Adoration of the Shepherds. In the middle: Hebe, by Canova. — Large 
Room. To the right: 77. Cagnacci, St. Valerian; 86. Ouereino , Annun- 
ciation; 90. Rondinelli, Madonna; "92. Francia, Adoration of the Child; 
93. Agostino Carracci, St. Francis; 96. Palmezzano, Portrait; 103. Cignani, 
Portrait of himself; ^Melozzo, 'Pestapepe* 1 , an apprentice with pestle and 
mortar (a fresco, formerly used as a shop sign); 113. Morolini, Annun- 
ciation ; 115. Palmezzano, Crucifixion (1492) ; 117. Cotignola, God the Father 
with saints (1513) ; "126. Melozzo , S. Antonio Abbate, John the Baptist, 
and St. Sebastian; 127. Melozzo, God the Father; 128. Palmezzano, An- 
nunciation; *147. Palmezzano, Institution of the Eucharist (1501); 148. 
Palmezzano, Portrait of himself in his 80th year (1536); 151. Bondinelli, 
Portrait said to be of Csesar Borgia ; 163. Cagnacci, S. Mercuriale. — In the 
Small Rooms: Medals (among which is the portrait of Catharine Sforza), 
favence, Pre-Roman and Roman antiquities, marble bust of Pino Orde- 
laffi (15th cent.). 

The church of S. Pellegrino, opposite the Ginnasio, to the right, 
contains a tine tomb of the 15th century. 

The Citadel, constructed in 1361 by Cardinal Albornoz, and en- 
larged by the Ordelaffl and Riarii, is now used as a prison. 

A diiigence-route leads from Forl'i through the Apennines via, Rocca 
S. Casciano and S. Benedetto to Florence. 

The Railway to Rimini crosses the Ronco and passes (45 M.) 
Forlimpopoli, the ancient Forum Popilii ; to the right, on the hill, 
Bertinoro, with its productive vineyards. It then passes Polenta and 
crosses the Savio (the ancient Sapis^). 

52 ML Cessna (Leon d'Oro, R. 2 l / 2 fr. ; Cappello), with about 
10,000 inhab. (incl. villages 38,300), is surrounded by beautiful 
meadows and hills, and boasts of several interesting palaces. 

('•fo^'rapli. AiiKla.ll ion 


to Ancona. RIMINI. 12. Route. 91 

Caesena is one of the most ancient episcopal sees in Italy, where St. 
Philemon is said to have held the office as early as the year 92. During 
the middle ages it was at first an independent state, then became subject 
to the Ghibelline family of Monte feltro , and shortly afterwards to the 
Malatestas, who where partizans of the Guelphs. This rapid change of 
rulers is alluded to by Dante, Inf. xxvii, 52 

Cost com* ella sie 1 tra it piano e il monte, 
Tra tirannia si vive e stato franco. 

On 1st Feb., 1377, the town was cruelly sacked by Cardinal Robert 
of Geneva, and subsequently by Cesare Borgia after which it was incor- 
porated with the States of the Church. 

In the Piazza is the handsome Palazzo Pubblico, with a statue of 
Pius VI., who was born at Cesena in 1717, as well as his successor 
Pius VII. in 1742. — The Cathedral contains two marble altars of 
the 15th and 16th centuries. — The Library, built in 1452 by Matteo 
Nuzio forDomenico Malatesta Novello, contains 4000 MSS., many of 
them written for the founder, and afterwards used by the learned 
Aldus Manutius in preparing his famous editions of the classics. — 
The Pinacoteca contains a good Presentation in the Temple by 
Franc. Francia. — In the Oiardino Bufalini is a statue erected in 
1883 to the physician Maurizio Bufalini of Cesena. 

On an eminence , 3 / 4 M. distant, stands the handsome church 
of *S. Maria del Monte, a work of Bramante. Productive sulphur- 
mines in the vicinity, towards the S. 

The train crosses the stream Pisciatello, the upper part of which, 
called Vrgone , is identical with the Rubicon of the ancients, the 
boundary between Italy proper and the province of Gallia Cisalpina, 
and memorable for its passage by Caesar at the beginning of the 
civil war between him and Pompey, B.C. 49. • 

The most recent investigations tend to show that the Rubicon has 
entirely quitted its ancient course. It appears originally to have fallen 
into the Fiumicino, farther S., while at the present day its upper part 
(Urgone) unites with the Pisciatello. Most of the towns and villages of 
this district have in turn laid claim to the distinction of possessing the 
Rubicon within their territory. Nor did they rest satisfied with a mere 
literary feud in order to gain the object of their ambition. An action in- 
volving this question was instituted at Rome , and in 1756 the 'Rota' de- 
cided in favour of the claim of the Uso (see below), beyond the small 
town of Savignano. On the road between Cesena and Savignano stands a 
column bearing a decree of the Roman senate, which threatens to punish 
those who should without authority trespass beyond the Rubicon. Montes- 
quieu regarded this as genuine, but it is an obvious imposition and not the 
only one connected with the interminable dispute regarding the Rubicon. 

56 M. Oambettola; 6OI/2 M. Savignano. The train crosses the 
Uso. 63 M. 8. Arcangelo, where Pope Clement XIV. (Ganganelli) 
was born in 1705 (d. 1771). The Marecchia is next crossed. 

69 M. Rimini. — "Aquila d'Oro, in the Corso, R. & A. 2y 2 , luncheon 
2'/4, omn. from station 3/< f r , ; Albeego Nuovo, also with omnibus at 
the station; Italia, at the Peseheria, fair. — Trattoria d'JSuropa, Piazza 
Cavour; Caffe delta Speranza, Piazza Giulio Cesare. — Railway Restaurant, 
good wine of the country. 

Carriage from the station to the Piazza, with one horse 1 fr., with two 
horses 1 fr. 20 c. — Tramway to the bathing-place on the beach. 

Rimini, beautifully situated on the Adriatic at the mouth of the 

92 Route 12. RIMINI. From Bologna 

Anna and MareccMa, with 11,000 inhab. (incl. villages over 37,000), 
and extensive fisheries and silk manufactories , has of late come 
into notice as a sea-bathing place. Handsome public rooms with a 
cafe and restaurant, and numerous lodging-houses have been erected 
on the pleasant promenade on the beach. 

Rimini, the ancient Ariminum, a town of the Umbrians , became a 
Roman colony in B.C. 269, and formed the frontier- fortress of Italy in the 
direction of Gaul , and the termination of the Via Flaminia from Rome, 
constructed in 220. The town was extended and embellished by Julius 
Csesar and Augustus. During the Exarchate, it was the northernmost of 
the Pentapolis Maritime/, or 'Five Maritime Cities 1 , which were ruled over 
by one governor. The other four were Pesaro, Fano, Sinigaglia, and Aneona. 
In 260 Ariminum became an episcopal see, and in 350 a council against 
Arianism was held here. The town afterwards belonged to the Lombards. 

In the course of the 13th cent, the Malatesta made themselves masters 
of the city. In 1285 Giovanni it Sciancato ('the lame'), surnamed also 
Lancilotto, put to death his wife, Francesca Polenta of Ravenna, and his 
brother, Paolo il Bello (an event from which Dante derived the episode 
of 'Francesca da Rimini 1 in the 5th canto of the Inferno, and Leigh Hunt 
the materials for his 'Story of Rimini 1 ). During the following century this 
family ruled the greater part of the Romagna , and also , for a time , the 
mark of Aneona. Under Lewis the Bavarian they became vicegerents of 
the emperor, but Cardinal Albornoz afterwards succeeded in reducing 
them under the power of the pope. The Malatesta family, divided into 
the Pesaro and Rimini branches, distinguished themselves as condottieri, 
but also as patrons of learning. The most famous scion was Sigismondo, 
son of Pandulfo (1417-68), who united the gifts of a great military leader 
with the most violent passions. He attracted painters and scholars to his 
court, in order to secure immortalily for himself and his mistress (after- 
wards his wife), the clever Isotta. — In 1528 the people revolted against 
the Malatesta and placed themselves under the authority of the pope. 

A broad road leads from the Station (PI. D, 4) to the gate, within 
which it is called the Via Principe Umberto. After 4 min. we follow 
the Via al Tempio Malatestiano to the left. 

*S. Francesco (Duomo , Tempio dei Malatesta; PI. 3; C, 5), 
originally a Gothic edifice of the 13th cent., was magnificently re- 
modelled in the early-Renaissance style in 1447-55 by Sigismondo 
Malatesta from designs by Leo Battista Alberti and under the super- 
intendence of Matteo da Pasti. The windows of the original building 
are retained. Of the facade unfortunately the lower part only has 
been completed, while the dome intended by Alberti to surmount 
the choir is wanting. The choir itself dates from 1709. On the 
cornice are the initials and arms (the elephant and rose) of Sigis- 
mondo and Isotta. 

The vaults on the S. side contain the sarcophagi of the poets and 
scholars whom Sigismondo entertained at his court. In the first four are 
the remains of Basinio, the Parmese poet; Qiusto de' Conti; Gemisthius 
Plethon (d. 1451), a Greek philosopher whose corpse Sigismondo brought 
hither from his campaigns in Greece; and Roberto Volturio (d. 1489), the 
learned engineer. In the others repose several physicians and a bishop 
of the 16th century. 

The Inteeioe was said by Pope Pius II. to resemble a heathen temple 
rather than a Christian church. To the right of the entrance is the Tomb 
of Sigismondo (d. 146S). Most of the plastic ornamentation of the chapels 
was executed by Agoatino di Duccio of Florence; a few works are by 
Piero Bernardo Ciuffagni. — 1st Chapel on the right : above the altar, 
St. Sigismund of Burgundy, patron-saint of the founder; by the pillars, 

to Ancona. RIMINI. 12. Route. 93 

allegorical figures of the virtues. — 2nd Chapel of the Relics ('Santuario', 
shown by the sacristan), containing a (restored) "Fresco by Piero della 
Francesca ('Petri de Burgo opus lt5f): Sigismund Malatesta kneeling before 
his patron St. Sigismund, with La Rocca, built by him, on the right. In the 
Cappella di S. Miohele, the 3rd to the right, is the Tomb of Isoita (d. 1470), 
erected in 1450, with the motto 'tempus loquendi, tempus tacendi'. The 
archangel on the altar, by Giuffagni, is a portrait of Isotta. By the pillars, 
angels playing on musical instruments. — 4th Chapel on the right: by the 
pillars, the planets and other fantastic representations from a poem by 
Sigismondo in honour of his mistress. — 4th Chapel on the left: by the 
pillars, allegorical figures of the sciences. — 3kd Chapel on the left: 
Children's games, probably by Simone Ferrucci, a pupil of Donatello. — 
The 2nd Chapel on the left is closed. — The 1st Chapel on the left, 
restored in 1868, is named the Cappella deir Acqua from an ancient 
statue of the Madonna, represented as sending rain. On the left is a 
sarcophagus for the reception of the ancestors of the founder, with two 
reliefs, representing the House of Malatesta in the Temple of Minerva 
and the Triumph of Sigismondo. By the pillars , above the elephants, 
two portrait-medallions of Sigismondo. 

From the small piazza in front of the church, the Via Patara 
leads S. to the Piazza Giulio Cesare (PI. C, 5), the ancient forum. 
A stone Pedestal here, erected by Sigismondo and restored in 1560, 
commemorates Caesar's passage of the Rubicon. Near it is a chapel, 
on the spot where St. Anthony once preached, and another on the 
canal is said to mark the spot where the saint preached to the fishes 
because the people refused to hear him. — The Coaso dAugusto, 
which intersects this piazza, leads to the S. to the Porta Romana, and 
to the N. to the Piazza Cavour and the bridge of Augustus. 

The *Porta Romana or Arco d'Augusto (PI. D, 6) is a triumphal 
arch of travertine, of simple design, erected to Augustus in B.C. 
27 out of gratitude for the restoration of the Via Flaminia , as the 
inscription records (which, however, has been inaccurately restored ; 
the letters to the right outside the gate also belong to it}. Above 
are medallion figures, on the outside those of Jupiter and Minerva, 
on the inside those of Neptune and Venus. 

Near the town-wall, beyond S. Marino, are the scanty remains 
of an Amphitheatre (reached by the Via dell' Anfiteatro, the second 
side-street of the Corso from the Porta Romana), which, however, 
scarcely merit a visit. 

The Palazzo del Comune (PI. 9 ; B, 5), in the Piazza Cavour, 
contains a small picture-gallery, comprising : Domenico del Ghirlan- 
dajo (school-piece), SS. Vincenzo Ferrerio, Sebastian, andRochus; 
Giovanni Bellini, Pieta (early work); Perino del Vago, Madonna; 
Tintoretto, S. Domenico. — In front of it rises a bronze Statue of 
Pope Paul V. (inscription on the pedestal obliterated). Beyond 
the Teatro Vittorio Emanuele(Pl. 10), erected in 1857, is the ancient 
Palace of the Malatesta, now a prison, and in a very dilapidated con- 
dition. Their arms are still to be seen over the entrance. The 
town-wall, to the right of the palace, commands a fine view of the 

The TAbrary (PI. 8 ; C, 5), in the Via Ganibalunga to the E. of the 
Piazza Cavour, founded in 1617 by the jurist Gambalunga, contains 

94 Route 12. PESARO. From Bologna 

23,000 vols, and several MSS. The small Museo Archeologico here 
contains the *Tomb of a woman, a herma of Pan and other antique 
sculptures, and tombstones of the 10-llth centuries. 

At the end of the Corso the Marecchia (the ancient Ariminus) 
is crossed by the five-arched *Ponte d'Au&usto (PI. A, B, 4), one 
of the finest ancient structures of the kind. It leads to the Borgo 
S. Giuliano, where the Via ^Emilia united with the Via Flaminia, 
which led to Rome. Here, too, is situated the church of — 

S. Giuliano (PI. 6; A, 3, 4), containing the Martyrdom of St. 
Julian, an altar-piece by Paolo Veronese, and an old picture by 
Lattanzio della Marca (1357), the Life of the saint. 

In the Caslello di S. Leo, 18 M. to the W. of Rimini, the notorious im- 
postor Cagliostro (Giuseppe Balsamo) died in confinement in 1794.. From 
S. Leo a bridle-path, much frequented by fishermen, leads via, Camaldoli and 
Vallombrosa to Florence. 

About 12 II. from Rimini is situated the ancient republic of San Ma- 
rino, the smallest in the world (32 sq. M. in area, with 8000 inhab.), said 
to have been founded in an inaccessible wilderness by St. Marinus at the 
time of the persecutions of the Christians under Diocletian. This diminu- 
tive state braved all the storms of mediseval warfare, and even the ambition 
of the popes. It retained its ancient constitution till 1847, when its senate 
was converted into a chamber of deputies. The precipitous rock in a 
bleak district on which the town (Albergo Bigi) is situated is reached by 
one road only from Rimini. The village of Borgo at the base is the residence 
of the wealthier inhabitants. The celebrated epigraphist and numismatist 
Bartolommeo Borghesi, born at Savignano in 1781, was from 1821 until his 
death in 1860, a resident at S. Marino, where he arranged and described 
his admirable collections, and received visits from foreign savants. 

Fkom Rimini to Ravenna, 31 M., narrow-gauge railway along the 
coast in I1/2 hr. (fares 5 fr. 70, 4 fr., 2 fr. 60 c). 

Beyond Rimini the line skirts the coast, crosses the streams 
Marano and Conca (the Crustumius Rapax of Lucan), and reaches 
(75 M.) Riccione. 81 M. Cattolica , so called from having been 
the residence of the Roman Catholic bishops during the Council of 
Rimini in 359. A chain of hills descends here to the sea. the train 
ascends for some distance, and then passes through them by means 
of a long tunnel.' It crosses the Tavollo and passes the Villa Vit- 
toria , situated on the left, on the road to Rimini. We then cross 
the Foglia, the ancient Isaurus or Pisaurus. 

90Y2 M. Pesaro. — "Albergo Zongo, near the Piazza, with restaur- 
ant; starting-point of the diligence to Urbino (see p. 96j. — Caffe delta 
Piazza, in the piazza, next door to the Urbino diligence-office (4 fr.); del 
Commercio, in the Corso. — Carriage from the station to the town, one- 
horse 80 c, two-horse 1 fr. ; one-horse carr. to Urbino about 12 fr. 

Pesaro, with 11,000 inhab. (with suburbs 21,000), the ancient 
Pisaurum, is the capital of the united provinces of Pesaro and Ur- 
bino, and formerly belonged to the Pentapolis Maritima (p. 92). 

Pesaro, first inhabited by the Siculi, then by the Umbrians and Etrus- 
cans, and a Roman colony as early as B.C. 184, was destroyed by Vitiges 
the Goth, and rebuilt by Belisarim. In the 13th cent, it passed to the 
Malatesta family, in 1445 to the Sforza, and in 1512 to the Rovere, dukes 
of Urbino, under whom , chiefly through the influence of Lucrezia d^Bste, 
consort of Francesco Maria II., it became a centre of art and literature, 
and was visited by Bernardo and Torqualo Tasso. The former of these 

to Ancona. PBSARO. 12. Route. 95 

authors completed his 'Amadis' here. In 1631 the town was annexed to 
the Papal States. — The figs of Pesaro are excellent. 

The Via Branca, to the left in which is the Teatro Rossini, 
leads to the Piazza, just on this side of which a side-street diverges 
on the left to the Alb. Zongo , while on the right is the handsome 
portal of the former church of 8. Domenico (1395). 

In the Piazza, which is adorned with a large fountain, rises the 
imposing Prefettura, the ancient ducal palace, built by the Sforza 
in 1455, and completed by the Rovere. The architects were prob- 
ably Oirolamo Oenga and his son Bartolommeo. The banquet-hall 
132 ft. long and 48 ft. wide, still contains a painted wooden ceiling- 
dating from the latter half of the 16th century. In 1474 this hall 
was the scene of the marriage of Constanzo Sforza and Camilla 

Opposite is situated the more modern Palazzo dei Pagi. Between 
the palaces, to the right, is a facade erected in 1848, with marble 
statues of the composer Gioachimo Rossini (b. 1789 ; d. at Paris 
1868), the 'Swan of Pesaro', and the author Count Giulio Perticari 
(1779-1822), by P. Lorandini. — At the other angle of the piazza 
is the Palazzo del Municipio, the vestibule and entrance of which 
face the Piazza Mamiani. It temporarily (until completion of the 
Ateneo, see below) contains an admirable Majolica Collection (550 
pieces; many from Pesaro, Urbino, Castel Durante, and Gubbio, 
by Maestro Giorgio), two pictures by Zoppo (a Pieta and a head of 
John the Baptist), and a marble bust of Napoleon by Canova. 

To the N. of the Piazza, in the Via Mazza (formerly Posta 
Vecchia), is the Palazzo Almerici, with the Ateneo Pesaresb. 

In the Vestibule are votive stones of the matrons of Pisaurum 
among the most ancient Latin monuments extant. In the court and on 
the staircase are Roman and Christian inscriptions and sculptures- high 
up two reliefs with representations of ships, dating from about 1000 B. C. 
— Here is the entrance to the Museum and to the Biblioteca Olivieei 
The latter contains 36,000 volumes and 1400 MSS., amongst which are 
letters of Tasso and others. — In the Museum are ancient clay imag" 
and lamps ; ivory carvings (early Christian reliefs of the Expulsion from 
Paradise and the Stoning of Stephen, and a slab from the throne of Maxi- 
minian in Ravenna); early Italian bronzes and coins (aes grave from Ve- 
tulonia) ; an image of Mithras in vitreous paste. 

In the Palazzo Machirelli (first turning to the left from the 
Albergo Zongo) is the Liceo Comunale, in which is a sitting figure 
of Rossini by Marochetti , erected in 1864 by two admirers, Baron 
Salamanca of Madrid and G. Delahante of Paris. 

In the Via Rossini, in which stands the small house where Rossini 
was born, is the old Cathedral (closed at present). Close by, in the 
hall of the Vescovado, is an early-Christian Nymphaeum. 

The present cathedral, S. Francesco, in the Via Roma, has a 
Gothic portal. It contains a Madonna enthroned, with four saints, 
by Giovanni Bellini (1495). — *S. Giovanni Battista, in the Via 
Passeri, was begun by Giovanni Genga in 1515, and finished by 

96 Route 12. URBINO. From Bologna 

Bartolommeo in 1543. — & Agostino, in the Corso, has a Gothic 
portal of 1413. 

On the N. side of the town stands the Bocchetta (now a powder- 
magazine), built by Giovanni Sforza. — Opposite the spacious 
Lunatic Asylum (Manicomio or Ospizio degli Incurabili) are the 
small Orti G'hili, where a bastion of the town-wall commands a 
tine view of the Poglia (once crossed by a Roman bridge) and of 
Monte S. Bartolo. 

About l'/a M. from Pesaro rises Monte S. Bartolo, where the Roman 
dramatist L. Attius is said to have been interred. On the top lies the "Villa 
Imperiale, belonging to the Principe Albani, at whose town-house entrance- 
tickets may be obtained. Alessandro Sforza built a country-house on this 
site, the foundation-stone of which was laid by the Emperor Frederick III., 
on his journey to Italy in 1469. The upper rooms were adorned by the 
Rovere with stucco-work, majolica-plaques, and frescoes. In the 1st 
Room is the triumphal procesaion of Duke Francesco Maria of Urbino, 
accompanied by Alfonso of Ferrara, by Qenga. The *2nd Room was de- 
corated as an arbour, with figures of Daphne and landscapes, by the 
brothers Dossi; on the ceiling is the duke with his army. In the 3rd 
Room are the Coronation of Charles V., and allegories after designs by 
Angelo Bronzino. The frescoes in the following rooms represent the duke 
being appointed commander-in-chief by Cardinal Alidosi, Pope Leo X., 
and the doge of Venice. The last room, which has a fine stucco ceiling, 
is embellished by paintings by Raffaellitio del Colle, representing the duke 
being crowned with a garland, Calumny (after Apelles), and the Christian 
virtues. — Eleonora Gonzaga caused Girolamo Qenga to erect a new palace 
about 1530, near the old house, with an inscription on the facade to the 
effect that it was built for her husband Francesco Maria 'a bellis redeunti 
animi ejus causa'. It was unfortunately never completed, but even in its 
present dilapidated condition, it retains much beauty; fi le view from the 
terrace. — In the neighbourhood is the church of the Girolamitani; one 
of the finest *Views in the environs is obtained from an eminence behind 
the monastery. 

The Municipio of the little coast-town of Gradara, 7 M. to the N.W. 
of Pesaro, contains a Madonna and saints by Giovanni Santi (1484) ; in the 
Rocca is a terracotta altar by Andrea delta Robbia. 

An Excursion to Urbino is best made from Pesaro. Diligence 
twice daily (fare 4 fr.), ascending in 5, and descending in 4 hrs. 
The road leads through the valley of the Foglia, which falls into the 
sea at Pesaro, and then ascends, passing several unimportant vil- 
lages. At the inn 'del Cappone', halfway, the horses are changed. 
Beyond Moline the road ascends in windings. Above, to the right, 
is the ducal palace, with three loggie flanked by round towers. The 
diligence stops in the main street , flanked on the left by arcades, 
in which the inn and cafe' are situated. 

Urbino (*Albergo dell' Italia), the ancient Urvinum Metaurense, 
celebrated as the birthplace of the greatest painter of all ages, 
Raphael Santi (b. 28th March, 1483; d. at Pome, 6th April, 1520), 
lies on an abrupt hill, surrounded by barren mountains. The town, 
with narrow, crooked streets and 16,900 inhab. (inol. villages), 
has a university with as many professors as students, and merits a 
visit for the sake of its monuments and historical associations. The 
situation is picturesque. 

to Ancona. URBINO. 12. Route. 97 

In tie 13th cent, the town came into the possession of the Montefeltro 
family, and under Fedeeigo Montefeltko (1444-82) and his son Guidobaldo 
(1482-1508) attained to such prosperity as entirely to eclipse the neigh- 
bouring courts of the Malatesta at Rimini and the Sforza at Pesaro. 
Federigo Montefeltro, who distinguished himself as a condottiere in the feuds 
of the 15th cent., married his daughter in 1474 to Giovanni della Rovere, 
a nephew of Sixtus IV., and was in consequence created Duke of Urbino. 
His court was regarded as a model among the princely courts of that period. 
It was visited for shorter or longer periods by numerous scholars and ar- 
tists , amongst whom the prince was pre-eminent for learning. His son, 
Guidobaldo , in spite of ill health and other misfortunes , zealously fol- 
lowed his example , with the able assistance of his beautiful and ta- 
lented wife Elizabeta Qonzaga. A famous description of the court of Ur- 
bino under Guidobaldo, depicting it as the most refined social school of the 
day, is given by Count Baldassar Castiglione in his 'Cortigiano', the ideal 
of a courtier. In 1497 Guidobaldo was expelled by Cesare Borgia, the son 
of Alexander VI., after whose death, however, he returned to Urbino in 
1503. He died in 1508 and bequeathed his dominions to his nephew Fran- 
cesco Maria della Rovere, the favourite of Pope Julius II. In 1626 the duchy 
was incorporated with the States of the Church , when Urbaa VIII. per- 
suaded the last and childless Duke Francesco Maria II. to abdicate. 

Amongst the most distinguished Aetists employed at the court of Ur- 
bino, during the zenith of its splendour under Federigo and Guidobaldo, 
were Paolo Uccelli , Piero della Francesca, and Melozzo da Forli. Even for- 
eign painters, like Justus van Ghent, a picture by whom is still preserved 
in the gallery (see p. 98), were attracted to the court. The peculiar bond 
of union which existed here between the interests of science and art is 
chiefly exhibited in the library pictures or ideal portraits of scholars painted 
by Melozzo da Forli and others, but which have been removed from Urbino 
together with the library. Timoteo Viti, or della Vite, of Ferrara 
(1467-1523), the best pupil of Francesco Francia, spent the greater part of 
his life in Urbino; he was the first painter who exercised an influence on 
Raphael, but at a later period he himself became subject to that great 
master's magic spell. — The master, however, in whom we are now spe- 
cially interested , is Giovanni Santi of Urbino (? 1450-94) , the father of 
Raphael, whose frescoes at Cagli (p. 101) and Fano (p. 100) show considerable 
power and a keen sense of the graceful. As Giovanni died when Ra- 
phael was in his 11th year, his son can hardly have had the benefit of his 
instruction. After his father's death, Raphael remained in Urbino till 1500, 
but under what tuition is unknown. Another native of Urbino was Fed- 
erigo Baeoccio (1528-1612), some of whose works are able, while others 
display the customary affectation of the post-Raphaelite period. 

In the centre of the town is the Plan del Mebcato , or market- 
place, where the Corso Ducale, in which the inn is situated, ends. 
— The Via Pucinotti ascends hence to the right in a few minutes to 
a somewhat dull piazza, with the cathedral and ducal palace. 

The Cathedral contains some interesting pictures. 

To the right of the entrance, St. Peter, a replica of the statue in St. 
Peter's at Rome. In the 2nd chapel to the right : St. Sebastian by Federigo 
Baroccio ; to the left of the high-altar, the Lord's Supper, also by Fed. 
Baroccio. In the sacristy: SS. Martin and Thomas a Becket, with a por- 
trait of Duke Guidobaldo, the master-piece of Timoteo Viti (1504) ; Ador- 
ation of the Magi, by the same ; and a Scourging of Christ by Piero della 
Francesca, elaborately executed in the miniature style. — The Crtpt 
(entered from the right corner of the small piazza between the cathedral 
and the palace) possesses a Pieta by Oiov. da Bologna. 

The **Dtjcal Palace, erected by Luciano Laurana of Dalmatia 
in 1468 by order of Federigo Montefeltro , and completed by 
Baccio Pintelli, is now used as a 'Residenza Governativa', and con- 
tains the archives. The requirement of strength , coupled with 

Baedeker. Italy II. 10th Edition. < 

98 Route 12. URBINO. From Bologna 

the unevenness of the ground, has given rise to the irregularity of 
the building, hut at the same time has enhanced its picturesqueness. 
The palace has always been much admired, and was regarded hy the 
contemporaries of the founder as an embodiment of their ideal of a 
princely residence. According to modern standards, however, its 
dimensions are not grand, and even the court by Baccio, the entrance 
to which is opposite the cathedral, is pleasing rather than imposing. 
In the latter, to the right, are mediaeval tombstones and a relief 
(Pieta) of the 14th century. The staircase to the upper rooms is on 
the left , with a statue of Duke Federigo , by Oirol. Campagna 
(1606). The ornamentation of the doors, windows, and chimney- 
pieces here and in the apartments is by Ambrogio da Milano, etc. 
The corridors and rooms contain a collection of inscriptions from 
Rome and the Umbrian municipia, early-Christian and mediaeval 
sculptures, and a small Picture Oallery. 

The Collection of Inscriptions was made by the epiitraphist Fabrelti. 
— Of the Sculptures the chief are 72 reliefs with representations of 
engines of war (after Francesco di Giorgio), by Ambrogio da Milano (1464), 
which formerly decorated the outside of the palace. Farther on in Room 1. 
are four chimney-pieces and a marble 'LavatojoV Room II. Fr. Zucchero, 
Pieta ; two crucifixes of the 13th cent. ; St. Clara (14th cent.). Room III. 
Tapestry worked in Urbino by masters from Flanders ; to the right, Pal- 
merini, Madonna ; stucco-reliefs by Brandano. Farther on is the Sala degli 
Angeli, with five beautiful doors and dancing angels, and a room with 
a portrait in relief of Ariosto. In the Chapel is a plaster-cast of RaphaeFs 
skull. The studio of Duke Federigo should be visited for the sake of 
the intarsias , which formerly also covered the upper part of the walls, 
and the fine ceiling. From the balcony a beautiful view is obtained. — 
The celebrated library collected by Federigo has been removed to Rome. 

Picture Gallery. To the right : 3^. Baroccio, Madonna, with saints ; 
25. Viti, St. Sebastian ; 23. Paolo Uccello , Legend of the desecrated Host. 
Fine chimney-piece. — 22. Oiuliano da Rimini, Madonna, with saints ; *2. 
Giovanni Santi, Madonna with SS. John the Baptist, Sebastian, Jerome, and 
Francis , and the Buffi family ; Pieta ; 18. Piero della Francesco, Archi- 
tectural piece, *1. Justus van Gent, Holy Communion, with numerous 
portraits, including Duke Federigo and Caterino Zeno, the Persian ambas- 
sador (to the right of the table; 1474); CO. Tim. Viti, S. Apollonia; 53. 
Sasso/errato, Madonna; 52. Fra Carnevale, Madonna; Titian, Last Supper 
(damaged), and the Resurrection (late works). 

Opposite the palace rises an Obelisk, facing which is the church 
of S. Domenico , with a pleasing portal and a terracotta relief of 
the Madonna, with SS. Dominic and Peter Martyr, by Luca della 
Robbia (1449). — The street contracts ; to the right is the Univer- 
sity, with armorial hearings over the door. Farther on is the Istituto 
di Belle Arti, which contains sculptures and some fine majolicas. 

In the market-place (p. 97) is the loggia of S. Francesco, a 
church of the 14th cent., with a handsome campanile. The portal 
of the chapel to the right of the high-altar is by Bartol. Centogatti 
(15th cent.). 

The Contrada Piaffaelo leads hence to the Fortezza. No. 278 on 
the left is the house in which Raphael was born. It was purchased 
in lST^i at the suggestion of Count Gherardi , aided by a donation 

to Ancona. URBINO. 12. Route. 99 

from Mr. Morris Moore, and now belongs to the 'R. Accademia 

The rooms are adorned with engravings from Raphael's pictures. In 
one ol the rooms is a fresco of the Madonna (removed from the court- 
entirely repainted), by Giovanni Santi, possibly representing Magia Ciarla 
^ Raphaels mother (fee 1 / 2 fr.). 

From the beginning of the Contrada Raffaello the Via Bramante 
leads to the church of S. Spirito , containing a *Pieta and *Descent 
of the Holy Ghost by Luca Signorelli , originally a church-banner 
of 1495. ' 

Returning to the market-place, and descending the Via Bal- 
bona, we follow the Via della Posta Vecchia, the first side-street to 
the right, and then the Via S. Giovanni, the first street to the left, 
which leads straight to the Oratorio della Confraternita di 8. Gio- 
vanni. The walls of the interior are covered with scenes from the 
history of the Virgin and John the Baptist, by Lorenzo da 8. Seve- 
nno and his brother, of the school of Giotto (1416). — The neigh- 
bouring church of 8. Giuseppe contains a Nativity by Fed. Brandano. 

In the Theatre, once famous for its decorations by Girolamo 
Genga, the first Italian comedy was performed. This was the 'Ca- 
landra' of Cardinal Bibbiena (1470-1514), the friend of Pope LeoX. 
and patron of Raphael. 

The hill of the old Fortezza (ascend the Contrada Raffaello , at 
the top take the Via dei Maceri to the left, and knock at No. 1461 ; 
fee 25-50 c.) commands an interesting *Survey of the barren chain 
of the Apennines. A powder-magazine now stands at the top. 

About 1 M. to the E. of Urbino , to the left of the Pesaro road, 
are situated the conspicuous old monastery and church of S. Ber- 
nardino, with the new cemetery of Urbino. This spot commands a 
fine view of the town. The church contains the tombs of the Dukes 
Federigo and Guidobaldo, with their busts. 

„,. 1 ' 1 ? 11 Ukbino to Fossombeone (p. 101) lU/ 2 M. ; no regular commnni- 
££« (? a .™g e «> fr.) The 'Corriere del Furlo' passes through Fossom- 
brone at 11 a.m. Carriage from Urbino to Gubbio 40 fr. 

The Railway prom Pesaro to Ancona skirts the coast, oc- 
casionally approaching close to the sea, of which a pleasant view 
is afforded. 

98 M. Fano (*Albergo del Moro) , the Fanum Fortunae of anti- 
quity, is indebted for its origin to a temple of Fortune, a fact com- 
memorated by a modern statue of fortune on the public fountain. 
It afterwards prospered, and is now a pleasant little town (20,000 
inhab., incl. suburbs), surrounded by ancient walls and a deep moat. 
I he once celebrated harbour is now unimportant. Pope Clement VIII. 
(Aldobrandini) was born at Fano in 1536. The first printing-press 
with Arabic type was set up here in 1514 at the cost of Pope Ju- 
lius II. As a sea-bathing place Fano is less expensive than Rimini. 

In the centre of the town is the Piazza, in which (in the 
mediaeval Palazzo della Bagione') is the Theatre , formerly one of 


100 Route 12. FANO. From Bologna 

the most famous in Italy, rebuilt by ToreUi, a native architect, and 
decorated by Bibbiena (d. 1774). One of the rooms contains (tempo- 
rarily) a David with the head of Goliath, by Domenichino (formerly 
in the Oollegio Nolfl) , which unfortunately was much injured by 
thieves in 1871 . — The old Palazzo del Municipio is seen through 
the arches to the right of the market-place. 

The S. side of the Piazza, which is enlivened by a fountain of 
flowing water, is skirted by the Corso. Following the latter to the 
right , we reach the Via dell' Arco d' Augusto , the second cross- 
street to the left. In a small piazza here rises the Cathedral of 
S. Forttjnato, the four recumbent lions in front of which formerly 
supported the pillars of the portico. The portal dates from the 13tb 

In the Interior the chapel of S. Girolamo (the 2nd to the left) contains 
a monument of the Eainalducci family ; nearly opposite (4th to the right) 
is a chapel adorned with sixteen frescoes by Domenichino, once admirable, 
now disfigured by restoration. — In the chapel of the sacristy, a Madonna 
with saints, by L. Carracci. — In the court of the Vescovado, behind the 
cathedral, are some sculptures of the 13th century. 

Farther on we come to the *Arch op Augustus, which spans 
the street, a structure of simple design, to which a second story 
was added in the 4th cent. , when it was re-dedicated to Constan- 
tine. It once had three openings , as is shown by a view of it on 
the adjacent church of S. Michele, adjoining the handsome Renais- 
sance portal. — On the side of the arch next the town is the Spedale 
degli Esposti, a pleasing edifice with loggie. 

Returning to the piazza, we follow the Via Boccaccio opposite the 
fountain, and then take the Via Bonaccorsi, inclining to the left, to 
the church of S. Maria Nuova, with portico. 

Interior. 1st chapel on the left: Giov. Santi, Visitation; 2nd chapel: 
Perugino, Annunciation, 1498. 3rd chapel on the right: "Perugino, Ma- 
donna and saints, 1497; admirable predelle, recalling Raphael's style. 

8. Croce , the hospital-church , contains a *Madonna with four 
saints, by Giovanni Santi. — S. Paterniano, dedioated to the first 
bishop of Fano, a handsome structure, possesses a Betrothal of the 
Virgin, by Ouercino. — S. Pietro is an imposing and richly-decorated 
church, with frescoes by Viviani; in the chapel of the Gabrielli (1st 
on the left) an Annunciation by Ouido Beni. — In 8. Agostino is a 
painting of S. Angelo Custode, by Ouercino. — In the vestibule oi 
8. Francesco (closed) are the monuments of Pandolfo III. Malatesta 
(d. 1427; to the right), perhaps by L. B. Alberti, 1460, and his 
wife Paola Bianca (d. 1398; left). 

Interesting excursion to the Monte Oiove, by a good road (4 M.). At 
the top is a monastery, where visitors are lodged. Splendid view of the 

From Fano to Fossato via Fossomerone and the Furlo Pass, corriere 
daily: to Fossombrone 2'/2, to Cagli 672, to Schieggia 10, and to Fossato 
12'/2 brs., including halts for meals. The road is identical with the ancient 
Via Flaminia, constructed in B.C. 220 by the Censor C. Flaminius (who fell 
at the Battle of the Trasimenc Lake , see p. 46) , in order to secure pos- 
session of the district of the Po which had been recently wrested from the 

to Ancona. FOSSOMBRONE. 12. Route. 101 

Gauls. The road quits Fano by the Arch of Augustus and the Porta 
Maggiore , and skirts the N. bank of the Metaurus , the fertile valley of 
which is well cultivated. About 1 M. from Fossombrone, near the church 
of S. Marlino al Piano, was once situated the Roman colony of Forum 
Sempronii, of which but scanty remains now exist. After its destruction 
by the Goths and Lombards, the modern Fossombrone sprang up. 

15'/2 M. Fossombrone (Tre Re; Pavone), long in possession of the 
Malatesta family, accrued to the States of the Church under Sixtus IV. 
It is now a busy little town with 9000 inhab. and silk-factories, prettily 
situated in the valley, which contracts here, and commanded by a castle,. 
— From Fossombrone to Urbino, see p. 99. 

The Via Flaminia about 2 M. from Fossombrone crosses the Metaurus, 
which descends from the valley near S. Angelo in Vado from the N., and 
follows the left bank of the Candigliano, which at this point empties itself 
into the Metaurus. The valley soon contracts; to the right rises the hill 
of Pietralala, occasionally named Monte d'Asdrubale. Here, according to 
the popular tradition , was fought the memorable battle of the Metaurus 
in which, B.C. 207, Hasdrubal, whilst marching to the aid of his brother 
Hannibal with 60,000 men , was signally defeated and slain by the consuls 
Livius Saliuator and Claudius Nero. This was the great event which 
decided the 2nd Pnnic War in favour of Rome. 

The valley now becomes still more confined and is bounded by pre- 
cipitous slopes. At the narrowest part , where the rocky walls approach 
so near each other as to leave space for the river only, is the celebrated 
*Furlo Pass (Furlo from forulus = passage, the ancient petra intercisd), 
a tunnel 17 ft. wide, 14 ft. high, and about 32 yds. in length. The founder 
of the work was the Emp. Vespasian (in A. D. 76) , as the inscription 
preserved at the N. entrance records (Imp. Caesar. Augustus. Vespasianus. 
pont. max. trib. pot. VII. imp. XVII. p(ater) d(alrice) cos. VIII. censor, 
faciund. curavit). — A little beyond it is the small church Badia del Furlo. 
At the confluence of the Candigliano and Burano, 8 M. from Fossombrone, 
lies the village of Acqualagna. The road crosses the Candigliano and then 
follows the left bank of the Burano. At the foot of the hill on which 
Cagli is situated, an antique bridge, built of huge masses of rock, crosses 
a tributary brook. 

31 M. Cagli (Italia, in the Piazza, charges according to bargain) occu- 
pies the site of the ancient borough of Gales, or Calle. S. Domenico contains 
one of the chief works of Giovanni Santi, Raphael's father, a Madonna 
with saints, al fresco. The angel on the right of the Madonna is said to 
be a portrait of the young Raphael. Also a Pieta with St. Jerome and 
Bonaventura , by the same master. S. Francesco and S. Angelo Minore 
also possess several pictures. — Travellers beyond Cagli are generally 
conveyed in smaller carriages. About 6 M. beyond Cagli is Cantiano, with 
3000 inhab. ; the church delta Collegiata contains a Holy Family by Peru- 
gino. — The road ascends rapidly, and reaches the height of the pass, 
2400 ft. above the sea. A little before arriving at Schieggia the road 
crosses a ravine by the curious Ponte a Bolte, constructed in 1805. 

43 ] |2 M. Schieggia, an insignificant place, lies at the junction of the 
roads to Fossato and Foligno, and to (6 M.) Gubbio (the latter leading over 
the pass of Monte Calvo; carriage 5-6 fr.). On Monte Petrara, in the 
vicinity, amid oak-plantations, stand the ruins of the celebrated temple 
of Jupiter Apenninus , whose worship was peculiar to the Umbrians. 
Several bronzes and inscriptions have been discovered in the environs. 

The main road continues to descend the green valley of the Chiascio, 
and leads via Costacciaro and Sigillo (stalactite caves) to — 

55 M. Fossato, a station on the Ancona and Rome line, p. 109. 

Beyond Fano the train crosses the river Metaurus (see above], 
celebrated as the scene of Hasdrubal's defeat (B.C. 207); then the 
Cesano, near (105 M.) stat. Marotta. 

112 M. Sinigaglia or Senigallia (*Albergo Roma, near the har- 
bour; Trattoria del Oiardino, near the Municipio), the ancient Sena 

102 Route 13. ANCONA. Hotels. 

Oallica, with 22,500 inhab. (including villages), chiefly occupied 
in fishing. The town was destroyed by Pompey during the Civil 
War between Marius and Sulla. It was an episcopal see as early as 
the 4th cent., but was afterwards frequently devastated by fire and 
sword, so that it now presents quite a modern appearance. Pope 
Pius IX. (Conte Mastai-Ferretti) was born here on 13th May, 1792 
(d. 1878). A fair, instituted in the 13th cent., is held here from 
30th July to 8th Aug. annually ; it was once the most frequented 
in Italy, but has long since lost its importance. In summer Sini- 
gaglia is a favourite sea-bathing place. — The monastery-church of 
S. Maria delle Orazie (2 M. distant) contains in the choir a picture 
by Perugino (retouched), and over the 3rd altar on the right a 
small Madonna by Piero della Francesco. 

119Y2 M. Montemarciano. Pleasant view of the promontory of 
Ancona , rising from the sea. The train crosses the Esino. At 
(122 M.) stat. Falconara passengers for the line to Rome change 
carriages (see R. 14). The town lies on the hill to the right. 

127 M. Ancona, see R. 13. 

13. Ancona and its Environs. Osimo. Loreto. 

Hotels. "Vittokia (PI. b; C, D, 3), in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele, 
well fitted up, R. 2>/2, D- 5 fr. ; Alb. Reale della Pace (PI. a; C, 3), with 
good restaurant, R. 372, D. 4, omn. 1 fr. ; -Milano (PI. c; C, 4), Corso di 
Porta Pia, commercial, with restaurant and garden. Hotel-omnibuses at 
the station. — Cafe. Stoppani & Leva, in the Corso. — Trattoria. Leon 
cTOro, in the Corso. 

Post Office (PI. 20; 8-8 o'clock), Piazza Roma. — Telegraph Office, 
Via del Porto. 

Gabs. One-horse cab from station to town, iacl. luggage, 1, at night 
IV2 fr. ; two-horse 1V2 or 2 fr. — For 1 hr. l'/2-2 fr. ; each 1/2 hr. more, 
60-80 c. — Beyond the town, 2 fr. 50 or 3 fr. 60 c. for 1 hr. ; each 1/2 hr. 
more, 1 fr. 15 or 1 fr. 70 c. 

Tramway from the station through the Via Nazionale to the Piazza 
del Teatro and the Piazza Cavour. 

Steamboats of the Peninsular and Oriental Company on Frid. mornings 
to Brindisi and Alexandria; on Sun. to Venice. Societa Eiunite FloHo- 
Bubattino , on Mod. mornings to Zara in Dalmatia, in 9 hrs. ; on Mon. 
afternoons to Tremiti, Viesti, Bari , Brindisi, the Piraus, and Constanti- 
nople; on Tues. nights to Venice, in 12 hrs. Austrian Lloyd, to Zara and 
Fiume every alternate Sat. ; to Trieste every alternate Sunday. 

Sea Baths, near the railway -station. Warm Baths, Piazza Stamura 
(PI. E, 4). 

British Vice-Consul, Sig. Albert P Tomassini (also American Consular 

Ancona, the capital of a province, with 28,000 inhab. (incl. 
suburbs 47,700), of whom upwards of 6000 are Jews, and possessing 
an excellent harbour, is beautifully situated between the promon- 
tories of Monte Astagno (PI. C, 6) and Monte Guasco (PI. C, 1). 
Since 1860 the government has improved the harbour and endeav- 
oured to foster the trade of Ancona , but business has declined 
somewhat of late years. Silk and oil are largely manufactured here. 

Ancona was founded by Doric Greeks from Syracuse, and thence named 
Dorica Aneon (i.e. 'elbow', from the form of the promontory). It was 

. .rStazLcme'dfillaPerrcrvia 

Wagner & Debes, Leipzig 

Cathedral. ANCONA. 13. Route. 103 

afterwards a Roman colony, and the harbour was enlarged by Trajan. In 
the middle ages it repeatedly recovered from the ravages of the Goths and 
others, and in 1532 was made over by Gonzaga to Pope Clement VII., who 
built a fort and garrisoned it. Ancona is also frequently mentioned as a 
fortress in modern history. Thus in 1796 it was surrendered to the French, 
in 1799 to the Austrians, in 1805 to the French again ; and in 1815 it was 
ceded to the pope, to whom it belonged till 1860. In 1832-38 the citadel 
was garrisoned by the French, to keep in check the Austrians, who held 
Bologna and the surrounding provinces. In 1849 the town revolted, but on 
18th June was re-captured by the Austrians. On 20th Sept., 1860, after the 
Battle of Castelfidardo (p. 105), it was Anally occupied by the Italians. 

The Habboue,, an oval basin of about 990 by 880 yds. in dia- 
meter, is considered one of the best in Italy. A handsome quay, 
called the Banchine, has recently been completed. The N. pier 
is of ancient Roman origin. At the beginning of it rises the well- 
preserved marble *Triumphal Arch (PI. 2; B, 1), erected A.D. 112 
by the Roman senate in honour of Trajan on the completion of the 
new quays, as the inscription records. The holes to which its ori- 
ginal bronze enrichments were attached are still observed. The 
new pier constructed by Pope Clement XII. , a continuation of the 
old, also boasts of a Triumphal Arch (P\. 1 ; B, 1), designed by Van- 
vitelli, but far inferior to the other. Its facade is towards the sea 
and has no inscription. At the S. angle of the harbour is the old 
Lazzaretto, built in 1732, now a bonded warehouse [Magazzini 
Generali, PI. B, 5). The harbour is defended by several forts. 

The *Cathedral of S. Ciriaco (PI. 6 ; C, 1), dedicated to the first 
bishop of Ancona, stands on the Monte Guasco (PL C. 1), one of 
the above-named promontories , which shelters the harbour from 
the N.E., and an excellent point of view. The church occupies the 
site of a temple of Venus mentioned by Catullus and Juvenal, and 
contains ten beautiful columns which once belonged to the ancient 
temple. Like St. Mark's at Venice, it is. in a mixed Lombard and 
Oriental style of architecture , and in the form of a Greek cross, 
each of the arms being flanked with aisles. The octagonal dome 
over the centre of the cross is one of the oldest in Italy. The facade 
(13th cent.), ascribed to Margaritone cVArezzo, has a beautiful Go- 
thic portico, the foremost columns of which rest on red lions. 

In the Left Aisle, in front, is a handsome tomb of 1530. In the 
Right Transept the semi-Byzantine capitals have been preserved; the 
railing of the steps to the choir d;ites from the 12th century. In the Crypt, 
to the right, sculptures of the 13th cent.; relief of Christ between an ox 
and a lion, by Philippus; beneath, Head of Christ and St. George; tomb 
of the Franciscan B. Gabriel Ferretti (1456) ; in the corner, three statuettes 
(12th cent.); reliefs, probably from the ancient choir of the left transept; 
"Sarcophagus of Titus Fl(avius) Gorgonius, Preetor of Ancona, with scenes 
from the life of Christ (the Nativity, Adoration, Baptism, Entry into Jeru- 
salem, Christ before Pilate, Christ as Judge, Christ and the apostles with 
Gorgonius and his wife at the Saviour's feet; 4th cent.); farther on, Roman 
head; statue of St. Primianus; relief of Christ (12th cent.); sarcophagus 
of St. Marcellinus. — The Crypt of the Left (modernised) Transept 
contains the tombs of SS. Cyriacas, Marcellinus, and Liborius, in the 
rococo style. 

Pope Pius II. Piccolomini, while vainly endeavouring to organise 

104 Route 13. ANCONA. 

a crusade against the Turks, died in the Episcopal Palace, adjoining 
the cathedral, in 1464. — Within a house at the foot of the hill are 
scanty remains of a Roman Amphitheatre. 

The Palazzo Comunale (PI. 15; C, 2) has been frequently re- 
built; in the 13th cent, by Margaritone d'Arezzo, in the 15th by 
Francesco di Oiorgio, and finally in the 17th century. The statues 
of Adam and Eve on the facade and the lower part of the rear date 
from the 13th cent, building. On the staircase in the interior is a 
statue of the law-giver Marco de' Rossi (14th cent.). — Close, by in 
the Via del Porto, is the church of S. Maria della Misericordia, with 
an elegant early-Renaissance portal. 

The Strada delle Scuole descends from the Palazzo Comunale 
to the left, to the church of S. Francesco (PI. 9 ; D, 3 ; now a bar- 
rack), resting on a massive substructure, with a rich Gothic portal 
by Oiorgio da Sebenico (1455). — The street next leads (r.) to the 
Prefettura, the fine court of which is flanked by Gothic arcades, and 
has a fine Renaissance archway. We proceed through the court to 
the high-lying Piazza del Plebiscito (PI. D, 3), adorned with a 
statue of Clement XII. (Corsini, 1730-40), by Comachini. — Farther 
up is the church of S. Domenico (PI. 7), which contains a Madonna 
and saints by Titian (in the 4th Chapel on the right), beautiful and 
imposing in its composition, though now much injured. 

Adjoining the church on the right is the Museum (Civicd Pina- 
coteca Podesti e Museo Archeologico delle Marche). 

Vestibule. Keystones from the doorways of houses and other reliefs 
of the 13th cent. ; also large groups , Cain and Abel from the old Palazzo 
Comunale, etc. — Room I. Roman antiquities and coins. — Room II. Antique 
bronzes and vases; medals. 

Upper Floor. Room I. Paintings and drawings by Francesco Podesti. 

— Room II. *i. Carlo Crivelli, Small Madonna ; 8. Titian, Crucifixion (dam» 
aged) ; 9. Pellegrino Tibaldi, Baptism of Christ: f 1. Guercino, Cleopatra ; 
13. Lorenzo Lotto, Assumption of the Virgin; 27. Ciccarelli, Relief of the 
Madonna; 30. Guercino, St. Pelagia ; "37. Lorenzo Lotto, Madonna and saints. 

The street descending to the right from the Prefettura leads to 
the Loggia dei Mercanti (Exchange, PI. 14; C, 3), an early-Gothic 
edifice with a facade of 1459. In the iiiterior are paintings by Pel- 
legrino Tibaldi and stucco-work by Varl'e. — Adjoining is the pretty 
Palazzo Benincasa (15th cent.). — Farther on to the right we reach 
the church of <S. Maria della Piazza (PI. 11 ; C, 3), with a rich *Fa- 
cade of the beginning of the 13th cent. ; the sculptures byFilippus. 

— We return through the Via della Loggia to the Piazza del Teatko 
( PI. C, 3), the centre of business, beyond which is 8. Agostino, with 
a late-Gothic portal showing a Renaissance tendency. 

From the Piazza del Teatro the well -paved Cortso Vittorio 
Emanuele (PI. C, D, E, 4; tramway) ascends towards the E., 
through the new quarters of the town. At the end is the spacious 
Piazza Cavoue, with a colossal statue of the minister in the centre 
(PI. 21 ; E, 4). 

OSIMO. 13. Route. 105 

Excursions from Ancona. 

The Province of Ancona, the ancient Picenum, is -a remarkably fertile 
district, abounding in beautiful scenery. The Apennines send forth a series 
of parallel spurs towards the sea, forming a number of short, but pictur- 
esque valleys. The towns and villages are invariably situated conspicuously 
on the heights. To the W. the view is bounded by the Central Apen- 
nines , which here attain their greatest elevation in several continuous 
ranges, from the Montagna delta Sibilla to the Gran Sasso cPIlalia (9815 ft.), 
and are covered with snow till July. Towards the E. glitters the broad 
Adriatic, on which numerous sails are visible in clear weather. 

On the coast, 9 M. to the S. of Ancona, rises the *Monte 
Conero (1760 ft.), with an old Camaldulensian monastery, com- 
manding a superb panorama. The pedestrian follows a tolerable 
road over the coast-hills nearly as far as (7M.) Sirolo (2000inhab.), 
whence a path to the left ascends in 8/4 hr. to the top. A carriage 
(see p. 102) may be taken as far as the foot of the hill. 

The Ancona-Foggia Railway (to Loreto, 15 M., in 36-55 min.; 
fares 2 fr. 70, 1 fr. 90, 1 fr. 20 c, express 2 fr. 95, 2 fr. 5 c; to 
Porto Civitanova, 27 M., in 1 hr. 5 min. to l 3 / 4 hr.) penetrates the 
heights enclosing Ancona by means of a tunnel. To the left, Monte 
Conero. 4 M. Varano. 

10 M. Osimo (Albergo della Corona, in the market-place ; om- 
nibus from the station to the town, 3 M., 75 c), the ancient 
Auximum, colonised by the Romans B.C. 157, and mentioned by 
Caesar, is now a country-town with 5000 inhab., and lies on a hill 
in a commanding position. The greater part of the *Town Wall, 
dating from the 2nd cent. B.C., still exists. A walk round it affords 
a beautiful view. The Palazzo Pubblico in the large Piazza contains 
inscriptions and statues in Roman dress, found on the site of the 
ancient forum in the 15th cent., but barbarously mutilated on the 
occasion of the capture of the town by the Milanese in the 16th 
century. The Cathedral contains a line bronze font of the 16th 

Proceeding hence by railway, we perceive, to the right, Castel- 
fidardo, where on 18th Sept. 1860, the papal troops under Lamo- 
riciere were totally defeated by the Italians under Cialdini. 

15M. Loreto [Campantlla, or Posta, in the principal street; 
omnibus to the town 60 c), situated on a hill at some dis- 
tance from the line, and affording admirable *Views of the sea, 
the Apennines , and the province of Ancona, is a celebrated resort 
of pilgrims (nearly half a million annually). It consists of little 
more than a single long street, full of booths for the sale of rosa- 
ries, medals, images, etc., and is much infested by beggars. 

According to the legend, the house of the Virgin at Nazareth became 
an object of profound veneration after the year 336, when the aged 
Empress Helena, mother of Constantine, made a pilgrimage thither, and 
caused a basilica to be erected over it. Owing to the incursions of the 
Saracens the basilica fell to decay, and after the loss of Ptolemals the 
Casa Santa was miraculously transplanted by the hands of angels in 1291 
to the coast of Dalmatia (the precise spot being between Fiume and 

106 Route 13. LORETO. Environs 

Tersato), where it remained undisturbed during three years. For some un- 
known reason, however, it was again removed by angels during the night, 
and deposited near Recanati, on the ground of a certain widow Laureta 
(whence the name Loreto). A church was erected over it, and houses soon 
sprang up for the accommodation of the believers who flocked to the spot. 
In 1586 Pope Sixtus V. accorded to Loreto the privileges of a town. 

Among the numerous pilgrims who have visited this spot may be 
mentioned Tasso, who thus alludes to it: — 

'Ecco fra le tempeste, e i fieri venti 

Di questo grande e spazioso mare, 

sania Stella, il tito splendor m'ha scorto, 

CIC illustra e scalda pur Vumane menW. 

The *Chiesa della Casa Santa has been repeatedly restored 
since 1464. The handsome facade was erected under Sixtus V., a 
colossal statue of whom adorns the entrance flight of steps. Over 
the principal door is a life-size statue of the Madonna and Child, 
by Girolamo Lombardo , his sons , and his pupils ; there are also 
three superb bronze-doors, executed under Pope Paul V., 1605-21. 
The campanile , designed by Vanvitelli , is a very lofty structure in 
a richly-decorated style, surmounted by an octagonal pyramid. The 
pincipal bell, presented by Pope Leo X. in 1516, weighs 11 tons. 

In the Ihteiuor, to the left of the entrance, is a beautiful !B Font, cast 
in bronze by Tiburzio Verzelli and Giambatlista Vitale , and adorned with 
basreliefs and figures of Faith, Hope, Charity, and Fortitude. On the al- 
tars and in the chapels of the nave are 'Mosaics representing St. Francis 
of Assisi, by Domenichino, and the Archangel Michael, by Guido Jteni; also 
a number of valuable pictures, frescoes, and sculptures. 

In the centre of the church rises the 'Casa Santa 1 (or 'Holy House'), 
a simple brick-building, 13>/2 ft. in height, 28 ft. in length, and 12'/2 ft. 
in width, surrounded by a lofty "Marble Screen designed by Bramante, 
and executed by Andrea Sansovino, Girolamo Lombardo, Giovanni da Bo- 
logna, Bandinelli, Tribolo, Guglielmo delta Porta, etc., with bronze doors by 
Girolamo Lombardo. This handsome work was begun under Leo X., con- 
tinued under Clement VII., and completed uuder Paul III. It is adorned 
with statues of prophets and sibyls, and with reliefs, among which are: — 

W. Side. Annunciation, by Sansovino, termed by Vasari, 'una opera 
divina' ; smaller representations by Sangallo , Gir. Lombardo , and Gugl. 
delta Porta. 

S. Side. Nativity, by Sansovino; David and Goliath, Sibyls, Ado- 
ration of the Magi, by other masters. 

E. Side. Arrival of the Santa Casa at Loreto, by Niccolb Tribolo; 
above it, Death of the Virgin, by Domenico Ainio of Bologna. 

N. Side. Nativity of the Virgin, begun by Sansovino, continued by 
Baccio Bandinelli and Rafaele da Montelupo. Basreliefs: Nuptials of the 
Virgin, by the same masters. 

In a niche of the interior is a small black image of the Virgin and 
Child, in cedar, attributed to St. Luke. It is richly adorned with jewels, 
the lustre of which is enhanced by silver lamps always kept burning. 
In 1798 it was carried oil" to Paris by the French. 

In the N. Transept is the entrance to the "Treasur/i (open to the 
public on Sun. till 11.30 a.m.; at other times fee 1 fr.) , which contains 
valuable votive offerings ;md curiosities, the gifts of monarchs and persons 
of rank. Several of the treasures disappeared at the time of the Peace of 
Tolentino (1797). The ceiling-painting is by Pomarancio, who also painted 
the now damaged frescoes in the dome. 

In the Piazza in front of the church are situated the Jesuits' 
College and the — 

*Palazzo Apostolico, begun in 1510 from designs by Bra- 

of Ancona, LORETO. 13. Route. 107 

mante. It contains a small picture-gallery (Titian , Christ and the 
woman taken in adultery ; Vouet, Last Supper; Schidone, St. Clara; 
Guercino, Descent from the Cross; Ann. Carracci, Nativity, etc.); 
a hall with Tapestries after Raphael's Cartoons (Paul at Lystra, 
Healing the Lame, 'Feed my Sheep', Elymas the Sorcerer, Holy 
Family, Miraculous Draught of Fishes, St. Paul's Speech); and a 
*Collection of Majolicas, chiefly from the well-known manufactory 
in Urbino (1 fr.). 

The next station beyond Loreto is — 

17!/ 2 M. Eecanati, loftily situated at some distance from the 
line, and commanding charming views. It was a fortified and impor- 
tant place in the middle ages. A charter of municipal privileges ac- 
corded to it by Emp. Frederick II. in 1229 is shown at the Palazzo 
Comunale. The Cathedral of S. Flaviano , with a Gothic porch, 
contains the monument of Gregory XII., of 1417. Several of the 
palaces deserve notice, especially that of the Leopardi, containing 
the collections of the scholar and poet Qiacomo Leopardi (d. 1837). 

Excursion from Recanati to Macerata (see below), passing the rnins of 
Helvia Ricina (remains of an amphitheatre, bridge, etc., on the Potenza), 
Omnibus from Macerata to stat. Civitanova. 

The train crosses the Potenza. 23 M. Potenza Picena , named 
after a Roman colony, the ruins of which have disappeared. On the 
hill, 4y 2 M. distant, lies Montesanto. 

27 M. Porto Civitanova, at the mouth of the Chienti ; the town 
of Civitanova lies 1 M. inland. — Thence to Pescara, Foggia, etc., 
see Baedeker's Southern Italy. 

Fkom Pokto Civitanova to Fabbiano, 59'/2 M., railway in about 4 hrs. 
— The line at first ascends the fertile valley of the Chienti. The principal 
stations are as under. 

1772 M. Macerata (Pace; Posta), a flourishing town with 20,300 inhab., 
capital of the province of Macerata , picturesquely situated on the heights 
between the valleys of the Chienti and Potenza, possesses a university , an 
agricultural academy, etc. In the Cathedral a Madonna with St. Francis 
and St. Julian, ascribed to Perugino. In S. Giovanni an Assumption of 
the Virgin, by Lanfranco. The Palazzo Municipale and the Pal. Compagnoni 
contain inscriptions and antiquities from Helvia Ricina (see above), after 
the destruction of which the modern towns of Recanati and Macerata 
sprang up. Macerata also has a modern triumphal arch, called the Porta 
Pia. The Biblioteca Comunale contains a small Pinacoteca, the chief treasures 
of which are a Madonna and SS. Julian and Anthony of Padua by Gentile da 
Fabriano (Nos. 35, 22), a Madonna by Carlo Crivelli (1470; No. 36), and a 
Madonna with saints by Alegretto da Fabriano (1368; No. 39). Outside 
the gate, 3 /< M. from the town, is the church of the Madonna delle Vergine, 
ascribed to Bramante. 

22 M. Vrbisaglia, the Roman Vrbs Salvia, with extensive ruins, am- 
phitheatre, walls, baths, etc. 

28'/2 M. Tolentino (Corona, tolerable), the ancient Tolentinum Picenum, 
prettily situated on the Chienti, with 12,000 inhab., was once strongly 
fortified. The Palazzo Municipale in the Piazza contains a few Roman 
antiquities, the most important of which is a female portrait-statue of the 
time of the Flavian emperors. The Basilica di S. Niccolb possesses a court 
of the 13th cent, and a Gothic "Portal, presented to his native town by 
Niccolo Mauruzzi, the celebrated condottiere (1435). A chapel in the 
interior is adorned with frescoes from the life of St. Nicholas, by Lorenzo 
and Jacopo da San Severino , and another contains two paintings of the 

108 Route 14. JESI. From Ancona 

Venetian school (the Fire at St. Mark's at Venice, and the Plague in 
Sicily). The church of S. Francesco, dating from the 13th cent., contains 
a fresco of the Crucifixion executed in 1360 (chapel to the right of the 
high-altar) and another of 1475, representing the Madonna and S. Amicone 
healing the infirm (chapel to the left). The church of S. Caiervo, on the 
E. side of the town, possesses an early- Christian sarcophagus, embellished 
with reliefs (Adoration of the Magi, Christ as the Good Shepherd) and 
containing the remains of St. Catervus , who is highly revered in the 
Marches. The frescoes of the Crucifixion and the Evangelists date from 
the 15th century. The Pal. Gentiloni contains the proceeds of the ex- 
cavations carried on by Count Silveri Gentiloni since 1880 in the Picene 
necropolis surrounding the town (adm. by visiting-card). The tombs, dating 
from c. 525-350 B.C., yield numerous weapons and amber ornaments. The 
learned Francis Philelphus , one of the first students and disseminators of 
classical literature, was born at Tolentino in 1388. — The picturesque 
environs command fine views of the mountains. 

The railway now quits the Chienti and enters the valley of the Po- 
tenza. — 35 M. San Severino delle Marche, 6 M. to the N.W. of Tolentino 
and about as far S. of Castel-Raimondo (see below), in the valley of the 
Potenza, arose from the ruins of the ancient Septempeda. In the church del 
Castello, frescoes by Diotisalvi d'Angeluzzo, and an altar-piece by Niccolb da 
Foligno (1468) ; in the sacristy of the Duomo Nuovo a Madonna by Pinturicchio. 
S. Lorenzo stands on the site of an ancient temple. Inscriptions and anti- 
quities in the town-hall, and at the residence of the Conte Servanzi-Collio. 

From (42 M.) Castel-Raimondo a road leads to the S. to (6 M.) Camerino, 
the ancient Camerinum Umbrorum, once the capital of the Umbrian Camertes, 
who during the Samnite wars allied themselves with Rome against the 
Etruscans. It is the seat of a bishopric (founded in 252). The cathedral of 
S. Sovino occupies the site of a temple of Jupiter; in front of it is a bronze 
Statue of Pope Sixtus V., of 1587. The painter Carlo Maralla was born here 
in 1625 (d. at Rome in 1713). 

47 M. Matelica, a town with 4000 inhab., possessing pictures by Pal- 
mezzano and Eusebio di S. Giorgio in the church of S. Francesco , and a 
small picture-gallery in the Pal. Piersanti. — 54 M. Albacina. — 59>|2 M. 
Fabriano, see p. 109. 

14. From Ancona to Foligno (Orte, Rome). 

80 M. Railway in 4-5'/ 2 hrs. (fares 14 fr. 60, 10 fr. 25, 6 fr. 60 c. ; ex- 
press 16 fr. 5, 11 fr. 25 c). To Rome (183 M.) in 8V2-I2 hrs. (fares 33 fr. 
35, 23 fr. 30, 15 fr. 5 c. ; express, 36 fr. 70, 25 fr. 65 c). 

The train runs on the rails of the Bologna line, which with the 
old road skirts the coast (to the right a retrospect of the town and 
harbour), as far as (5y 2 M.) Falconara (p. 102). 

Here the train diverges to the S.W. into the valley of the 
Esino (Lat. JEsis), which it soon crosses at (10'/2 M.) Chiaravalle, 
a small town with a Cistercian monastery. 

I71/2 M. Jesi (*Alb. if Trattoria della Speranza ; Corona), with 
20,000 inhab. (incl. villages), now one of the most prosperous man- 
ufacturing towns of the province , was the ancient JEsis , where 
the Emp. Frederick II., the illustrious son of Henry VI. and Con- 
stantia of Sicily, and grandson of Frederick Barbarossa, was born 
on 26th Dec. 1194. The picturesque town-walls, dating from the 
middle ages, are in good preservation. The Cathedral is dedicated 
to the martyr St. Septimius, the first bishop of Jesi (308). The 
Palazzo Pubblico, now the Prefettura, bears the town-arms 'within 

to Foligno. NOCERA. 14. Route. 109 

an elaborate Renaissance border. Jesi was also the birthplace of 
the composer G. Spontini (1778-1851). 

The valley contracts, and the train crosses the river twice. 26 M. 
Castel Planio. Beyond (30y 2 M.) SerraS. Quirico, near Monte Rosso, 
the valley narrows to a wild ravine, endangered by falling rocks. 
Long tunnel through the Monte Rosso. 39 J /2 M. Albacina, junction 
for Porto Civitanova (p. 107). 

44y 2 M. Fabriano (Leond'Oro; Campana), a prosperous town 
with 18,000 inhab. (incl. suburbs), noted since the 14th cent, for its 
paper-manufactories, lies near the sites of the ancient Tuficum and 
Attidium. The Town Hall contains ancient inscriptions and a small 
collection of pictures. The Campanile opposite bears a bombastic in- 
scription about the unity of Italy. The churches of 8. Niccolb, 
S. Benedetto, 8. Agostino, and S. Lucia, and the private houses 
Casa Morichi and Fornari, contain pictures of the Fabriano school, 
of which Gentile da Fabriano (? 1370-1450; p. 48) was the head. 
— Railway to Porto Civitanova, see p. 107. 

From Fabriano a mountain-road (9 M.) leads via the picturesque La 
Oenga to the lofty Sassoferrato , situated in a fertile valley, consisting 
of the upper and lower town, with 2000 inhab., and possessing interesting 
churches and pictures. Giambattista Salvi, surnamed Sassoferrato, was 
born here in 1605; he was especially noted for his Madonnas, and died at 
Rome in 1685. S. Pietro contains a Madonna by him. In the vicinity are the 
ruins of the ancient Sentinum, where, B. C. 296, the great decisive battle took 
place between the Romans and the allied Samnites, Gauls, Umbrians, and 
Etruscans , in which the consul Decius heroically sacrificed himself. The 
Roman supremacy over the whole of Italy was thus established. 

Beyond Fabriano the train skirts the brook Oiano , and pene- 
trates the central Apennine chain by a tunnel l 1 /^ M. long. 

At (54!/ 2 M.) Fossato (junction of the line from Arezzo to Fos- 
sato, pp. 56-59) we enter the plain of the Chiascio. To the left on 
the hill, Palazzolo ; to the right, Pellegrino ; to the left, Palazzo and 
8. Facondino. 

58 M. GualdoTadino, a small town with 7000 inhab., lies about 
2 M. from the railway (cab 40 c.) , near the insignificant Tuins of 
the ancient Tadinum. In 552 Narses defeated and slew the Ostro- 
gothic king Totila here , and owing to this victory , soon gained 
possession of Rome. In the Palazzo Comunale is a small picture- 
gallery with a Pieta by Niccolo Alunno (1471) and works by native 
artists ; in the corridor are an ancient sarcophagus and a few in- 
scriptions. The church of 8. Francesco contains an altar-piece by 
Niccolo Alunno (1471). The Cathedral has a fine rose-window; in 
the sacristy, pictures by NiccolS Alunno. 

The train gradually descends to (68 M.) Nocera, an episcopal 
town, on the site of the ancient Nuceria, a city of the Umbri (3 M. 
from the station; omn.). The Cathedral and the church of the Ma- 
dernina contain a few tolerable paintings. Some admirable frescoes 
of 1434 were discovered in 1877 on the organ-screen of <S. Fran- 
cesco, and others of less importance (c. 1500) in the nave and choir. 

1 10 Route Id. VALTOPINA. 

The Orfanotrofeo (Vescovado Antico) contains portraits of the bis- 
hops of Nocera from the 1st cent, of our era(?), painted in 1659. 
Near the town are mineral springs, known since 1510. 

The train now enters the narrow Val Topina, crosses the brook 
several times, passes through a tunnel, and descends by Ponte Cen- 
tesimo to — 

80 M. Foligno ; thence to Rome, see pp. 79-87 and 66-68. 


Arrival. At the railway-station (Plan I, 25) numerous hotel-omnibuses 
are in waiting, for the use of which a charge of l-l'/2 fr. is made in the 
bill. Open one-horse Cab for 1-2 pers. , 1 fr. ; at night 1 fr. 20 c. ; Closed 
one-horse Cab 1-2 pers. 1 fr. 20 c, at night 1 fr. 30 c. ; each additional pers. 
20 c, at night 40 c. ; Two-horse Carriage, for 1-4 pers., 2 fr., at night 
21/2 fr. ; each addit. pers. 20 c, at night 40 c. ; small articles of luggage 
free, each small box 20 c, trunk 50 c. Porter (facchino ) 25-60 c. — Police 
Office (Questura): Via SS. Apostoli 17 (PI. II, IB). — Railway enquiry and 
ticket offices in the town, Via della Propaganda 8 and Corso 218 ; also Thoe. 
Cook & Son, Piazza di Spagna 2. 

Embassies and Consulates. There are two classes of diplomatic agents 
at Rome, those accredited to the Italian government, and those accredited 
to the Papal court. The offices of two of the former class alone need here 
be mentioned : English Embassy, Marquis of Dufferin, Via Venti Settem- 
bre, near Porta Pia; American Legation, Hon. Albert O. Porter, Via Na- 
zionale 13 (office-hours 10-1). — English Consdlate : A. Roesler Franz, 
Esq., consul, Piazza S. Claudio 96. American Consulate: Son. Augustus O. 
Bourn, consul-general, Via Nazionale 13 (office-hours 10-2). 

Hotels (comp. pp. vi, xx). The best and most expensive are in the 
Strangers'' Quarter, between the Porta del Popolo and the Piazza di Spagna, 
and also between the latter and the railway-station (some of them incon- 
veniently situated). Several are closed during summer. 

"Hotel Quirinale (PI. I, 25, K) , Via Nazionale , a large hotel in the 
Swiss style, with lift, R. & L. 4-6, B. I1/2, lunch 3, D. 5-6, A. 1, omn. 1, 
'pension' 12 fr. and upwards ; 'Hotel dm Londres (PI. I, 17, c), Piazza di 
Spagna 13, with lift, D. excl. wine 6fr.; 'Bristol (PI. I, 22, x), Piazza 
Barberini, with lift; -Russia (PI. I, 18, 6), Via del Babuino 9, near the 
Piazza del Popolo, with a lift and a pleasant garden, R. from 3, B. IJ/2, 
lunch 3, D. 5, 'pension' 10 fr. and upwards ; Roma (PI. I, 17, i), Corso 128, 
with lift, R. 4, D. 5, B. IV2 fr. ; Europa (PI. I, 20, d), Piazza di Spagna 35. 
After these rank the 'Hotel Continental, Via Cavour 6, near the station, 
with lift; Hotel de la Ville (PI. I, 18, 0), Via del Babuino 196; Hotel 
de Paris (PI. I, 23, z), Via S. Nicola di Tolentino, with lift; 'Inghil- 
terra (PI. I, 17, /), Via Bocca di Leone 14, B. H/2, D. 5 fr. ; 'Hotel Royal, 
Via Venti Settembre, opposite the Finance Ministry (p. 168), new, with 
lift; Hotel Marini, Via del Tritone 17, with lift. At all these, 'pension' 
for a prolonged stay, 10-12 fr. per day, and upwards. 

Somewhat less expensive : Minerva (PI. II, 16, tn), Piazza della Mi- 
nerva 69, in the interior of the city, well spoken of, with lift, R. 3, B. l'/4, 
D. with wine 5 fr. ; 'Hotel Hassler (PI. I, 17, u) , Via Bocca di Leone 
68, 'pension' from HV2 fr., without lunch from 9 fr. (Feb. 1st -June 1st, 
12 and 9'|2 fr.), frequented almost exclusively by Germans , with restau- 
rant ; Eden Hotel (same proprietor), Via Ludovisi 49, with lift; Alle- 
magne (PI. I, 17, *), Via Condotti 18, well spoken of; Molaro (PI. I, 19, w), 
Via Gregoriana 56 , R. from 4, A. 1, L. s/ 4 , B. l'/2, lunch 3, D. 5 fr. ; 
Hotel-Pbnsion do Midi, Via delle Finanze ; Anglo-Americano, Via Frat- 
tina 128; Vittoria (PI. I, 19, I), Via Due Macelli 24; Laukati, Via Na- 

1 1'2 Prelim. Information. ROME. Restaurants. 

zionale 153-155, not far from the Piazza Venezia, with lift, R. 3'/2, L. 3 U, 
A. s /< fr. ; Milano, Via Colonna 22 and Piazza di Monte Citorio (PI. I, 16), 
frequented by the Italian deputies, with a restaurant; Alibeet (PI. 1,17, 
q), Viculo d'Alibert, quiet, E. 2'/2, A. i/a fr. i Cesaei (PI. I, 16, n), Via di 
Pietra; Italia (PI. I, 22, a a), Via Quattro Fontane 12, with lift; Posta, 
Via della Vite 29 (PI. I, 16, 19), R. from 2 fr. ; Hotel et Pension Cen- 
teale (PI. I, 16, ad), Piazza della Rosa 9; Cavoue, Via S. Chiara 5 (PI. 
II, 13, 16), R. from 2, 'pension' from 7 fr. ; Okiente (PI. I, 19, ab). Via 
del Tritone 80, R. from 2, 'pension' from 71/2 fr. ; Hotel du Sod (PI. I, 
19, v), Via Capo le Case 56; Hotel du Capitole, Corso 286-291, corner 
of the Piazza Venezia, 'pension' 8 fr., well spoken of, with a cafe-restau- 
rant ; Colonna, Piazza Colonna ; Senato, Via delle Coppelle 16, with re- 
staurant ; Albeego S. Chiaea, Via S. Chiaro 18, R. 2>/2 fr. — 'Pension' at 
all these hotels, except the smaller ones last mentioned, with or without 
luncheon. The price of the room is generally raised for those who do not 
take full 'pension', except in the last-named houses, where the visitor can 
arrange to be perfectly free. It is advisable to come at once to a distinct 
understanding as to the price of the room, including light and attendance. 

Pensions. Tellenbaoh, Via Due Macelli 66, near the Piazza di Spagna. 
with lift, pens. 7-9 fr. ; Avanzi, Via Capo le Case 75; Mrs. Mat, Via Lu-, 
dovisi 15; Leemasn, Via Cavour 71, 7-10 fr. according to the room; Miss 
Smith, Piazza di Spagna 93; Pension Fbancaise (Mme. Lavigne), Via del 
Tritone 36, with lift ; Bellevoe di Pincio, Via di Porta Pinciana 18, Eng- 
lish hostess, 8-10 fr. ; Mes. Chapman, Via S. ^Nicola da Tolentino 76, Ameri- 
can; Pension Unione, Piazza Monte Citorio 121; Mad. Michel, Via Sistina 
72; Keuegek, Via Nazionale 181, frequented by Americans, from 8 fr. per 
day; Pecoei, Via Quirinale 45. in the Palazzo Rospigliosi, with back en- 
trance towards the Via Nazionale (7 fr.) ; Belvedeee, Via Porta Pinciana 
18 (8 fr.). 

Private Apartments. The best are situated in the quarter bounded 
by the Corso on one side, and by the Via del Babuino, the Piazza di Spagna, 
and the Via Due Macelli on the other, and also in the Via Capo le Case, 
Via Sistina, Via Gregoriana, Piazza Barberini, and other streets on the 
Pincio. The most expensive, and often the least sunny, are in the Corso, Piazza 
di Spagna, and Via del Babuino. A northern aspect should be studiously 
avoided, and a stipulation made for stove, carpet, and attendance (stufa, 
tappeti, servizio). Rent of two well-furnished rooms in a good locality 150- 
250 fr. , one room 40-80 fr. per month ; for a suite of 3-5 rooms 300-500 fr. 
and even more. Artists generally reside in the Via Sistina, Via Quattro Fon- 
tane, and that neighbourhood. In the Forum of Trajan and the adjoining 
streets the visitor may obtain sunny apartments, conveniently situated 
with regard to the ancient part of the town. Rooms may be procured in 
almost every street in the strangers' quarter, where notices and placards 
are frequently observed ; but, as they are seldom removed when the rooms 
are let, the traveller must be prepared for a number of fruitless enquiries. 
Those who engage apartments in the Corso should come to an under- 
standing with regard to the windows for the Carnival. — House-agents: 
Karl Pochalsky (German), Corso 131; Toti, Piazza di Spagna 53; Mullon & 
Co., Via Frattina 104. — Firewood is kept stored in many houses (basket 
about 2'/2fr.); it may be bought cheaper (20 fr. per 'passo', delivered free), 
at Rottfi, Via Monte Brianzo 33; QentiWs, Campo Marzio 24; and other 
large wood-stores. 

Rome does not yet possess a complete Dieectoet ; but much informa- 
tion is afforded by the Ouida Commerciale della Cilta di Roma, published 
by Tito Monad (10 fr.). An unknown address may be ascertained at the 
Ufflcio di Anagrdfe on the Capitol, under the arches of Vignola, above 
the stairs leading to the Monte Caprino (p. 208). 

Restaurants (those of more moderate pretensions are called Traltorie ; 
comp. p. xxn). Handsomely fitted up and expensive (D. a prix fixe 6 fr. and 
upwards): — Nazzarri, Piazza di Spagna 81; Spillmann & Co., Corso 164 ; 
Renaud, Via Frattina 97; Cafi di Roma (p. 113); Doney & Nipoti, Via delle 
Convertite 19. — The following are somewhat less pretentious : Milano (see 
above), Monte Citorio 13; Colonna, Piazza Colonna, in the arcade to the 

Trattorie. ROMP:. Prelim. Information. 113 

right; Cafi di Venezia, Corso 288, near the Piazza Venezia; Birreria Morteo 
& Co. (see below; lunch from 3, D. from 4 fr.). 

Second class, with good French and Italian cuisine : Banieri, Via Mario 
de' Fiori26; "Corradetti, Via della Croce 81, frequented by visitors of all 
nationalities; Panelli, Via della Croce 69; Gran Cairo, Via del Tritone 182 ; 
Senato (see p. 112), Via delle Copelle 16; Al Fagiano, Piazza Colonna, at 
the corner of the Via Colonna , often crowded (branch at Via Sistina 3) ; 
Le Venete (Venetian cuisine), Via Campo Marzio 69, with garden. 

The Tkattorie are recommended to those who have some acquain- 
tance with the language and customs of the country : — Cervigni, Via Nazio- 
nale 246; Pietro Micca, Via S. Andrea delle Fratte 35 and Via Mercede 27 
(Piedmontese cookery) ; Rosetta, Via Giustiniani 22 and Via Eosetto 1, nearly 
opposite the front of the Pantheon. — The cuisine and wine at the follow- 
ing are perhaps as good as at those just enumerated, but the rooms are 
not so clean: Oabbione, Via del Lavatore 40, by the Fontana Trevi; Tor- 
retta, Piazza Borghese; Iratt. Europea, Piazza Rusticucci 21 & 26, oppo- 
site St. Peter's; Trait, degli Arlisti, Via della Vite 68 (German cooking 
and beer; also a few beds); Tre Re, Via della Ripresa dei Barberi 16, 
first floor, near the Piazza Venezia; Bueci, Pescheria delle Copelle 54-57 
(fish and 'zuppa alia marinara). — Meals supplied to private houses by 
nearly all the Trattorie and by Bricchi, Via Capo le Case 71 ; Giorgio, Via 
Bocca di Leone 5. — Mention may also be made of the Rosticcebie, where 
freshly cooked meat and poultry may be bought by the pound for dinner 
or supper: Canepa, Via Venti Settembre 22; Pololti, Via Venezia 10; Met, 
Tomacelli 158, and others. 

Osterie (wine-houses, comp. p. xxiv). The ordinary wines of the en- 
virons of Rome (Vino dei Caslelli Romani) are generally served in clear bot- 
tles containing one, a half, or a fifth litre (mezzo litro 30-50c), and the bet- 
ter qualities in smaller bottles (fiaschetti). — The following have a good 
name for their wine at present : Jaeobini, with buffet, Via di Pietra 66 and 
Via Quattro Fontane 114 (wine of Genzano) ; Ostini , Via delle Conver- 
tite 11 (Genzano) ; Palombella (Montefiascone , p. 69) , Via della Palom- 
bella 2; Santovelti, Via del Quirinale 21 (Frascati); Salvatori, Via Uffici 
del Vicario 22 ; the Osleria , Via Belsiana 86 (Marino wine) ; Bottiglieria 
Romana, Via Umilta 74. There are also favourite Osterie on the Monte 
Testaccio (p. 251) and by the Ponte Molle (p. 336). 

The best Tdscan Wine Houses are Caselli, Via dell' Impresa 25, with 
a branch at Via del Tritone 172 B; Campagnoli, Via della Missione 5, be- 
hind the Chamber of Representatives; Fiaschelteria Toscana, Piazza S. Lo- 
renzo in Lucina 30; Siccioli & Co. (wine only), Palazzo Sciarra, Via Muratte. 
The Tuscan wine is generally served in large bottles (fiaschi) covered with 
basket-work, and payment is made according to the quantity consumed (about 
50 c. per mezzo litro). Luncheons may also be obtained at these houses. 

Foreign wines are sold at the restaurants (p. 112), and by Presenzini, 
Via della Croce 78; Burnel & Guichard Aini, Via Frattina 116. Also by 
the Liqcokisti : -Aragno, Corso 237, Piazza Sciarra, and Piazza Monte Citorio 
118-120; Giaeosa, Via della Maddalena 17-19; Vine. Attili, Via del Tritone 
88 (open till 2 a.m.); Morteo (see above). — Mineral waters may be obtained 
from Caffarel, Corso 20, and Manzoni, Via Pietra 90. 

Beer (birra). Birreria Morteo <fc Co. , Palazzo Ruspoli (p. 148), in the 
Corso, at the corner of the Piazza in Lucina, with a pleasant garden (Vienna 
beer 35 c. ; good cuisine, see p. 112) ; branch-establishment , Via Nazionale 
46-48; *Sav. Albrecht, Via di S. Giuseppe a Capo le Case 24 (Munich beer); 
Birreria Poli, Via Poli 90-96 ; Maranetto, Via del Gesii 59 ; Gambrinus- Halle, 
Corso 393, near the Piazza Colonna (Munich beer). — Roman beer is brew- 
ed and sold by Germans: Via di S. Giuseppe a Capo le Case 7; also at 
the cafe's, etc. 

Cafes. "Roma, Corso 426-432, somewhat expensive ; "Nazionale, Corso 
372, adjoining the Palazzo Chigi, and also at the corner of the Corso (179) 
and Via delle Convertite (excellent coffee at these two) ; Venezia, Corso 
289; Colonna, Cafi degli Specchi, Piazza Colonna; S. Chiara, Via S. Chiara, 
adjoining the Piazza Minerva; Capretari, Piazza Capretari; Castellino, Via 
Nazionale 129; Cafe Turco, Piazza di Spagna 43 (also beer); Greco, Via 

Baedeker Italy II. 10th Edition. 3 

114 Prelim. Information. KOME. Climate. 

Condotti 86, and Arlisli, Via Due Macelli 91, also restaurant, both fre- 
quented by artists ; Casiellino, Via Nazionale 134. — Ices in all the cafds ; 
particularly good at the "Sorbetteria Napoletana, Via dell' Impresa 22, to 
the N. of the Piazza Colonna, 50 c. per portion, 30 c. per half-portion. 

Confectioners. Ronzi & Singer, in the Piazza Colonna, corner of the 
Corso (No. 349); Pesoli , Via del Tritone 58; Ramazzotti , Via Frattina 76, 
Corso 282, and Via Nazionale 195; Nazzarri, Piazza di Spagna (comp. 
p. 112). — English and Viennese Bakers: Colalucci, Via della Croce 91; 
Lais, Via della Croce 49; Perego, Via Nazionale 143; Valan, Via del Ba- 
buino 100 and Via Condotti 79a; Donati (biscuits), Via Principe Umberto 
145. — Yaccbekie (dairies; fresh milk, cream, butter, and eggs daily): Via 
Venti Settembre 141, with branch-establishment at Via Sistina 105; Via 
Muratte 14 ; Via del Tritone 14. — Grocers : Casoni, Piazza di Spagna 32 ; 
Castrati, Piazza Trevi89; Parenti, Piazza di Spagna 46; Mansili, Via Due 
Macelli 90; Achino, Monfe Citorio 116. — Preserved Meats, etc. : Alber- 
tini, Via Nazionale 65 and Via Crociferi 28; Dagnino, Via del Tritone 54- 
56; Otierrini, Via Frattina 109; Valazza, Via Muratte 11. — Fruit Shops: 
Gangalanti, Piazza S. Lorenzo in Lucina 19; Posidoro, Via del Tritone 179; 
ileiano, Via della Croce 9. 

Tobacco (comp. p. xxiv) at the Regia dei Tabacchi, corner of the Corso 
and Piazza Sciarra ; foreign cigars 25 c. and upwards. 

Gratuities. As exorbitant demands are often made, the following aver- 
ages are given. In the galleries for 1 pers. 10 soldi , for 2-3 pers. 15s., for 
4 pers. 1 fr. ; regular frequenters 5 soldi. To attendants who open doors 
of houses, churches, gardens, etc., 5s. ; for other services (guidance, explan- 
ations , light, etc.), '/2-1 fr. — It is also usual to give a trifle (l-2s.) to the 
waiters at the cafe's. 

Baths (l'/2-2 fr. ; fee 25 c.) at the hotels; also Vicolo d'Alibert 1, Via 
Belsiana 64, Via del Babuino 96, Via Ripetta 116; Via della Vite 29, opposite 
the post-office; Via Volturno 37 (recommended in summer, from May on- 
wards). — Hydropathic Establishments: Piazza Pia (PI. 1,10); Via Crociferi 44. 

Hairdressers: Oiardinieri , Corso 423; Lancia, Via S. Giacomo 12; 
Pasquali, Via Condotti 11; all with ladies' rooms. — Perfumers, Corso 
390, 342, 343; Rimmel, Corso 524; Brugia, Corso 344. 

Lieux d' Aisance (10 c.) : Vicolo dello Sdrucciolo, near the Piazza Co- 
lonna; Via dei Pianellari, adjoining the church of S. Agostino (p. 189); 
Via Belsiana ; Via del Mancino, adjoining the Piazza Venezia (15 c.) ; Vicolo 
del Governo Vecchio; Vicolo Tata Giovanni; Vicolo Tribuna Tor de' Spec- 
chi ; Via Alessandrina ; Passeggiata di Ripetta ; in the colonnade of the 
Piazza of St. Peter, on the side next the Porta Angelica ; outside the Porta 
del Popolo, to the left. 

Climate (comp. Introd.). The mean temperature at Rome is 60° Fahr.; 
the greatest heat in summer being about 100° in the shade, and the greatest 
cold about 21°. Snow falls rarely, and does not lie long. The average 
temperature in January is 45°, in July 75°. The pleasantest season is 
from the beginning of October to the end of May. In summer when the 
fever-laden aria catliva prevails , all the inhabitants who can afford it 
make a point of leaving the city. The prevalent winds are the Tra- 
montana , or north wind , which generally brings clear and bracing wea- 
ther , and the Scirocco, or south wind , which is relaxing and rainy. As 
the temperature usually falls rapidly after sunset, and colds are very 
easily caught, the traveller should not dress too lightly. Invalids should 
of course consult their medical advisers before choosing rooms, but even 
persons in robust health will do well to remember the Roman proverb : 
'•Dove non va il sole, va il medico*. 

Physicians. English: Charlts, Via S. Nicola da Tolentino 72; Drum- 
mond, Piazza di Spagna 3; Oason, Via S. Sebastianello 8; Baldwin, Piazza 
Trinita de' Monti 16; Young, Piazza di Spagna 20; Spurway, Via Condotti 
48 ; Thompson (American), Via Due Macelli 60. — German : Erhardt (phy- 
sician to the German Embassy), Mario de' Fiori 16; Erhardt jun., Piazza 
di Spagna 26; Fleischl, Corso 151 (3-4); Kranichfeld, Piazza di Spagna 44; 
Prof. Moleschott, Via Volturno 58; Ntuhaus, Via di Porta Pinciana 56 ; 

Libraries ROME. Prelim. Information. 115 

Weber, Via Sistina 86 ; Ootlburg, Piazza di Spagna 9 (at Kissingen in sum- 
mer); Bull (Danish), Piazza di Spagna 20; Wittmer, Via delle Quattro Fon- 
tane 17; Bosdny (physician to the Austrian Embassy), Corso 300; Held 
(homoeopath), Corso 456. — Italian: Galassi, Piazza Capretari 70; Manassei, 
Via de' Lucchesi 9; Nardini, Pal. Doria, Via Plebiscite 112; Occhini, Pa- 
lazzo Moroni, Via S. Nicola da Tolentino; Liberali (homoeopath), Via 
S. Chiara 49. — Surgeons: Ceccarelli, Via Leccosa54; Durante, Via S. Ba- 
silio 50. — Oculists : Baritone, Piazza Monte Citorio 121 (hours for con- 
sultation 11-1); Businelli, Piazza S. Lorenzo in Lueina 17 (consultations 
2-4). — Aurist : De Rossi, Piazza di Spagna 71. — Dentists : Chamberlain 
(American), Piazza di Spagna 51; Curtis (American), Piazza di Spagna 93, 
1st floor; Galassi, Piazza di Spagna 68 ; Van Marter (American), Via Nazio- 
nale 87 ; Martin, Corso 389; Stehlin, Via delle Carozze 3, 1st floor. 

Chemists: Sinimberghi, Evans, & Co., Via Condotti 64-66, patronised 
by the English and American embassies; Roberts & Co., Piazza di S. Lo- 
renzo in Lueina 36; Baker & Co. (proprietor G. P. Passarge), Piazza di 
Spagna 42, patronised by the German embassy; Borioni, Via del Babuino 
98; Garneri, Via del Gambero 39; Marignani, Corso 435; other Italian 
chemists in every part of the town. — Surgical Instruments and Ban- 
dages : Immelen, Via Fnittina 134. — Sick Nurses may be obtained at Via 
Palermo 35 (10 fr. per day; Roman Catholic) or on application to Miss 
Martin, Via Palestro 62 (5-7 fr.). 

Bankers. English: Macbean & Co., Piazza di S. Silvestro 81; Maquay, 
Hooker, A Co., Piazza di Spagna 20 ; F. Montague-Handley , Piazza di Spagna 
79; Eddy, Piazza S. Silvestro 62; Plowden it Co., Piazza S. Claudio 166. 
— Italian : Cerasi, Via del Babuino 51 ; Spada, Via Condotti 20. — German : 
Nast-Kolb & Schumacher, Via della Mercede 9; Schmilt & Co., Via della 
Vite 7; Pucci, Noerrenberg, & Co., Palazzo Chigi, Piazza Colonna; Roes- 
ler-Franz, Piazza S. Claudio 96; Fueler, Tognola, & Co., Via del Tritone 46; 
Wagniere, Piazza Capranica 78. — Money Changers in the Corso, Via Con- 
dotti, etc. (comp. Introd.). 

Booksellers. Piale, Piazza di Spagna 1; Loescher & Co., Palazzo Simo- 
netti, Corso 307, entered from Via del Collegio Romano ; Spithoever, Piazza 
di Spagna 84; Libreria Centrale, Pal. Bernini, Corso 146: English, German, 
and French books at all these. Fratelli Bocca, Corso 217; Fratelli Treves, 
Corso 383; Paravia, Piazza SS. Apostoli 56-65. — Religious works and mu- 
sic, Via di Propaganda Fide 6. — Maps at Bossfs, Corso 401, and at Loe- 
scher's (see above). — Old Books at Rossi's, Via Boeca di Leone 25 , and 
Boccofs , Via del Giardino 110 ; also at Lcescher's and Spithcever's. — 
Bookbinders. Glingler, Via della Mercede 36; Olivieri, Piazza di Spagna 
87 and Via del Babuino 49; Santinelli, Via Pie di Marmo. 

Libraries. The principal libraries are the following : 

1. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, see p. 319. Permessi issued di- 
rectly by the Cardinal-Secretary of State to the prefects of the library, see 
p. 124. Readers admitted from Oct. 1st to Easter 9-1, from Easter to 29th 
June 8-12 o'clock; the library is closed on Sun., Thurs., and holidays. 

2. Public Librairies, open on the days mentioned below from 9 to 3, 
with the exception of the Biblioteca Angelica, which is open from 9 to 2. 
Admittance without permessi according to the conditions set forth in the 
placard in the Bihl. Vittorio Emanuele. Books are lent out by the Bibl. Vit- 
torio Emanuele only, on the security of the embassy or consulate (farther 
particulars in the Umzio dei Prestiti, on the ground-floor of the library). 
Biblioteca Alessandrina in the Sapienza (p. 197), entrance Via dell' Univer- 
sita , 1st Nov. -30th June also open 7-10 p.m. — Biblioteca Angelica (p. 189), 
Sun. and Thurs.; closed in Oct. — Biblioteca Casanatensis (p. 196), daily, 
except Sundays. — Biblioteca Centrale Vittorio Emanuele (p. 156), from Nov. 
to May also 7-10 p.m., closed for a short time at midsummer (besides the 
large public reading-room there is a 'Sala Riservata' with an excellent re- 
ference-library, for the use of which a permesso is necessary). 

3. Private Libraries : Biblioteca Barberina (p. 171), open to the public 
on Thurs. 9-2; closed in Oct. — Biblioteca S. Cecilia, Via de' Greci 18, 
daily 9-3 (music). — Biblioteca Chigiana (p. 154), admission by permesso, ob- 


116 Prelim. Information. ROME. Studios. 

tainable through the traveller's consul, 10-12; closed in summer. — Biblio- 
teca Corsiniana (p. 325), open to the public daily, except Sun. and Wed., 
Nov. to March 1-4, Apr. to July 2-5. — Biblioteca Sarti (p. 238), in the 
Academy of St. Luke, daily except Sat. and Sun. , in summer 8-2, in 
winter 9-3. — Biblioteca Vallicellana (p. 200), open on Tues., Thurs., and 
Sat., 10-3. — Biblioteca Lancisiana (p. 276 ; medical works), in the Hospital 
of S. Spirito, daily, 9.30-2.30. 

Lending Libraries. English books at PiaWs and at Loescher's (see 
p. 115; one book weekly 1, monthly 3 fr.). — Reading Rooms. Piale, Piazza 
di Spagna 1 (English and American newspapers). 

Newspapers, very numerous, 5-10 c. per number. The most popular 
with visitors are: Italie (in French, containing a list of the sights of the 
day); Fanfulla (similar to the Paris Figaro); Riforma , Capitan Fracassa, 
and Popolo Romano, three government organs ; Diritto, Tribuna, opposition 
journals; Capitate, Messaggero, and Don Chichotte, radical; Osservatore Ro- 
mano, Journal de Rome, Civiltd Calolica, and Voce delta Verita, all clerical. 
Ruganlino is a comic paper in the local dialect. — The Italian Times and 
Roman Herald (20 c.) are English papers published at Rome. 

Guides to the Antiquities. Mr. R. S. Forbes, publisher of the 'Bulletin 
Commentarium Rerum Urbanarum' (fortnightly), Via del Babuino 93, and 
Signor Olinto L. Spadoni, editor of the 'Roman Herald', Piazza di Spagna 3, 
give peripatetic lectures on the site of ancient ruins and organise excur- 
sions to the environs. 

Teachers of Italian (2-3 fr. per lesson) : enquire at the booksellers'. 

Music Sellers. Succeisori Landsberg, Via Condotti 85, 1st floor (pianos 
and music for sale or hire); Bossola, Corso 140; Venturini & Co., Corso 
387 ; Ricordi, Corso 392 ; Bartolo, Via Condotti 70. — Strings : Berti, Via 
Tor Argentina 19; Rufini, Piazza SS. Apostoli 49. — Teachers of music 
and singing may be heard of at the booksellers' or at the music-shops. 
As well-known composers and teachers of the piano may be mentioned : 
M. Ravnkilde, a Dane, Ripetta 39 ; Alb. Cavanna, Via dei Greci 10. 

Studios. Sculptors : Amid, Passeggiata di Ripetta 20; L. Ansiglioni, Via 
Venti Settembre 116 ; R. Cauer, Via Brunetti 16 ; Chiaradio, Via Margutta 5 ; 
Dausch, Via S. Giacomo 18 ; Ezechiel, Piazza delle Terme 118 ; Feuerslein, 
Via Palestra 19 ; Oalletti, Via Gesii e Maria 21 ; Gerhard, Passeggiata di 
Ripetta 33; Prof. Ouglielmi, Via Babuino 155; Hasselriis (Dane), Via Mar- 
gutta 51; Ives, Via Margutta 33; Jos. Kopf, Via Margutta 59; Macdonald, 
Via S. Nicola da Tolentino 22; Monteverde , Piazza dell' Indipendenza ; 
F. Sclmlze, Palazzo Barberini; Simmons, Via S. Nicola da Tolentino 73; 
Sommer, Monte Caprino 24a; Spies, Piazza S. Pietro in Vincoli 40a; Story 
(American), Via S. Martino a Macao 7; Volkmann, Piazza Dante 5. 

Painters: Aerni, Via Margutta 48; Alvarez, Via S. Martino 9; Brandt, 
Via di Ripetta 39; BrioscM, Palazzo Venezia; Coleman (American), Via 
Margutta 33; Corrodi (water-colours), Via del Tritone 62; H. Corrodi, Via 
degli Incurabili 8; Effenberger, Vicolo S. Nicolo da Tolentino 13; Ferrari, 
Via Margutta 33; Qlennie, Piazza Margana 17; Oriswold (English), Via del 
Basilio 46; Hubert, director of the French Academy (p. 149); Knupfer, Pa- 
lazzo Venezia ; Koelman, Via dell' Olmato 46 (miniatures) ; Kronberg (Swede), 
Via Margutta 33; Lindemann - Frommel (landscape), Via del Babuino 39; 
Lbwenthal, Via Margutta 33; Mario de Maria, Pal. Lanza Vecchio, outside 
the Porta Pia ; Martens, Via Flaminia 44 ; Navone , Passeggiata di Ripetta 
35; Nerly (landscapes and sea-pieces), Piazza S. Bernardo 109; Podesty, Pa- 
lazzo Doria, Circo Agonale 13; Pradilla (Spaniard), Via Sistina75; Schlbs- 
ser, Via Venti Settembre 4; Schwarzer, Piazza S. Salvatore in Lauro 13; 
Sciuli, Piazza Mattei 10; L. Seitz, Piazza Cappuccini 6; Shade, Via Sistina 
123; Siemiradski (Pole), Via Gaeta 7; Strutt, Via della Croce 81; Tillon, 
Via S. Basilio 20; Vannutelli, Via Margutta Ola; Vedder (American), Via 
S. Basilio 20; Villegas, Pal. Yillegas, Viale Parioli; Weckesser, Piazza 
Barberini 43; Zielke, Via de' Maroniti 4. 

International Association op Artists, Via Margutta 53. President: 
Jacovacci (painter). — British Academy, Via S. Nicolo da Tolentino 22 A. 

Shops. ROME. Prelim. Information. 117 

— British and American Archaeological Society, Via delle Croce 76, 
with a good library. — Verein Deutscher Kunstler, Palazzo Serlupi, Via 
del Seminario 13. 

Works of Art , both ancient and modern , are liable to government 
inspection on exportation. — Goods Agents : C. Stein , Via di Mercede 
42; Giordani & Ferroni, Piazza Colonna 370a; Roessler, Franz, <t Co., Via 
Condotti 6; Tombini, Via del Gambero 6. — Packer ('Incassatore'): Ferroni, 
Ripetta 228; Vincenzo Oiorgini, Via Mororiti 31. 

Shops. Antiquities: Augusto Castellani, Piazza di Trevi 86 (see below); 
Martinetti, Via Bonella 74 ; Bernard, Via Sistina 21 ; Innoeenti, Piazza Trinita 
do' Monti 13 A; Nod, Fontanella Borghese 29. 

Art, Works of. Societa Artistica, Via del Babuino 136; D'Alri, Via 
Condotti 7; Pisani, Piazza di Spagna 23 (these chiefly for pictures); An- 
dreoni, Piazza del Popolo 17 (marble and alabaster sculptures). See also 
Cameos, Casts, Copies of Bronzes, Engravings, etc. 

Artists' Materials. Corteselli, Via Sistina 150; Juliana, Via Babuino 
147; Zecca, Via Margutta 53 a. 

Articles de Voyage: Barfoot (English saddlery), Via del Babuino 150 D 
and 152; Chiara, Via Giustiniani 17; Be' Angeli, Via Sistina 28; Old Eng- 
land, Via Nazionale 115. 

Cameos: Saulini, Via del Babuino 96; Angelici, Via Sistina 19; Pia- 
nella, Via de' Maroniti 4, fourth floor; B' Estrada, Via Sistina 26; Rosi, 
Piazza di Spagna 86, second floor. 

Casts : Marsili , Via Frattina 16 ; Leopoldo Malpieri, Corso 54 ; Pado- 
velli, Via Due Macelli 85 ; Lucignani, Via Sistina 111. 

Clothing. For Gentlemen: Ouastalla, Corso 335 (large shop); Savo- 
nelli di Co., Corso 300; Fratelli Bocconi, Corso, adjoining the Piazza Co- 
lonna; Old England, Via Nazionale 115. See Tailors. — Ladies' Dress and 
Millinery: Fratelli Pontecorvo, Corso 172; Massoni, Corso 307; Compagnie 
Lyonnaise, Corso 473; Catarina Tua, Corso 526; Madame Boudrot, Via 
Condotti 81; Mauro-Giubergia, Corso 60; Antonia Lupa, Corso 28; Ville de 
Lyon , Via dei Prefetti 48-52 ; Coslanza Federico, Via S. Nicola da Tolen- 
tino 26 (for moderate requirements). — See Haberdashery. 

Copies op Ancient Bronzes and Marbles : Boschetti, Via Condotti 74 ; 
RShrich, Via Due Macelli 62; Nelli, Via del Babuino 139; Rainaldi, Via 
del Babuino 51 A (large stock, fixed prices). 

Drapers : Todros , Corso 418 ; Schostal, Corso 158 ; Outset, Corso 244 ; 
Guastalla, Via Colonna 20. 

Dressmakers: Calerina Tua, Corso 526; Antonia Lupa, Corso 28; Mas- 
soni, Corso 307; Costanza Federico, Via S. Nicola da Tolentino 26, I. (for 
moderate requirements). 

Engravings at the Regia Calcografla, formerly the Stamperia Camerale 
(moderate prices), Via della Stamperia 6 (PI. I, 19, 7). 

Furniture (carved). Barberito, Via Sistina 130; Nod, Via Fontanella 
Borghese 29-34. — Intarsia: Zuccarelli, Via del Babuino 34. 

Gloves, Collars, and Neck-ties: Chanal, Corso 143; also at Corso 
227; Piazza S. Lorenzo in Lucina 39; Via della Vite 10; Via Frattina 15; 
Via di Pietra 77. 

Goldsmiths: "Castellani, Piazza di Trevi 86 , who also possesses an 
interesting collection of ancient golden ornaments, and executes imitations 
from Greek, Etruscan, and Byzantine models; Marchesini, corner of the 
Corso and Via Condotti; Boni, Piazza S. Carlo, in the Corso; Ansorge, 
Fasoli, Pierret, Piazza di Spagna 72, 95, & 20; Freschi, Via Condotti 56; 
Calvi, Via Sistina 15 (silver ornaments after ancient patterns). 

Haberdashery: Masini, Corso 309; Carsana, Corso 136; Borgia, Via 
dei Prefetti 19. See also Clothing, Dressmakers, Roman Shawls. 

Hatters: Bessi, Via Nazionale 137; Miller, Via Condotti 16; Vigano, 
Via Monte Catini 4; Monti (straw-hat warehouse), Piazza Firenze 29. 

Jewellery, see Goldsmiths, Roman Pearls. 

Lamps, etc. : Faucillon, Via di Propaganda 23. 

Marble-Cutters: Orlandi, Via Sistina 75 C ; Fabbi, Via Sistina 94 ; Pier- 
mallei, Via Sistina 81, 

118 Prelim. Information. ROME. Theatres. 

Milliners, see Haberdashers, Dressmakers, etc. 

Mosaics: De Felici, Piazza di Spagna 99; Roccheggiani, Via Condotti 14. 
Mosaics and cameos, at moderate prices, in the Stabilimento, Piazza Bor- 
ghese 106. 

Opticians: Hirsch, Corso 402; Priotti, Corso 419; Suscipi, Corso 157. 

Photographs: Loescher (p. 115) ; Spithoever (p. 115; Braun's photographs, 
Anderson's views of Rome); Libreria Cenlrale (p. 115; Brogi's photo- 
graphs): Molins, Via Condotti 28 (views of the Parker Collection, for 
archfeologists); Casali, Via Sistina 119 ; Hefner, Via Frattina 133 (Semelli'a 
photographs); Alinari & Cook, Corso 90; Moscioni, Via Condotti 10a; Oli- 
vieri, Piazza di Spagna 87 and Via Batmino 49 ; Piale, Piazza di Spagna 1. 

Photographs for artistic purposes (reproduction of sketches, pictures, 
etc.): Vasari, Via Poli 25. — Portraits: Alessandri, Corso 12; Le Lieure, 
Vicolo del Mortaro 19; Montabone, Piazza di Spagna 9; Schemboche, Via 
di Mercede 54; Fotografla Nazionale, Via Gregoriana 20; Suscipi, Via 
Condotti 48; Delia Valle, Via della Croce 67. 

Roman Pearls: Bey, Via del Babuino 122; Bartolini, Via Frattina 97; 
Lacchini, Piazza di Spagna 69. 

Roman Shawls: Agostini, Campo Marzo 3; Bianchi, Piazza della Mi- 
nerva 69 (also other Roman silk wares) ; Amadori, Corso 316 ; Sleffoni, Pi- 
azza di Spagna 63. 

Shoemakers: Berardi, Via Fontanella di Borghese 36; Oiangrandi, 
Via Frattina 79; Jest, Corso 129; Rubini, Corso 223; Renner, Via delle 
Quattro Fontane 7; Patetta, Via Due MacelH 30; Fratelli Minster, Corso 
162. Boots and shoes are generally dear in Rome. 

Small Wares, etc.: Merico Cagiali, Corso 167-169; Janetti, Via Con- 
dotti 18; A. Cagiali, Corso 250; Finzi <Sc Bianchelli, Corso 377; Old England, 
Via Nazionale 115; Fit. Haas <t Figli, Via Condotti 46, at the corner of 
the Corso. 

Stationers : Calzone , Corso, entrance in the Via Lata ; Ricci, Corso 
214, Piazza Colonna; Brenla, Pal. Odescalchi, Corso. 

Tailors: Schraider, Piazza di Spagna 5; Matlina, Corso 107, first floor; 
Mons, Via Due Macelli 48; O. Segre, Piazza di Trevi88; Foa & Guastalla, 
Corso 105. 

Umbrellas, Son-shades, and Fans: Oilardini, Corso 409; Motta, Corso 
334; Guattari, Corso 411. 

Upholsterers: Levera, Via Corso 395; Peyron <€■ Co., Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele 53; Fil. Haas & Figli, Via Condotti 46. 

Watchmakers: Kobell, Via del Gambero 19; Kolbauer, Via Due Ma- 
celli 108; Gondret, Corso 144; Hausinann, Via Bocca di Leone 84; Kohl- 
mann, Via Condotti 69; Conti, Piazza di Spagna 53. 

Weapons (permesso necessary, see p. xvii): Spadini, Piazza Borghese 89. 

Italian Alpine Club, Roman Section, Via Collegio Romano 26. (Mem- 
bers of foreign Alpine Clubs are readily afforded information about moun- 
tain-ascents in the Apennines.) 

Theatres. Since the demolition of the Teatro Apollo , the first place 
is taken by the Teatro Argentina or Teatro Comunale (PI. II, 13, 16), Via 
di Tor Argentina, near S. Andrea della Valle. — Then follow the Teatro 
Costanzi (PI. I, 25), Via Firenze, and Teatro Valle (PI. II, 13, IS), near the 
Sapienza, for dramas. — Besides these there are the smaller theatres : Teatro 
Metastasio (PI. I, 13, IS), Via di Pallacorda, near the Via della Scrota, for 
vaudevilles with 'Pulcinella' (performances about 6 and 9; for gentlemen 
only); Teatro Manzoni, Via Urbana 153; Teatro Quirino (PI. II, 16, 19), 
Via delle Vergini, for small operettas and ballet. 

The companies usually change three times a year, one performing in 
autumn and winter till Christmas, another till Lent, and a third after Lent. 
Boxes are generally let permanently, and visits paid and received there. 
Ladies frequent the boxes only , gentlemen the pit (platea). Particulars 
about admission, etc., are published in the hand-bills. Comp. p. xxiv. 

Marionette Theatre: Teatro Goldoni, Via de' Soldati. — Cafe's Chan- 
tan is, numerous. 

Church Festivals. ROME. Prelim. Information. 119 

Cabs, Omnibuses, and Tramways, see Appendix. 

Carriage Hirers. Belli, Via Margutta 27; Piscitelli, Vicolo degli Avignon- 
esi 7. Charges vary according to the season, but the average may be placed 
at 30 fr. a day. The best carriages are obtained at the larger hotels, where, 
however, the charge is sometimes as high as 50 fr. a day. Gratuity to the 
coachman extra. — Saddle Horses. Cairoli, Via Margutta 38; Jarret, Piazza 
del Popolo 3 ; Francesangeli, Via Principe Umberto 133 ; Pieretii, Via Firenze 
43. Charge 10 fr. for half-a-day; ostler's fee 1 fr. 

Porters (Fattorini Pubblici). The best are those of the Impresa Eo- 
mana, Vicolo Sciarra 60, with the name on their caps and a brass number 
on their coats. Porter with letter or luggage under 33lbs., 25-75 c. accord- 
ing to the distance. There are also three other companies. 

Post Office (comp. Introd., p. xxv), Piazza di S. Silvestro in Capite, a 
large new edifice, open from 8 a.m. to 9.30 p.m. (PI. I, 16; also entered 
from the Via della Vite). Poste Restante letters ('ferma in posta') are de- 
livered at several windows for the different initials under the arcades 
in the court, on the right. Under the arcades, on the left, is a writing- 
room (letter 10c). Branch Offices: at the railway-station (open till 10.30 
p.m.), Piazza Barberini 10 (open till 10 p.m.), Via del Babuino 106, Borgo 
Nuovo 136, Corso Vittorio Emanuele 61, Via Alessandrina 100 (open 8-8). 

— Parcel Post at the general post-office and at Monte Citorio 132 (9-6). 

Telegraph Office, open day and night, in the General Post Office building, 
Piazza di S. Silvestro in Capite. Branch Offices: Piazza Aracceli 3, Via 
Venti Settembre 118, Borgo Nuovo 36 (in summer 7-9, in winter 8-9); 
also at the Railway Station (open night and day). 

English Churches. All Saints, Via Babuino, Piazza di Spagna, designed 
by Street (superseding the old Anglican Church near the Porto del Po- 
polo); services at 8. 30 a.m., 11 a.m., and 3 p.m., in summer 9 a.m. and 
5 p.m.; chaplain, Canon Watson Wasse, M. A., Via della Croce 81. — Tri- 
nity Church, Piazza S. Silvestro, opposite the Post Office (p. 153); services 
at 11 a.m. and 3 p.m.: chaplain (1889-90), Rev. A. C. Thiselton. — Ameri- 
can Episcopal Church of St. Paul, a handsome brick edifice by Street, Via 
Nazionale; services at 8.30 a.m., 11 a.m., and 4 p.m.; rector, Rev. Dr. Ne- 
vin, Via Nazionale 16. — Scottish Presbyterian Church, Via Venti Settembre 
7, near the Quattro Fontane; services at 11 a.m. and 3.30 p.m.; minister, 
Rev. Dr. Cray, Via Venti Settembre 7, 2nd floor. — Wesleyan Methodist 
Church, Via della Serofa 63; services on Sun. 11 a.m. and 7.30 p.m., on 
Thurs. 7.30 p.m.; minister, Rev. Henry Piggolt, Via delle Copelle 28. — 
American Baptist Church, Via Teatro Valle. 

Italian Protestant Churches. Waldensian Church, Via Nazionale 107. 

— Free Italian Church (Signor Gavazzi), Via Panico 43, opposite the church 
of S. Angelo. — Military Church, Via delle Copelle 28; service every 
evening at Ave Maria (1 hr. after sunset); chaplain, Rev. Cav. Capellini, 
Pozzo delle Cornacchie 14. — Episcopal Methodist Church, Piazza Poli. — 
Baptist Chapel, Piazza San Lorenzo in Lucina. — Baptist Church, Via Ur- 
bana 154. 

Anglo-American Club, Via Condotti 21. — English Club, Via della 
Croce 78. 

Church Festivals. Since the annexation of Rome to the kingdom of 
Italy on 20th Sept., 1870, the great ecclesiastical festivals have lost most 
of their splendour. The public ceremonies at which the Pope formerly 
officiated in person, such as those of the Holy Week, the benedictions, 
and the public processions including that of the Fete de Dieu, have been 
discontinued. The Pope still officiates on high festivals in the Sistine 
Chapel, but visitors are not admitted without an introduction from very 
high quarters. (Gentlemen are required to wear uniform or evening 
dress. Ladies must be dressed in black, with black veils or caps.) 

The following enumeration of the various festivals, as they were 
celebrated prior to 20th Sept. 1870, will still be found useful in many 
respects. Details are contained in the Diario Romano, published annually. 
The best work on the ceremonies of the Holy Week and their significa- 
tion is the Manuale delle cerimonie che hanno luogo nella settimana santa e 

1 20 Prelim. Information. ROME. Church Festivals. 

neir ottava di pasqua al Vaticano (1 fr. ; also a French edition), obtainable 
at the bookshops mentioned at p. 115. 

The Pope used to officiate in person three times annually, on Christmas 
Pay, Easter Day, and the Festival of St. Peter and St. Paul (29th June) ; and 
four times annually he imparted his benediction, on Holy Thursday and Easter 
Day from the balcony of St. Peter's, on Ascension Day from the Lateran, 
and on 15th Aug., the anniversary of the 'Assumption of the Virgin*, from 
S. Mario Maggiore. The most imposing ceremonies were those of the Holy 
Week, from Palm Sunday to Easter Day, the most important of which took 
place in the Sistine Chapel , accompanied by the music ('lamentations*, etc.) 
of Palestrina and other old masters , on which occasions the papal band 
(cappella papale) performed. 

The following are the principal festivals: — 
January 1. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m. 

— 5. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 3 p. m. 

— 6. Epiphany. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. in. ; at 4 p. m. 

procession in Aracoeli. 

— 17. S. Antonio Abbate (PI. II, 25, near S. Maria Maggiore) , bene- 

diction of domestic animals. 

— 18. Anniversary of foundation of the chair of St. Peter , Cap. Pa- 

pale in St. Peter's, 10 a. m. 

— 21. S. Agnese Fuori (p. 342). 

February 1. Illumination of the lower church of S. Clemente (p. 260). 

— 2. Candlemas. Cap. Papale in St. Peter's, 9 a. m. 

— 7. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, in memory of Pius IX. 

— 20. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, to celebrate the anniversary 

of Leo XIII.'s election. 
On Ash Wednesday and every Sunday during Lent, Cappella Papale in the 
Sistine at 10 a. m. The Lent sermons in Gesii (PI. II, 16), S. Maria 
sopra Minerva (PI. II, 16), and other churches are celebrated. 
March. 3. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, to celebrate Leo XIII.'s instal- 

— 7. St. Thomas Aquinas, in S. Maria sopra Minerva (PI. II, 16). 

— 9. S. Francesca Romana (in the Forum). 

— 16. Festival in the chapel of the Palazzo Massimi (PI. II, 17) in 

commemoration of a resuscitation by S. Filippo Heri (p. 199). 

— 25. Annunciation. Cap. Papale in S. Maria sopra Minerva (PI. II, 16). 

Holt Week. 

Palm Sunday. Cappella Papale in St. Peter's. Consecration of palms; then 
mass. At 2 p. m. confession in the Lateran (PI. II, 30). 

Wednesday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 3 p. m. Tenebrae, Miserere. 

Holy Thursday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m. Towards noon 
the benediction 'Urbi' from the loggia of St. Peter's. Then 
washing of feet in St. Peter's , immediately after a dinner to 
twelve pilgrims in the loggia of St. Peter's. Cappella Papale 
in the Sistine, 3 p. m. Tenebrse and Miserere. 

Good Friday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine , 9 a. m. (music by Pales- 
trina). At 3 p. m. Tenebrae and Miserere. Procession of Car- 
dinals in St. Peter's. 

Saturday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 9 a.m. (Missa di Papa Mar- 
cello, by Palestrina). Baptism of converts in the Lateran. 

Easier Day. High Mass in St. Peter's, formerly celebrated by the Pope. 
The elevation of the host (about 11 a. m.) was accompanied 
by the blast of trumpets from the dome. The Pope was then 
carried in procession from the church, and about noon imparted 
the great benediction 'Urbi et Orbi' from the loggia of St. 
Peter's. After sunset, illumination of the dome of St. Peter's. 

Easter Monday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 9 a. m. 

Easter Tuesday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 9 a. in. 

Saturday in Albis. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 9 a. m. 

April 25. Procession of the clergy from S. Marco (PI. II, 16) to St. Peter's 
at 7. 30 a. m. 

Popular Festivals. ROME. Prelim. Information. 121 

May 26. S. Filippo Neri. Cappella Papale in the Chiesa Nuova, 10 a. m. 

Ascension. Cappella Papale in the Lateran. Benediction from the loggia. 

Whitsunday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine , 10 a. m. 

Trinity. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m. 

Corpus Domini (Fete de Dieu). Procession of the Pope and clergy round 

the piazza of St. Peter's, 8 a. m. 
June 24. John the Baptist. Cappella Papale in the Lateran, 10 a. m. 

— 28. Eve of SS. Peter and Paul. Cappella Papale, St. Peter's, 6 p.m. 

— 29. SS. Peter and Paul. — Forenoon, Cappella Papale, St. Peter's, 

celebration formerly by the Pope. 
July 14. S. Bonaventura, in S. S. Apostoli. 

— 31. S. Ignazio, in Gesii. 

Aug. 1. St. Peter in Vinculis, in S. Pietro in Vincoli (PI. II, 23). 

— 5. S. Maria della Neve, in S. Maria Maggiore (PI. II, 25). 

— 15. Assumption of the Virgin. Cappella Papale in S. Maria Mag- 

giore (PI. II, 25), 9 a. m. ; great benediction from the loggia. 
Sept. 8. Nativity of the Virgin. Cappella Papale in S. Maria del Popolo 
(PI. I, 18), 10 a. m. 

— 14. Elevation of the Cross, in S. Marcello (PI. II, 16). 
Oct. 7. S. Marco, in the church of that saint (PI. II, 16). 

— 18. S. Luca, in the church of that saint (PI. II, 20). 

Nov. 1. All Saints' Day , Cappella Papale in the Sistine , 10 a. m. and 
3 p. m. 
2. All Souls' Day. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m. 

— 3. Requiem for former Popes. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 

10 a. m. 

— 4. S. Carlo Borromeo. Cappella Papale in S. Carlo, 10 a. m. 

— 5. Requiem for deceased cardinals in the Sistine. 

On the four Sundays of Advent, Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a.m. (On 
the first Sunday of Advent Procession of the Mass to the 
Cappella Paolina.) 

Nov. 22. St. Cecilia. Cappella Papale in S. Cecilia in Trastevere (p. 331). 
Illumination of the Catacombs of Callistus (p. 361). 

— 23. Illumination of the lower church of S. Clemente (p. 260). 

Dec. 8. Conception. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 3 p. m. Proces- 
sion from Aracceli (PI. II, 20). 

— 24. Christmas Eve. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 8 p. m. To 

wards midnight , solemnities in Aracosli , about 5 a. m. in S. 
Maria Maggiore (PI. II, 25). 
Dec. 25. Christmas Day. Cappella Papale in St. Peter's, 9 a.m., cele- 
bration formerly by the Pope ; elevation of the host announced 
by trumpets in the dome. 

— 26. St. Stephen's Day. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m. 

— 27. St. John the Evangelist. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m. 

— 31. Cappella Papale in the Sistine; after which, about 4 p. m., 

grand Te Deum in Gesii (PI. II, 16). 

Popular Festivals (which have lost much of their former interest) : — 
Epiphany (6th Jani ), celebrated in the evening in the Piazza Navona, 
since 1873 (formerly near S. Eustachio) ; array of booths and prodigious din 
of toy-trumpets. 

The Carnival, which has of late regained a little of its former splen- 
dour, lasts from the second Saturday before Ash Wednesday to Shrove 
Tuesday, and consists in a daily procession in the Corso, accompanied by 
the throwing of bouquets and comfits (except on Sundays and Fridays, 
when a 'gala corso' generally takes place), and concluding with a horse-race. 
The last evening is the Moccoli (taper) evening, the tapers being lighted 
immediately after sunset. A window in the Corso is the best point of view. 
The liveliest scene is between the Piazza Colonna and S. Carlo. Balconies 
there are in great request (as high as 600 fr.) ; single places are let on stands 
fitted up for the occasion. 

122 Prelim. Information. ROME. Collections, Villas, etc. 

The October Festival, in the vintage-season, once famous, is celebrated 
with singing, dancing, and carousals at the osterie outside the gates. 

The Festa dello Statdto, or Festival of the Constitution, introduced 
since the annexation of Rome , is on the first Sunday in June. Military 
parade in the forenoon in the Piazza dell' Indipendenza or the Campo 
Militare (p. 169). In the evening fireworks ('Girandola' ) in the Piazza del 
Popolo and elsewhere. — On the anniversary of the Foundation of Rome 
(21st April), it has of late been usual to illuminate the Colosseum and the 
Forum with Bengal fire. 

The opening of Parliament is also inaugurated with festivities. 

Street Scenes. The top of the Scala di Spagna (PI. I, 20) and the 
Via Sistina are the favourite haunts of artists' models, chiefly Neapolitans, 
whose costumes are a well-known subject of photographs and pictures. 

The favourite haunts of the country-people are in front of the Pantheon 
(PI. II, 16; especially on Sundays), the Piazza Montanara (PI. II, 17), and 
the market-place of the Campo di Fiori (p. 204). 

The Garrison of Rome consists of 4 regiments of Infantry (wearing 
the 'giubba 1 , or dark blue coat common to the whole army, grey trousers, 
white leather belts , and caps) ; 2 regiments of Oranatieri (or Grenadiers ; 
infantry uniform, with a burning grenade on the cap to distinguish them); 
1 regiment of Bersaglieri or riflemen (dark blue uniform with crimson 
facings, large plumed caps worn on one side , forming an elite corps like 
the Austrian Kaiserjager) ; 1 regiment of Cavalry (dark blue uniform, light 
grey trousers, and helmets ; the Lanzieri wear fur caps and trousers faced 
with black) ; 1 brigade of Field Artillery and 1 brigade of Fortress Ar- 
tillery (dark blue uniform with yellow facings) ; and 1 brigade of Engineers 
(dark blue uniform with crimson facings). To these we may add the Cura- 
binieri, or gensdarmes (p. xvi). 

Collections, Villas, etc. 

Changes in the arrangements take place so frequently that the follow- 
ing data cannot long remain accurate. Even the lists of sights contained 
in some of the daily newspapers are not always trustworthy (best in 
'L'ltalie' and in the Anglo-American 'Roman Herald'). Intending visitors 
should therefore make additional enquiry at the hotels, booksellers, etc. 
The Villas Borghese and Doria Pamphilj are best visited by carriage. — 
Galleries and palaces within angular brackets in the following list are tem- 
porarily closed. 

The '■Permessi' necessary for visitors to the Vatican and several other 
collections may either be obtained personally in the ways described below 
or through the consuls (p. Ill) or bankers. — Fees, see p. 114. 

Accademia di 8. Luca (p. 238), pictures: daily, 9-3; closed in July 
and August. 

Albani, Villa (p. 338), antiquities and pictures : Tuesdays, except 
in wet weather, from 12 noon; admittance by permesso, obtain- 
able at the ot'nce in the Palazzo Torlonia, Piazza Venezia 135, 
to the left on the ground-floor, on presenting a visiting-card. 

Barberini, Palazzo (p. 17 0), picture-gallery and antiquities : daily, 
10. 30-5 (Thurs. 2-5); library, Thurs. 9-2 (closed from the 
middle of Sept. to the end of Oct.). 

*Borghese, Palazzo (p. 184), pictures: Mon., Wed., andFrid., 9-3; 
admittance by permesso, obtainable at the Palace 10-12 a. m. 

*Borghese, Villa (p. 334), garden: Tues., Thurs., Sat., and Sun., 
after 1 p.m., cabs also admitted; the casino, with the antiqui- 
ties, Sat. 1-3, admittance by permesso obtainable at the Palazzo 

Collections, Villas, etc. ROME. Prelim. Information. 123 

* Capitoline Museum (-p. 216): daily, 10-3, 50 o. ; on Sun., New 

Year's Day, Epiphany, Festival of the Constitution (p. 122), 
Ascension Day, Corpus Christi Day, Festival of SS. Peter and 
Paul, Aug. 15th, Sept. 8th, and Dec. 8th, 10-1, free; closed 
on Easter Day, Sept. 20th, Nov. 1st, and Christmas. 
Castello 8. Angelo (p. 274) : daily at 9, 11, 1, or 3 o'clock hy per- 
messo, availahle for six persons, ohtainahle at the Comando di 
Divisione Territoriale di Roma, Via de' Burro (a street connect- 
ing the Piazza di Pietra and Piazza S. Ignazio; PI. I, II, 16), 
No. 147, second floor. 

* Catacombs of St. Callistus (p. 361): daily, see p. 356. 

* Colonna, Palazzo (p. 163), picture-gallery: Tues., Thurs., & Sat., 

*Colosseum (p. 234) : open at all hours ; the galleries closed after 
lip. m. (comp. p. 236). 

* Conservatori , Palace of (p. 215), new collection, bronzes and 

pictures : times of admission same as for the Capitoline Museum 
(see above). 
Corsini, Palazzo (p. 324), picture-gallery: Mon., Thurs., and Sat., 
9-3, except on holidays. 

* Doria, Palazzo (p. 158), picture-gallery: Tues. and Frid. 10-2; 

or Wed. or Sat., if one of the usual days is a holiday. 
Doria, Villa, see below ( Villa Pamphilj). 
*Farnesina, Villa (p. 323): on the 1st and the 15th of each month; 

closed in midsummer. 

* Forum Romanum (p. 222): daily, till dusk, gratis; closed in 

midsummer, 12-3. 
* Kircheriano, Museo (p. 156): daily, except public holidays, 9-3 
(1 fr.). Sun. free. 

* Lateran , Collections of the (p. 268) : daily , 9-3 ; in spring 10-4, 

in summer 9-1. 
[Ludovisi, ancient sculptures from the former Villa (p. 172) : closed 

at present.] 
Maltese Villa and S. Maria Aventina (p. 253) : Wed. and Sat., 9 

to dusk. 
Mattel, Villa (p. 259): Thurs., after 2. 30 p.m.; visitors write 

their names in a book. 
Medici, Villa (p. 149), collection of casts : Wed. and Sat., 8-12, 

and afternoons till dusk. 
Museo Artistico Industriale (p. 151), daily, 9-3, except Wed. 
Museo delle Terme (p. 168), same as the Capitoline Museum. 

* Palatine Excavations (p. 242): daily, 9 till dusk; adm. 1 fr. ; on 

Sun. and holidays gratis; closed in summer 12-3. 

*Pamphilj, Villa Doria (p. 355): Mon. and Frid., 1 till dusk, some- 
times only from 4; two-horse carriages and one-horse carriages 
without numbers also admitted. 

*St. Peter's. Dome of (p. 285), daily 8-11, by permesso. 

1 24 Prelim. Information. HOME. Students' Permessi. 

Quirinale , Palazzo del (p. 173), the residence of the King, daily, 
but pait of it only is shown. 
*Rospigliosi, Casino (p. 175), pictures: Wed. and Sat., 9-3. 
*Thermae of Caracalla (p. 255) : daily, 9 till dusk (1 fr.) ; Sun. 
after 10, gratis; closed from 12 to 3 in midsummer. 
Thermae of Titus (p. 237) : admission as to the preceding. 
[Torlonia, Museo(j>. 325), formerly by written application to the Pa- 
lazzo Torlonia (p. 162), but closed at present.] 
* Vatican Collections and Library (p. 287) accessible on the days 
mentioned below (but always closed on Sat., Sun., and holi- 
days), 10-3, gratis, by permessi, to be obtained through a con- 
sul, or by direct application at the Segretaria of the Maggior- 
domo (9-1 o'clock) in the Cortile di S. Damaso (p. 286). 
Intending visitors apply to the Swiss guard (no gratuity) at the 
Portone di Bronzo, opposite the chief entrance to the Vatican (p. 286), and 
are conducted to the office, where they write their names in the permesso. 
The hotel-keepers also procure permessi for their guests, for which they 
sometimes charge 1 fr. each. On leaving the Vatican the visitor who in 
tends to return should at once procure another permesso in the way 
above mentioned, or ask the custodian to give him back the old one O/2 fr.). 
Besides the permessi for artists and scientific men mentioned below, 
there are ordinary permessi available for 5 persons. For Raphaels Stanze 
and Loggie, the Picture Gallery, and the Sistine Chapel, 9-3 o'clock on 
the first five week-days, festivals excepted. — For the Museum of Statuary, 
the Etruscan Museum, and the Egyptian Museum, Mondays, Tuesdays, 
Wednesdays, and Fridays, 9-3. 

The Vatican Library is open on the same days as the Museum of Statuary 
(Mon., Tues., Wed., Frid., 8-12), no permesso being required; comp. p. 319. 
Those who desire to study, draw , or copy in Roman museums or pri- 
vate collections must procure a Permesso through their consul. For the 
Papal Museums permission is granted by Monsignor Macchi (maggiordomo 
of the pope) at his office (see above), the written application having been 
left there a day or two previously. (Separate permessi required for the mu- 
seums of the Vatican and Lateran, the Vatican picture-gallery, and Raphael's 
Loggie.) In the case of Private Galleries, application must be made to the 
proprietor in Italian or French, stating also which picture it is intended 
to copy, and the size and description of the copy. In some collections copies 
of the original size must not be made. As to this and similar regulations, 
information should be previously obtained from the custodian. The follow- 
ing form of application to the Monsgr. Maggiordomo, may be also addressed 
to a principe or marchese, the 'Revma' being in this case omitted. 
Eccellenza Revma, 

II sottoscritto, che si trattiene a Roma con lo scopo di proseguire in quesla 
capitate i suoi sludj artistici (storici, etc.), si prende la liberta di rivolgersi 
con questa a Vra Eccellenza Revma pregando La perche voglia accordargli il 
grazioso permesso di far degli sludj (dei disegni, delle notizie, etc.) nel Museo 
(nella Galleria) Vaticano. 

Sperando di essere favorilo da Vra Eccellenza Revma e pregando La di 
gradire anlicipatamente i piu sinceri suoi ringraziamenli, ha Vonore di pro- 
teslarsi col pin profondo rispetto ,._,-„ ^ 

di Vra Eccellenza Revma 
Roma li . . . . Uihmo Obbino Servitore 

A Sua Eccellenza Revina N. N. 

Monsignor Macchi 

Maggiordomo di Sua Saritita. 

Diary. ROME. Prelim. Information. 1 25 


(To be compared with the preceding Alphabetical List). 

Daily : Capitoline Museum (p. 216) and Palace of the Conser- 
vatori (p. 215), 9-3, adm. 50 c; Sun., 10-1, gratis. — Collections 
in the Lateran (p. 268), 10-3, in summer 9-1. — Museo Kirche- 
riano (p. 156), 9-3, adm. 1 fr.; Sun. gratis. — Forum Romanum 
(p. 222). Excavations on the Palatine (p. 242); adm. 1 fr. ; Sun. 
gratis). Thermae of Caracalla (p. 255) ; adm. 1 fr. ; Sun. gratis ; 
all three after 10a.m., closed in summer from 12 to 3. — Dome of 
St. Peter's (p. 285) 8-11. — Catacombs of St. Callistus (p. 361), etc. 

Daily, except Sundays and Holidays: Academy of S. Luca 
(p. 238) 9-3; closed in July and August. — Galleria Barberini 
(p. 170) 12-5. 

Sundays: Villa Borghese (p. 334), after 1 p.m. 

Mondays : Vatican Collections (Raphael's Stanze and Loggie, 
Picture Gallery, Sistine Chapel, and Museum of Statuary) 9-3 
(Library 8-12). — Galleria Borghese (p. 184) 9-3. — Galleria 
Corsini (p. 324) 9-3. — Villa Pamphilj (p. 355). 

Tuesdays : Vatican Collections (Raphael's Stanze and Loggie, 
Picture Gallery , Sistine Chapel , and Museum of Statuary) 9-3 
(Library 8-12). — Galleria Doria (p. 158)10-2. — Galleria Colonna 
(p. 163) 11-3. — Villa Borghese (p. 334), in the afternoon. 

Wednesdays : Vatican Collections (Raphael's Stanze and Loggie, 
Picture Gallery , Sistine Chapel , and Museum of Statuary) 9-3 
(Library 8-12). — Casino Rospigliosi (p. 175) 9-3. — Galleria 
Borghese (p. 184) 9-3. — S. Maria Aventina (p. 253), from 9»a.m. 

Thursdays : Vatican Collections (Raphael's Stanze and Loggie, 
Picture Gallery, Sistine Chapel, Egyptian and Etruscan Museums) 
9-3. — Galleria Corsini (p. 324) 9-3. — Barberini Library (p. 171) 
9-2. — Galleria Colonna (p. 163) 11-3. — Villa Borghese (p. 334) 
in the afternoon. — Villa Mattei (p. 259) after 2. 30 p.m. 

Fridays : Vatican Collections (Raphael's Stanze and Loggie, Pic- 
ture Gallery, Sistine Chapel, and Museum of Statuary) 9-3 (Library, 
8-12). — Galleria Borghese (p. 184) 9-3. — Galleria Doria (p. 158) 
10-2. — Villa Doria-Pamphilj (p. 355). 

Saturdays: Casino Rospigliosi (p. 175) 9-3. — Galleria Corsini 
(p. 324) 9-3. — Galleria Colonna (p. 163) 11-3. — Villa Borghese 
(p. 334) and the Casino, in the afternoon. — S. Maria Aventina 
(p. 253) 9 till dusk. 

Duration of Visit. 

To become thoroughly acquainted with the matchless attractions 
of Rome, the traveller should spend a whole winter in the 'Eternal 
City', and even to obtain a hasty glimpse at them he must make a 
stay of 10-14 days at least. 

126 Prelim. Information. ROME. Fortnight's Visit. 

Summary of Chief Attractions. 

Churches : St. Peter's (p. 277), ;S. Giovanni in Laterano (p. 265), S. Maria 
Maggiore (p. 176) , S. Lorenzo fuori le Mura (p. 343) , »S. Paolo fuori le 
Mura (p. 352), Sistine Chapel (p. 287), J3. Agostino (p. 189), f. Clemente 
(p. 260), iS. Croce in Gerusalemme (p. 181), jS. Maria degli Angeli (p. 167), 
S. Maria in Aracceli (p. 209). IS. Maria sopra Minerva (p. 195), S. Maria della 
Pace (p. 191), -6. Maria del Ptipolo (p- 147), »S. Maria in Trastevere (p. 330), 
S. Onofrio (p. 322), J6. Pietro in Vincoli (p. 182),/S. Prassede (p. 178). 

Palaces : Palazzo della Cancelleria (p. 199) , Farnese (p. 205), Giraud 
(p. 276), di Venezia (p. 162). 

Ruins: Forum (p. 222), Colosseum (p. 234), Imperial Palaces (p. 244), 
Cloaca Maxima (p. 248), Thermae of Titus and jCaracalla (pp. 237, 255), 
Pantheon (p. 193), Theatre of Marcellus (p. 203),;forum of Trajan (p. 240), 
Temple of Neptune (p. 155), {Pyramid of Cestius (p. 252). — \Catacombs of 
St. Callistus (p. 361). 

Collections of Statues in the Vatican (p. 308), Capitol (p. 216), La- 
teran (p. 268), Villa Albani (p. 338), Borghese (p. 334), Ludovisi {p. 172). 

Pictures : Raphael's Loggie and ptanze (p. 292), galleries of the Vatican 
(p. 301), Palazzi Borghese (p. 185), Barberini (p. 171), Colonna (p. 163), and 
Doria (p. 158). 

Promenades : iMonte Pincio (p. 148), where a military band plays daily 
2 hours before sunset (in summer in the Piazza Colonna), attracting a 
fashionable crowd both of Romans and foreigners. — 'The Villa Borghese, 
the most popular of the Roman villas (p. 334) ; ithe Villa Doria-Pamphllj 
(p. 355); and thel Via Appia (pp. 254, 348). — The new Passeggiata Mar- 
gherita (p. 330) and Parco Regina Margherita (p. 336). 

Points of View on the left bank : The Pincio (PI. 1, 18 ; p. 148), 
Basilica of Constantine (PI. II, 20; p. 232), jPalatine (PI. II, 21 ; p. 241); on 
the right bank : ^S. Pietro in Montorio (PI. II, 12; p. 328), and the adjoining 
"Passeggiata Margherita (p. 330 ; at least l fc hr. before sunset). 

A Fortnight's Visit. 

The traveller who desires to see most of the above sights within 
a fortnight must economise time by drawing up a careful programme 
for each day before starting, or by following the plan suggested be- 
low. It is advisable to devote the early part of the forenoon to visit- 
ing the churches , which , with the exception of the largest , are 
closed from 12 to 4. With regard to meals, it is hardly necessary to 
say that the heavy 'dejeuner a la fourchette' in the middle of the 
day should be eschewed, as it encroaches on the most valuable part 
of the day, and that the usual English hours for a substantial break- 
fast, slight luncheon, and late dinner should be observed. One of the 
first things to be done is to secure 'permessi' (comp. pp. 122, 124). 

1st Day. The first part of this had better be devoted to what may 
be called an 'Orientation Drive 1 . 

Engage a cab for 2-3 hrs. (tariff, see Appendix) and drive down the 
Corso as far as the Piazza di Venezia, then to the Foro Trajano and 
through the Via Alessandrina and Via Bonella to the Forum Romanum, 
past the Colosseum, through the Via di S. Giovanni in Laterano to the 
Piazza in front of the church, then through the Via Merulana, passing 
S. Maria Maggiore, through the Via Ag. Depretis (Quattro Fontane) and 
the Via Nazionale to the Piazza Venezia, then through the Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele to the Via Tor Argentina, through the last street to the 
Ponte Garibaldi, crossing it to Trasteven', passing S. Maria in Trastevere, 
and through the Lungara to the Piazza di S. Pietro; then through the 
Borgo Nuovo, across the Pia/./a Pia , past the Castle of S. Angelo, over 
the Ponte S. Angelo, and through the Via Banco di S. Spirito, the Corso 

Bibliography. ROME. Prelim. Information. 127 

Vittorio Emanuele, and the Via Aracoeli to the Piazza in Aracoeli at the 
foot of the Capitol, where the cab may he dismissed. Ascend to the Piazza 
del Campidoglio (p. 210), visit the Capitoline Museum (p. 216) and the Forum 
Jlomanum (p. 222), and lastly spend the evening on the Pincio (p. 148). 

2nd Day (Mon. or Wed.). Galleria Borghese (p. 185; Mon., Wed., 
Frid., 9-3); Pantheon (p. 193); S. Maria sopra Minerva (p. 195); Can- 
celleria (p. 199); Pal. Farnese (p. 205); Ponte Sisto (p. 327); S. Maria in 
Trastevere (p. 330); S. Pietro in Montorio (p. 328); then, if time permit, a 
walk in the new Passeggiala Margherila (p. 330), which may also he in- 
cluded in the programmes given below for the 3rd and 8th days. 

3rd Day (Hon., Tues., Wed., or Frid.). St. Peter's (p. 277) and the 
Dome (p. 285; 8-10); Sitting Chapel (p. 287; 9-3); Antiquities (p. 304; 9-3); 
S. Onofrio (p. 322). 

4th Day (Mon., Thurs., or Sat.). Raphael's Stanze and Loggie, Vatican 
Picture Gallery (p. 293; Mon. to Frid. 9-3); Galleria Corsini (p. 3C4; 9-3); 
Palatine (p. 241). 

5th Day (any week-day). Museo Kircheriano (p. 156) ; Forum of Tra- 
jan (p. 240); Fora of Augustus (p. 239) and Jferva (Colonnacce, p. 239); 
S. Pietro in Vincoli (p. 182); Thermae of Titus (p. 237); Colosseum (p. 234); 
Arch of Constantine (p. 236) ; walk over the Caelius (p. 258), if time permit. 

6th Day (Tues.). S. Maria del Popolo (p. 147); Gesii (p. 197); Galle- 
ria Doria (p. 158; 10-2); Galleria Colonna (p. 163; 11-3); Quirinal (p. 174); 
S. Maria degli Angeli {Thermae of Diocletian, p. 167); <S. Agnese fuori le 
Mura (p. 342), if time left. 

7th Day (any day). S. Clemente (p. 260) ; Lateran , Museum (9-3), 
Church and Baptistery (p. 267); 8. Maria Maggiore (p. 176); /S. Prassede 
(p. 178) ; S. Lorenzo fuori (p. 343). 

8th Day (any day). From the Forum Romanum to the Janus Quadri- 
frons (p. 248); Cloaca Maxima (p. 248); Ponte Botto (p. 250); so-called 
Temple of Fortuna Virilis (p. 249) and that of Hercules Victor (p. 249); 
S. Maria in Cosmedin (p. 249) ; by tramway to S. Paolo fuori (p. 352) and 
back to the Porta S. Paolo; Pyramid of Cestius (p. 252); Monte Testaccio' 
(251); over the Aventine (*8. Sabina, p. 252). 

9th Day (any day). S. Agostino (p. 189); S. Maria dell' Anima (p. 191) ; 
S. Maria delta Pace (p. 191); second visit to Sisline Chapel and to Raphael's 
Stanze and Loggie or to the Picture Gallery (9-3). Excursion to Ponte Molle 
(pp. 334-336). 

10th Day (any day). S. Maria in Aracoeli (p. 209); collections in the 
Palace of the Conservatori (p. 211 ; 10-3) ; Thermae of Caracalla (p. 255) ; 
Via Appia, within and without the city (pp. 254, 348), (and the Catacombs 
of Callistus (p. 361). Back by the tombs on the Via Latina (p. 346). 

11th & 12th Days. Another day or two should be devoted to revisit- 
ing the collections of antiquities in the Vatican and the Capitol and the 
Borghese Gallery ; a visit may also be paid to the Villa Faruesina , open 
only on the 1st and the 15th of each month. 

13th & 14th Days. Lastly, a day should certainly be devoted to the 
Alban Mts. (p. 363), and another to Tivoli (p. 377). These excursions 
should not be postponed till the end of the visitor's stay at Rome. They 
may he made on a Sunday, which is not a good day for sight-seeing. 


The literature on the history and topography of Rome, especially 
of ancient Rome, is so extensive, that it is impossible to do more 
than indicate a few of the most useful works on the subject. At 
the revival of learning after the dark ages numerous scholars, such 
as Poggio (1440), Flavio Biondo, and Lucio Fauno, devoted them- 
selves with enthusiasm to exploration in this field. The most im- 
portant of the mediaeval works on Rome is Nardini's Roma Anlica 
(1666), edited by Nibby in 1818. 

1 28 Prelim. Information. ROME. Bibliography. 

Among modern works we may mention the following: — 

1. Italian. Nuova Descrizione di Roma Antica e Moderna 1820, by G. Fea. 

Indicazione Topografica di Roma Antica (3rd ed., 1841) and other works 

by Canina. 
Roma nelV Anno 1838, by Nibby (3 vols. ; 1843). 

2. Fbknch. Rome, Description et Souvenir, by Francis Wey , a handsome 

illustrated work, with 358 wood-cuts (3rd ed., Paris, 1875). 
Rome au Steele oVAuguste, by Dezobry (1844). 
Promenades Archiologiques, by Boissier (Paris, 1881). 
Rome et ses Monuments, by Debleser (1882; useful information about 

church services and other ecclesiastical matters). 
Les Antiquitis de la Ville de Rome au XIV«, XV", et IK/» siicles, by 

E. Miintz (Paris; 1886). 

3. German. Geschichte und Beschreibung der Stadt Rom, by Sachse (1824). 

Beschreibung Rome, by Niebuhr. Platner. Bunsen, Ulrichs. and others, a 
learned and extensive work forming the basis for all subsequent ex- 
ploration (6 vols., 1830-42). An abridgment of this work, in 1 vol., 
was issued by Platner and Ulrichs in 1845. 

Handbuch der Romischen Alterthiimer, by W. A. Becker, a useful sup- 
plement to the foregoing (numerous references to classical authors). 

Topographie der Stadt Rom im AUerthum, by H. Jordan, with an ac- 
count of the present state of the excavations (3 vols. ; 1871-85). 

Topographie der Stadt Rom, by 0. Richter, an excellent and learned 
survey, though somewhat crowded owing to its conciseness (1889). 

Die Ruinen Roms, by Reber (3rd ed., Leipsic, 1879). 

Darstellungen am der Sittengeschichte Roms in der Zeit von August bis 
zum Ausgang der Antonine, by L. Friedlaender , a valuable contri- 
bution to the social history of the imperial era (5th ed., 1881-82). 

Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter, by Ferdinand Gregorovius , a 
history of Eonie in the middle ages, closing in 1535 (1858-72). 

Geschichte der Stadt Rom, by A. von Reumont, a history of Rome from 
its foundation to 1846 (3 vols. ; Berlin, 1867-70). 

4. English. Walks in Rome, by Augustus J. G. Hare (12th ed., 1887). an 

admirable cicerone for the ordinary visitor to Rome (may be bor- 
rowed at Piale's library). 
Rome, Ancient and Modem , by the Rev. Dr. Donovan (4 vols. ; 1842), 

based on the works of Professor Nibby. 
Transformation or The Marble Faun, by Nathaniel Hawthorne, contains 

much incidental matter of interest for the visitor to Rome. — See also 

Georges Sand's '•DanielW, Hans Andersen's ' Improvisatore' ', and Miss 

Roberts' ^Mademoiselle Morf. 
Archaeology of Rome, by /. H. Parker, profusely illustrated. 
Architectural History of Rome, by J. H. Parker (1881). 
Romae Antiquae Notitia, or the Antiquities of Rome, by Basil Rennet (1731). 
Rome under Pius IX., by S. W. Fullom (1864). 
Rome Illustrated, translated from the French of Francis Wey (see above; 

new ed., 1887). 
Architectural Antiquities of Rome, by Taylor & Gresy (new ed., 1874). 
Rome and the Campagna, by Burn (London, 1870), the best English work 

of the kind. 
Historic and Monumental Rome, by G. J. Hemans (1874). 
Gallus, by W. A. Becker (English translation by Metcalfe). 
Manual of Roman Antiquities, by Prof. Ramsay. 
Topography of Rome and its Vicinity, by Sir William Gell (1846). 
The Roman Catacombs, by the Rev. J. Spencer Norlhcote (new ed., 1859). 
The City of Rome, by Dyer (1883). 

Ancient Rome in 1885, by Prof. J. H. Middleton (Edinburgh, 1885). 
Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries, by R. A. Lanciani 

(illus.; London, 1888). 
The reader need scarcely be reminded of the histories of Gibbon, Me- 

buhr, Mommten, Merivale, Arnold, Duruy, and Ihne. 

Origin. ROME. History. 129 

History of the City of Rome. 

Difficult as it undoubtedly is to trace the career of the Eternal 
City throughout upwards of two thousand years , and to mark and 
appreciate the manifold vicissitudes which it has undergone, the 
traveller will naturally desire to form some acquaintance with 
the history of the ancient centre of Western civilisation, the city of 
the Republic and Empire, on the ruins of which the seat of a vast 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction was afterwards founded , and now the 
capital of an important and steadily progressing modern state. 
Wherever we tread, our thoughts are involuntarily diverted from 
the enjoyment of the present to the contemplation of the past; and 
the most careless of pleasure-seekers will find it difficult to with- 
stand the peculiar influence of the place. The following sketch is 
merely designed to put the traveller in the way of making farther 
researches for himself, and deals exclusively with those leading and 
general facts with which he ought to be acquainted before proceed- 
ing to explore the city in detail. 

PAs the more remote history of Italy is involved in much ob- 
scurity, so also the origin of the city of Rome is to a great extent a 
matter of mere conjecture. It was not till a comparatively late 
period that the well-known legend of Romulus and Remus was 
framed, and the year B. 0. 753 fixed as the date of the foundation. 
In all probability, however , Rome may lay claim to far greater an- 
tiquity. We are led to this conclusion , not only by a number of 
ancient traditions , but also by the recent discovery in Latium of 
relics of the flint-period , an epoch far removed from any written 
records. The Palatine was regarded by the ancients as the nucleus 
of the city, around which new quarters grouped themselves by slow 
degrees ; and it was here that Romulus is said to have founded his 
city, the Roma Quadrata, of which Tacitus (Ann. 12, 24) states the 
supposed extent. Modern excavations have brought to light portions 
of the wall, gateways, and streets which belonged to the most an- 
cient settlement (see pp. 241, 242). After the town of Romulus had 
sprung up on the Palatine, a second, inhabited by Sabines, was built 
on the Quirinal, and the two were subsequently united into one 
community. Whilst each retained its peculiar temples and sanctu- 
aries, the Forum , situated between them , and commanded by the 
castle and the temple of Jupiter on the Capitol , formed the com- 
mon focus and place of assembly of the entire state, and the Forum 
and Capitol maintained this importance down to the latest period of 
ancient Rome. The rapid growth of the city is mainly to be attri- 
buted to its situation , the most central in the peninsula , alike 
adapted for a great commercial town , and for the capital of a vast 
empire. The advantages of its position were thoroughly appreciated 
by the ancients themselves , and are thus enumerated by Livy 
(5, 54): 'flumen opportunum, quo ex mediterraneis locis fruges 
devehantur , quo maritimi commeatus accipiantur , mare vicinum 

Baedekee. Italy II. 10th Edition. 9 

130 History. ROME. The Kings. 

ad oommoditates nee expositum nimia propinquitate ad pericula 
classium externarum , regionum Italia medium , ad incrernentum 
urbis natum unice locum'. The Tiber was navigable for sea-going 
ships as far as Rome, whilst its tributaries, such as the Anio, Nera, 
Chiana,' and Topino, contained sufficient water for the river vessels 
which maintained a busy traffic between Rome and the interior of 
the peninsula. The state of these rivers has, however, in the course 
of ages undergone a complete revolution, chiefly owing to the grad- 
ual levelling of the forests on the mountains , and at the present 
day the lower part only of the Tiber, below Orte, is navigable. 

Whilst the origin of the capital of the world is traditionally re- 
ferred to Romulus, its extension is attributed with something more 
of certainty to Servius Tullius. Around the twin settlements on the 
Palatine and Quirinal, extensive suburbs on the Esquiline and 
Caelius , as well as on the lower ground between the hills, had 
sprung up ; for not only weTe numerous strangers induced to settle 
permanently at Rome on account of its commercial advantages, but 
the inhabitants of conquered Latin towns were frequently trans- 
planted thither. Out of these heterogeneous elements a new civic 
community was organised towards the close of the period oft the 
kings , and its constitution commemorated by the erection of the 
Servian Wall. This structure included an external wall round the 
whole of the town, and also the fortifications of the Capitol and other 
heights within it. The outer wall led from the N. slope of the Cap- 
itol across what was later the Forum of Trajan , skirted the Qui- 
rinal, and turned to the S.E. at the gardens of Sallust (p. 173). 
For more than 3/ 4 M. at this part of the circuit, where the artificial 
defences are not aided by nature , the wall was replaced by a ram- 
part about 80 ft. in breadth , with a moat 100 ft. wide in front of 
it. Considerable remains of this rampart are extant near the rail- 
way-station. The wall recommenced on the E. side of the Esquiline, 
skirted the S. slope of the Caelius, enclosed the two summits of the 
Aventine", and ended at the Tiber (below St. Sabina's, p. 252). 
While care was taken thus to protect the city externally, the kings 
were not less solicitous to embellish the interior with handsome 
buildings. To this period belong the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus 
(p. 208), the Circus in the valley between the Palatine and the 
Aventine (p. 250), the Career Mamertinus (p. 237), and above 
all the Cloaca Maxima (p. 248), destined to drain the swampy site 
of the Forum, and still admired for its massive construction. This 
energetic and brilliant development of the city under the kings of 
the Tarquinian family in the 6th cent. B.C. came to a close with 
the expulsion of the last king Tarquinius Superbus (509). 

During the first century of the Republic the united efforts of 
the citizens were directed to the task of establishing themselves 
more securely in the enjoyment of their new acquisitions ; and in 
this they succeeded , although not without serious difficulty. It 

The Republic. ROME. History. 131 

was a hard and bitter period of probation that the nation had to 
undergo in the first period of its new liberty, and it was not till the 
decline of the Etruscan power that Rome began to breathe freely 
again. After protracted struggles she succeeded in conquering and 
destroying her formidable rival Veii (396) , a victory by which the 
Roman supremacy was established over the south of Etruria as far 
as the Ciminian Forest. Shortly afterwards (390) the city, with the 
exception of the Capitol, was taken and entirely destroyed by the 
Oauls. Although this catastrophe occasioned only a transient loss 
of the prestige of Rome, it produced a marked effect on the external 
features of the city. The work of re-erection was undertaken with 
great precipitation ; the new streets were narrow and crooked, the 
houses poor and unattractive , and down to the time of Augustus, 
Rome was far from being a handsome city. Her steadily increasing 
power, however, could not fail in some degree to influence her ar- 
chitecture. During the contests for the supremacy over Italy , the 
first aqueduct and the first high-road were constructed at Rome by 
Appius Claudius in 312 [Aqua and Via Appia , p. 348) ; in 272 a 
second aqueduct (Anio Vetus) was erected. Down to the period of 
the Punic wars Rome had not extended beyond the walls of Servius 
Tullius ; but, after the overthrow of Carthage had constituted her 
mistress of the world, the city rapidly increased. The wall was al- 
most everywhere demolished to make room for new buildings , so 
that even in the time of Augustus it was no longer an easy matter 
to determine its former position , and new quarters now sprang up 
on all sides. During the last century B.C., after the Grseco- 
Asiatic wars of the previous century had brought the Romans into 
contact with the civilisation of the East, the city began to assume 
an aspect more worthy of its proud dignity as capital of the civilised 
world. The streets , hitherto unpaved , were now converted into 
the massive lava-causeways which are still visible on many of the 
ancient roads (e. g. Via Appia). The highest ambition of the 
opulent nobles was to perpetuate their names by the erection of 
imposing public buildings. Thus in 184 M. Porcius Cato erected 
the first court of judicature (Basilica PorciaJ in the Forum , and 
others followed his example. Speculation in houses was extensively 
carried on , and it was by this means that the Triumvir Crassus, 
among others , amassed his fortune ; for rents were high , and the 
houses of a slight and inexpensive construction. These insulae, or 
blocks of houses erected for hire , contrasted strikingly with the 
domus, or palaces of the wealthy , which were fitted up with the 
utmost magnificence and luxury. Thus the tribune Clodius , the 
well-known opponent of Cicero , paid 14,800,600 sesterces (i. e. 
about 130,5252.) for his house. The ordinary building material 
consisted of sun-dried bricks (lateres), while the volcanic stone 
(tufa and peperino) of the neighbourhood was used for the more 
ambitious edifices. Among the comparatively few extant buildings 

132 History. ROME. The Emperors. 

of the Republican period are the Tabularium of B. C. 78 (p. 221), 
the Ionic Temple at the Ponte Rotto (p. 249), and the tombs of the 
Scipios (p. 257), Bibulus (p. 163), and Caecilia Metella (p. 349). 

The transformation of the republic into a Military Despotism 
involved the introduction of a new architectural period also. Usurp- 
ers are generally wont to direct their energies to the construction 
of new buildings , with a view to obscure the lustre of the older 
edifices, and to obliterate the associations connected with them. 
Caesar himself had formed the most extensive plans of this nature, 
but their execution was reserved for his more fortunate nephew. Of 
all the ruins of ancient Rome those of the buildings of Augustus 
occupy by far the highest rank , both in number and importance. 
The points especially worthy of note are the Campus Martius with 
the Pantheon (p. 193) and the Thermae of Agrippa (p. 195), the 
Theatre of Marcellus (p. 203), the Portico of Octavia (p. 203) and 
the Mausoleum of Augustus (p. 184), the Basilica Julia (p. 226), 
and the Forum of Augustus with the Temple of Mars (p. 239). No 
fewer than 82 temples were restored by Augustus ('templorum 
omnium conditorem ac restitutorem' as he is termed by Livy), 
who might well boast of having found Rome of brick and left 
it of marble. The wonderful fire-baked bricks , the time-resist- 
ing qualities of which excite our admiration in the Roman build- 
ings of the next 500 years , now came into use , supplemented by 
the beautiful travertine from the vicinity of Tivoli, while the 
walls were lined with marble from Carrara , Paros and other Greek 
islands, Numidia ('giallo antico'), Laconia ('rosso antico'), and 
Euboea ('cipollino'). The administration and police- system of the 
city were also re-organised by Augustus , who divided Rome into 
14 quarters (regiones) , adapted to its increased extent (p. 134). 
A corps of watchmen (vigiles), who also served as firemen, was 
appointed to guard the city by night. These and other wise in 
stitutions , as well as the magnificence attained by the city under 
Augustus , are depicted in glowing terms by his contemporaries. 
His successors followed his example in the erection of public edi- 
fices, each striving to surpass his predecessors. In this respect 
Nero (54-68) displayed the most unbridled ambition. The con- 
flagration of the year 64 , which reduced the greater part of Rome 
to ashes, having been ignited, it is said, at the emperor's in- 
stigation, afforded him an opportunity of rebuilding the whole city 
in a modern style and according to a regular plan. For his own use 
he erected the 'Golden House' , a sumptuous palace with gardens, 
lakes, and pleasure-grounds of every description, covering an enor- 
mous area, extending from the Palatine across the valley of the Co- 
losseum, and far up the Esquiline (p. 234). These and other works 
were destroyed by his successors, and well merited their fate ; the frag- 
ments which still bear the name of Nero at Rome are insignificant. 

The Flavian Dynasty, which followed the Julian , has on the 

The Emperors. ROME. History. 133 

other hand perpetuated its memory by a number of most imposing 
works, above all the Colosseum (p. 234), which has ever been re- 
garded as the symbol of the power and greatness of Rome, the Thermal 
of Titus on the Esquiline (p. 237) , the Flavian Palace on the 
Palatine (p. 244), and the Triumphal Arch (p. 233) erected after 
the destruction of Jerusalem. Under Trajan, architecture received 
a new impetus , and indeed attained the highest development 
of which the art was capable at Rome. To this the Forum of 
Trajan (p. 240) ,' with the column , and the reliefs afterwards 
employed to decorate Constantine's arch, bear eloquent testimony. 
Under Trajan the culminating point both of art and of political 
greatness was attained. Thenceforward the greatness of the empire 
began gradually, but steadily, to decline. Although under the next 
emperor Hadrian this tendency was apparently arrested, yet the 
monuments of iiis reign , such as the Temple of Venus and Roma 
(p. 233), and his Mausoleum (p. 275), exhibit traces of degeneracy. 
The same remark applies also to the time of the Antonines. These 
monarchs were remarkable for their excellent qualities as sovereigns, 
and their peaceful sway has frequently been regarded as the period 
during which mankind in general enjoyed the greatest prosperity. 
There is even a tradition that 'the good old times' will return when 
the equestrian statue of the worthy Marcus Aurelius, the gilding of 
which has almost entirely disappeared, shall resume its costly cover- 
ing. This, however, was but the lull preceding a storm. The great 
plague under the latter emperor was the first of a series of fearful 
calamities which devastated the empire. Throughout an entire cen- 
tury civil wars , incursions of barbarians , famine , and pestilence 
succeeded each other without intermission. Although Rome was 
less affected by these horrors than the provinces , it is computed 
that the population of the city , which at the beginning of the 2nd 
cent, was about l!/ 2 million, had dwindled to one-half by the time 
of Diocletian. A constant decline in architectural taste is traceable; 
but , as building always formed an important feature in the policy 
of the emperors, the number and extent of the ruins of this period are 
considerable. To this epoch belong the Column of Marcus Aurelius 
(p. 154), the Arch of Sept. Severus (p. 228), the magnificent Baths 
of Caracalla (p. 255), and the huge Thermae ofDiocletian (p. 167). 
After the Punic War the walls of the city had been suffered to 
fall to decay, and during nearly five centuries Rome was destitute 
of fortification. Under the emperor Aurelian, however, danger 
became so imminent that it was deemed necessary again to protect 
the city by a wall against the attacks of the barbarians. This 
structure is to a great extent identical with that which is still 
standing. The latest important ruins of antiquity bear the name of 
Constantine the Great , viz. the Basilica (j> . 232) , Baths (pp. 
165, 174), and Triumphal Arch (p. 236). The two former were, 
however, erected by his rival Maxentius. Constantine manifested 

134 History. ROME. Rise of Christianity. 

little partiality for Rome and ancient traditions, and the transference 
of the seat of empire to Byzantium (in 330) marks a decided turn- 
ing-point in the history of the city, as well as in that of the whole 
empire. Rome indeed was still great on account of its glorious past 
and its magnificent monuments , but in many respects it had sunk 
to the level of a mere provincial town. No new works were thence- 
forth undertaken, and the old gradually fell to decay. 

The city was atill divided, in accordance with the Augustan System, 
into fourteen regions, in enumerating which we shall name the principal 
ruins belonging to each: — i. Porta Capena, Via Appia, within the city 
(p. 254); 2. Caelimontium , Cselius (p. 268); 3. Isis et Serapis, Colosseum 
(p. 234), Baths of Titus (p. 237) ; 4. Templum Pads, Venus et Roma (p. 233), 
Basilica of Constantine (p. 232), Temple of Faustina (p. 231) ; 5. Exquiliae, 
Temple of Minerva Medica (p. 180) ; 6. Alia Semita, Baths of Constantine 
(p. 174) and Diocletian (p. 167) ; 7. Via Lata, between the modern Corso, 
the Quirinal, and Pincio (p. 148); 8. Forum Romanum, the republican 
and imperial Fora (pp. 222, 237) and the Capitol (p. 208); 9. Circus Fla- 
minius , Theatres of Marcellus (p. 203) and Pompey (p. 205) , portico of 
Octavia (p. 203), Pantheon (p. 193), column of Marcus Aurelius (p. 154), 
and the Temple of Neptune (p. 155) ; 10. Palatium, Palatine (p. 244) ; 11. 
Circus Ma.rimus , temple in the Forum Boarium (p. 250) ; 12. Piscina 
Publico, Baths of Caracal la (p. 255); 13. Aventinus, Pyramid of Cestius 
(p. 252) ; 14. Transtiberim , Trastevere and the Borgo. According to the 
statistics of this period, Rome possessed 37 gates, from which 28 high- 
roads diverged, and 19 aqueducts; and although four only of these last are 
now in use , there is probably no city in the world which can boast of 
such an excellent supply of water as Rome. The banks of the Tiber 
were connected by 8 bridges. There were 423 streets , 1790 palaces, and 
46,602 dwelling-houses. Among the public structures are mentioned 11 
Therni8e, 856 baths, 1352 fountains in the streets, 36 triumphal arches, 10 
basilicas , etc. When the grandeur and magnificence suggested by these 
numbers is considered, it may occasion surprise that comparatively so 
few relics now remain; but it must be borne in mind that the work of 
destruction progressed steadily during nearly a thousand years, and was not 
arrested till the era of the Renaissance, but for which even the monuments 
still extant would ere now have been consigned to oblivion. 

The Catacombs, the earliest burial-places of the Christians, 
illustrate the gradual progress of this interesting community, in 
spite of every persecution , from the 1st century downwards. At 
the beginning of the year 313 Constantine issued his celebrated 
decree from Milan, according to Christianity equal rights with all 
other religions. This was the decisive step which led to the union 
of the church with the state. In 325 the first oecumenical council 
was held at Nicaea , and in 337 the emperor caused himself to be 
baptised when on his death-bed. Tradition attributes the earliest 
ecclesiastical division of Rome into seven diaconates to St. Clement, 
the fourth bishop , and St. Peter is said to have founded the first 
place of worship in the house of the senator Pudens, now the 
church of 8. Pudenziana (p. 175). To Callistus I. (217-22) is 
ascribed the foundation of the church of 8. Maria in Trastevere 
(p. 330), and to Urban, his successor, that of S. Cecilia (p. 331). 
About the beginning of the fourth century S. Alessio and £. Prisca 
on the Aventine are supposed to have been founded. Of these 
churches, however, and also of the edifices erected by Constantine, 

Early Middle Ages. ROME. History. 135 

no trustworthy record has been handed down to us. To that 
monarch tradition attributes the foundation of the following 
churches — the Lateran, St. Peter's, S. Paolo Fuori, S. Croce in 
Oerusalernme, S. Agnese Fuori, S. Lorenzo Fuori, and SS. Pietro e 
Marcellino at Torre Pignattara (p. 345), — but probably errone- 
ously , with the exception of the first , which was styled 'omnium 
urbis et orbis ecclesiarum mater et caput'. It is, however, note- 
worthy that the oldest and most important churches were generally 
outside the gates, or, at least in their immediate vicinity ; and this 
is accounted for by the fact that the Roman aristocracy at first clung 
tenaciously to the old traditions, and for a long period the city pre- 
served its heathen character. The state at length overcame this 
antagonism. In 382 the altar of Victoria was removed from the 
senate-hall, and in 408 the ancient religion was at length deprived 
by a law of HonoTius of all its temporal possessions , and thus in- 
directly of its spiritual authority also. The destruction of the an- 
cient temples, or their transformation into Christian places of wor- 
ship now began, and the churches rapidly increased in number. At 
this early period Rome possessed 28 parish churches (tituli) , be- 
sides numerous chapels, and among them arose the five Patriarchal 
Churches, presided over by the pope, and forming a community to 
which the whole body of believers throughout the world was con- 
sidered to belong. These five were S. Giovanni in Laterano, S. 
Pietro, S. Paolo, S. Lorenzo, and the church of S. Maria Maggiore 
founded by Liberius. Besides these , 8. Croce in Oerusalernme and 
S. Sebastiano, erected over the catacombs of the Via Appia, enjoyed 
special veneration. These formed the 'Seven Churches of Rome' to 
which pilgrims flocked from every part of western Christendom. 
The number of monasteries now steadily increased, and at the same 
time the inroads of poverty made rapid strides. 

In the 4th Century the cultivation of the Roman Campagna 
began to be seriously neglected, and in an official document of the 
year 395 it is stated that upwards of 500 square miles of arable land 
had been abandoned and converted into morass. The malaria at the 
same time extended its baneful sway from the coast into the in- 
terior of the country. The storms of the barbarian irruptions greatly 
aggravated the misery. Although the Vandals and Goths are often 
erroneously held responsible for the destruction of all the great 
monuments of antiquity , which , on the contrary, Theodoric the 
Great did his utmost to protect , Rome doubtless suffered terribly 
from having been the scene of their battles and pillagings. In 410 
the city was plundered by Alaric, and in 445 by the Vandals , and 
in 537 it sustained its first siege from the Goths under Vitiges. 
They laid waste the Campagna and cut off all the supplies of water 
brought to the city by the aqueducts , but the skill of Belisarius, 
and the strength of the walls , particularly those of the Castle of 
S. Angelo, effectually repelled their attacks on the city. In March 

136 History. ROME. The Papacy. 

538 they were at length compelled to abandon their designs, after 
having beleaguered the city for upwards of a year. In December 
546, Totila, the king of the Goths, entered Rome, and is said to 
have found not more than 500 persons within the walls of the 
devastated city. Belisarius then repaired the walls, which had been 
partially destroyed, and in 547 he sustained a second siege. In 549 
the city again fell into the hands of Totila , but in 552 it was re- 
captured by Narses and once more united with the Byzantine empire. 
About this period the city was reduced by war, pestilence, and 
poverty to a depth of misery which was never again paralleled, ex- 
cept during the absence of the papal court at Avignon. No thorough 
restoration was possible, for the Byzantine emperors cared nothing 
for Rome, and in the Lombards arose new enemies to their dynasty 
in Italy. In 663 Constans II. visited Rome , an interval of 306 
years having elapsed since it had been entered by a Byzantine em- 
peror, and availed himself of the opportunity to carry off the last 
remains of the bronze with which the ancient monuments were de- 
corated. In 755 the Lombards under their duke Aistulf besieged 
Rome for two months and ruthlessly devastated the Campagna, 
which during the preceding interval of peace had begun to wear a 
more smiling aspect. A lamentation of that period begins thus : — 

'Nobilibus quondam fueras constructa patronis, 
Subdita nunc servis, heu male Roma ruis ; 

Deseruere tui tanto te tempore reges, 
Cessit et ad Grsecos nomen honosque tuus\ 

and terminates with the words : — 

'Nam nisi te Petri meritum Paulique foveret, 
Tempore jam longo Roma misella fores'. 
It was in fact the tradition , indelibly attaching to Rome, of the 
great struggles and victories of Christianity which preserved the 
city from total destruction. The transformation of heathen into 
Christian Rome was accompanied by the gradual development of the 
Papacy as the supreme ecclesiastical power in the West. Leo the 
Great (440-461) and Gregory the Great (590-604) may be regarded 
as the chief originators of this scheme of aggrandisement. These 
prelates and their successors were indefatigable in their efforts to 
realise their project, and under their auspices, notwithstanding the 
poverty and misery into which Rome had sunk , new churches and 
monasteries were constantly springing up among the ruins of the 
monuments of antiquity , and the last feeble spark of artistic taste 
which still survived was devoted to the decoration of these build- 
ings. The objects at which they chiefly aimed were independence 
of Byzantium, the subjection of the Eastern church to the court of 
Rome, and the conversion of the heathen Germans, the accomplish- 
ment of which would materially pave the way for their ulterior am- 
bitious schemes. In 727 the Lombard king Luitprand presented 
Sutri, which had been captured by him, to the pope, this being the 
first instance of a town being presented to the church, and this gift 

The Middle Ages. ROME. History. 137 

constituted a basis for the subsequent formation of the States of the 
Church. In 755, on the invitation of the pope, the Frankish king 
Pepin proceeded to Italy and practically put an end to the Byzan- 
tine supremacy. It is not known whether that monarch absolutely 
made over the Exarchate of Ravenna and the other towns to the re- 
presentative of St. Peter , or whether he granted them to him as a 
fief ; but it is certain that the temporal power of the popes and their 
supremacy over Rome dates from the grants made by Pepin to the 
church.' On Chriatmas Day, in the year 800, Charlemagne was 
crowned by Leo III., and from that period dates the career of the 
'Holy Roman Empire' and the Medieval History of Rome and 
the Roman Catholic Church. 

A characteristic of this period is to be found in the numerous, 
many-storied towers of red brick which contrast so strongly with 
the monuments of ancient Rome. This style of architecture was 
developed in the Carlovingian epoch, although most of these towers 
now extant were not erected before the 12th or 13th century. In 
still greater numbers sprang up towers of a defensive character, a 
few only of which, such as the so-called Torre di Nerone (p. 169), 
are still preserved. The forest of towers , belonging to numerous 
different owners , which reared themselves over the ruins of the 
mistress of the world , affords at the same time a clue to the 
character of the whole epoch ; for , in spite of the nominal sway 
exercised over the greater part of Europe by the pope and the em- 
peror, continual feuds raged both at Rome and elsewhere between 
the temporal and spiritual powers , and between the nobility and 
the populace. The great monuments of antiquity were now doomed 
to utter destruction, and their fate is thus described by the historian 
Gregovorius (iii, 565) : — 

'Charlemagne had already set the example of carrying off ancient 
columns and sculptures to adorn his cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle, and the 
popes, who regarded the greatest monuments of Home as the property ot 
the state, possessed neither taste, nor time, nor ability to take measures 
for their preservation. The plundering of ancient buildings became the 
order of the day. The priests were indefatigable in transferring antique 
columns and marbles to their churches ; the nobles, and even the abbots, 
took possession of magnificent ancient edifices which they disfigured by 
the addition of modern towers ; and the citizens established their work- 
shops, rope-walks, and smithies in the towers and circuses of imperial 
Rome. The fisherman selling his fish near the bridges over the Tiber, 
the butcher displaying his meat at the theatre of Marcellus, and the baker 
exposing his bread tor sale, deposited their wares on the magnificent slabs 
of marble which had once been used as seats by the senators in the 
theatre or circus and perhaps by Caesar, Mark Antony, Augustus, and 
other masters of the world. The elaborately sculptured sarcophagi of 
Eoman heroes were scattered in every direction and converted into 
cisterns, washing-vats, and troughs for swine ; and the table of the tailor 
and the shoemaker was perhaps formed of the cippus of some illustrious 
Roman, or of a slab of alabaster once used by some noble Roman matron 
for the display of her jewellery. For several centuries Rome may be said 
to have resembled a vast lime-kiln, into which the costliest^ marbles were 
recklessly cast for the purpose of burning lime ; and thus did the Romans 
incessantly pillage,burn, dismantle, and utterly destroy their glorious old city'. 

138 History. ROME. Modern Times. 

Leo IV. encircled the 'Leonine City' with a wall, and erected 
other useful structures , which indicate a renewed period of pros- 
perity; but the ravages of the Saracens in the city and its en- 
virons soon prevented farther progress. "When at length these bar- 
barians were finally subdued by John X., the city was repeatedly 
besieged and captured by German armies during the contest for the 
imperial supremacy ; and subsequently, in consequence of incessant 
civic feuds , the whole city was converted into a number of distinct 
fortified quarters, with castellated houses, in the construction of 
which numerous monuments of antiquity were ruthlessly destroyed 
for the sake of the building materials they afforded. Every tem- 
porary re-establishment of peace was invariably followed by new 
scenes of devastation, as when the senator Brancaleone dismantled 
no fewer than 150 of the strongholds of the warlike nobles. 

The constantly increasing civic and national dissensions at 
length compelled Clement V. in 1309 to transfer the seat of the 
pontifical government to Avignon, where it remained till 1377, 
whilst Rome was successively governed by Guelphs and Ghibellines, 
Neapolitans and Germans , Orsini's and Colonna's, and for a brief 
period (1347) Cola di Rienzi even succeeded in restoring the an- 
cient republican form of government. This was an epoch of the ut- 
most misery, when poverty, war, and disease had reduced the popu- 
lation to less than 20,000 souls. 

A happier era was inaugurated by the return of Qregory XI. to the 
city (1377). After the termination of the papal schism(1378-1417), 
the new development of the city progressed rapidly, aided by the 
vast sums of money which flowed into the papal coffers, and by the 
revival of taste for art and science promoted by Nicholas V., Ju- 
lius II., Leo X., etc. 'In 1527 the city was devastated by the troops 
of Charles of Bourbon ; but it gradually recovered from the blow, 
its population again increased, and many churches and palaces were 
restored by the popes, their cardinals, and favourites, especially dur- 
ing the pontificate of Sixtus V. (1585-90), to whom modern Rome 
is chiefly indebted for its characteristic features. Comp. p. lvii. 

In 1798 a republic was established for a short period at Rome, 
and from 1809 to 1814 the city was under the supremacy of France. 
A republican form of government was again declared in 1849, in 
consequence of the events of 1848, but Pius IX. was restored by the 
French in 1850. The city was then garrisoned by 15,000 French 
troops, who were withdrawn in 1866, in accordance with the con- 
vention of 1864; but they were recalled after the Garibaldian 
hostilities of 1867, and were quartered in the environs until the 
breaking out of the Franco-Prussian war of 1870. On 20th Sept. of 
that year the Italian troops marched into the city, after a bombard- 
ment of five hours. The States of the Church are now incorporated 
with the kingdom of Italy, of which Rome is once more the capital. 
The population of the city in 1870 was about 215,000 

Chronolog . Table of ROME. Emperors and Popes. 139 



Bom. Emp 

Popes ». 


Rom. Emp. 



Julius Csesar 


Gordian III. 



Philip the 


Csesar Octa- 


vianus Au- 






Gallus and 













Luciusl., 252-253. 




Stephen I., 


Martyrdom of 
St. Peter. 


Sixtus II., 



Linus, 67-79. 









Claudius II. 






Felix I., 269-27J. 



Anacletus, 79-91. 





Clement, 91-100. 














Carinus and 


Alexander I. 






Sixtus I. 














Chlorus and 


Pius I. 






Marcus Au- 


the Great 



(sole Emp. 







Maximin II. 


Victor I., 190-202. 





Didius Ju- 















Sylvester I. 





(Geta d. 212.) 


Constantine II. 

Julius I. 






Callistus I., 







Felix II. 


Urbanus I., 









<*-i 0} 






° . 


Anterus, 235-236. 

nian I. 

l.s a 


Gordian I. & II. 



Pupienus and 



S •» 



(») The dates of the popes down to Constantine are uncertain, 
been handed down by vague tradition only. 

ha vin 

140 Chronolog. Table of ROME. 

Emperors and Popes. 


Rom. Emp. 



Rom. Emp. 



Damasus I. 






Boniface V. 


Valentinian II. 


Honorius I. 


Emp. 392-395) 


John IV. 




Theodoras I. 




St. Martin I. 




St. Eugene I. 


Anastasius I. 


St. Vitalianus. 


Innocent I. 






Donus I. 


Boniface I. 


St. Agathus. 


Coelestinus I. 


St. Leo II. 


Valentinian III 


St. Benedict II. 


Sixtus III. 


John V. 


Leo I., the Great. 






St. Sergius I. 



John VI. 




John VII. 


Lib. Severus. 


Constantine I. 



St. Gregory II. 


Hilarius 461-468. 


St. Gregory III. 




St. Zacharias. 

Julius Nepos. 



Stephen II. 


Romulus Au- 

Stephen III. 



St. Paul I. 


End of the W. 


Constantine II. 





Felix III. 

Stephen IV. 


Gelasius I. 


Hadrian I. 


Anastasius II. 


St. Leo III. 



Bom. Emp. of 



Germ, origin c 


John I. 




Felix IV. 


Louis thePious 


Boniface II. *> 


Stephen V. 


John II. 


St. Paschalis I. 


St. Agapetus I. 


Eugene II. 


St. Silverius. 





Gregory IV. 


Pelagius I. 




John III. 


Sergius II. 


Benedict I. 


St. Leo IV." 


Pelagius II. 


Louis II. 

Benedict III. 


St. Gregory I. the 


St. Nicholas I. 



[ladrian II. 




John VIII. 


Boniface III. 


Charles the 


S. Boniface IV. 


(a) From 395, the year of the death of Theodosius, the division of the 
Empire became permanent; in the above table the Emperors of the 'W. 
Roman Empire only are enumerated. 

(t>) Thus far all the popes have been canonised. 

(<=) The names of a few English sovereigns, especially those who appear 
most prominently in papal history, have been added to this column to 
facilitate realisation of contemporary history. 

Chronolog. Table of ROME. Emperors and Popes. 141 


Rom. Emp. 



Rom. Emp. 



Charles the 




Victor III. 


Marinus I. 


Urban II. 


Hadrian III. 


Paschalis II. 


Stephen VI. 


Henry V. 




Gelasius II. 




Calixtus II. 


[Alfred the 

Boniface VI. 


Honorius II. 

Great ofEng- 

Stephen VII. 


Lothaire of 



Romanus I. 


Theodorus II. 


Innocent II. 


John IX. 


Louis the 

Benedict IV. 


Conrad III. 
of Hohen- 


Leo V. 


Chris tophorus. 


Coelestine II. 


Sergius III. 


Lucius II. 


Conrad I. 

Anastasius III. 


Eugene III. 




Frederick I. 


John X. 



Henry I. 


Anastasius IV. 


Leo VI. 


Henry II. of 

Hadrian IV. 


Stephen VIII. 


England, 1154 

Alexander III. 


John XI. 



Lucius III. 


Otho I. 

Leo VII. 


Urban III. 


Stephen IX. 


Gregory VIII. 


Marinus II. 


Clement III. 


Agapetus II. 


Henry VI. 


John XII. 


Coelestine III. 


Leo VIII. 


Philip of Swa- 

Innocent III. 


Benedict V. 

bia and 


John XIII. 

Otho IV. 


Otho II. 

Benedict VI. 

Richard Coeur 


Benedict VII. 
3oniface VII. 

de Lion, 1189 


Otho III. 

John XIV. 


Frederick II. 


John XV. 


John Lack- 

Honorius III. 


Gregory V. 


land , 1199- 

Gregory IX. 


Sylvester II. 



Coelestine IV. 


Henry II. 


Innocent IV. 


John XVII. 


Conrad IV. 

John XVIII. 



Alexander IV. 


Sergius IV. 


Urban IV. 


Benedict VIII. 


Clement IV. 


Conrad II. 

John XIX. 


Gregory X. '-' 


Benedict IX. 


Rudolph of 


Henry III. 



Gregory VI. 


Innocent V. 

Clement II. 

Edward I. of 

Hadrian V. 


Damasus II. 

England, 1272 

John XX. 


St. Leo IX. 


or XXI. 


Victor II. 


Nicholas III. 


Henry IV. 


Martin IV. 


Stephen X. 


Honorius IV. 


Benedict X. 


Nicholas IV. 


Nicholas II. 


Adolph of 


[William the 

Alexander II. 



St. Coelestine V. 



Gregory VII. 


Boniface VIII. 

142 Chronolog. Table of ROME. Emperors and Popes. 


Rom. Emp. 



Rom. Emp. 



Albert I. 


England, 1553 

Julius III. (Joan. 


Benedict XI. 


Maria de Monte). 


Clement V. 


Marcellus II. 


Henry VII. of 

Paul IV. (Gian 
Pietro Caraffa 


Louis of Ba- 


Ferdinand 1. 

of Naples). 

varia and 


[Elizabeth of 

Pius IV. (Joan. 

Frederick of 

England, 1558 

Angelus Medici 



of Milan). 


[Edward III. of 

John XXII. 


Maximilian II. 


England, 1327 

Benedict XII. 


St. Pius V. 



Clement VI. 

(Ghislieri of 


Charles IV. of 




Gregory XIII. 


Innocent VI. 

(Ugo Buon- 


Urban V. 

compagni of 


Gregory XI. 




Urban VI. 


Rudolph II. 


Boniface IX. 


Sixtus V. (Felix 


Rupert of the 




Urban VII. 


Innocent VII. 



Gregory XII. 

Castagna of 


Alexander V. 




John XXIII. 


Gregory XIV. 


[Henry V. of 
England, 1413 

Martin V. 

(Nic. Sfondrati 
of Milan). 



Eugene IV. 


Innocent IX. 


Albert II. 



Frederick III. 

Facchinetti of 


Nicholas V. 



[Henry VI. of 

Calixtus III. 


Clement VIII. 


England, 1422 

Pius II. (.ffineas 

(Hippolyt. Aldo- 

Sylvius, Siena). 

brandini of 


Paul II. 

[James I. of 



Sixtus IV. 


England, 1603 

Leo XI. (Alexan- 

(Francis della 


der Medici). 

Rovere of 

Paul V. (Camillo 




[Henry VII. of 

Innocent VIII. 



England, 1485 

(Joann. B. Cibo 


Ferdinand II. 


of Genoa). 


[Charles I. of 

Gregory XV. 


Alexander VI. 

England, 1625 

(Alexander Lu- 

(Roder. Borgia). 




Maximilian I. 


UrbanVIII. (Maf- 


[Henry VIII. of 

Pius III. (Fran- 

feo Barberini). 

England, 150!) 

cis Piccolomini 


Ferdinand III. 

of Siena). 



Innocent X. 


Julius II. (Julian 

wealth and 


della Rovere). 




Leo X. (John de' 




Alexander VII. 


Charles V. 

(Fabio Chigi of 


Hadrian VI. 


(of Utrecht). 


Leopold I. 


Clement VII. 


[Charles II. of 

Clement IX. 

(Julius Medici). 

England, 1660 

(Giul. Rospig- 


[Mary I. of 

Paul III. (Alex- 
ander Farnese). 



1+1" /'S^X 1+ 3 1 


piusn. puts m. 



144-7 I 1+4- 




14-55 ^^~^ 1*SB 


14-84- ^TPN. I* 92 



14-92 /3T~\ 1503 

1503 XT7X 1513 

1534- /T"\ 154-9 






1550 /TSx 15">5 1555 


1555 y^lT^N. 1559 






1559 ^^T\ 1565 I 15G6 /~. ~\ 1572 ! 15 


1592 /~ ~\ 1605 


1605 /-""ITX 1621 


1621 /-"""Vx 1623 





\ Kae'ieri IH-bcs I,c 


1G23 - ~\ 16-M- ' 1GH- /TTTTiX 1G55 . 1SS5 /^TT^X J6G7 

1G67 /T^X 1669 




1G70 / X 'G7G ' 167G s£^sH\ 1G09 i 1G89 /<7U\ 1691 L«£>1 / "\ 1700 




noo x~~ "\ i7ui : nil /-""STx i"-i- 172* xrsr^x nso 


1740 •rTTN "58 

1758 y<T~\ 17G9 


1730 A^\ 11*0 

1769 XlXTX 1774- 


pits vn. 


leo xn. i pits vm. 

1800 ---T-N 1823 ' 1823 /" \ 1829 j 1829 /- X 1830 


1831 /"""l^X 18+G 



PIl'S IX. 

LEO xin. 

1878 ! 1878 


Coo^raph Aiist.vonWu^nL-i^ ncl«>^.I.<-ii>/.i<> 



Topography. 143 


Rom. Emp. 



Rom. Emp. 



Clement X. 


Joseph II. 

(Emilio Altieri). 


Clement XIV. 


Innocent XI. 

(Giov. Ant. Gan- 
ganelli of Ri- 


Alexander XIII. 


Pius VI. (Giov. 

[William III. 

(Pietro Otto- 

Ang. Braschi). 

and Mary II. 



Leopold II. 

of England, 


Francis II. 



Pius VII. (Gre- 


Innocent XII. 
(Ant. Pigna- 

gorio Barnaba 
Chiaramonti of 


[George IV. of 



Clement XI. 


England, 1820 

Leo XII. (Annib. 

(Giov. Franc. 


della Genga of 


Joseph I. 




Charles VI. 


Pius VIII. 


Innocent XIII. 
(Mich. Ang. de 

(Franc. Xav. 
Castiglione of 

[George II. of 




England, 1727 

Benedict XIII. 


Gregory XVI. 


(Vine. Maria 

(Mauro Capellari 
of Belluno). 


Clement XII. 
(Lorenzo Cor- 


Pius IX. (Gio- 
vanni Maria 
Mastai - Feretti 


Benedict XIV. 

of Sinigaglia). 

(Prosp. Lam- 


Leo XIII. 




Charles VII. 
of Bavaria. 

Pecci of Carpi- 


Francis I. 

1810, Cardinal 


[George III. of 

Clement XIII. 

1853. Pope 20. 

England, 1760 

(Carlo Rezzo- 

Feb. 1878). 


nico of Venice). 

Rome, the capital of the kingdom of Italy, with 345,036 inhab. 
(31stDec, 1885; less than Naples), is situated (41°53'54"N. lat., 
12° 29" E. long., meridian of Greenwich) in an undulating volcanic 
plain, which extends from Capo Linaro, S. of Civita Vecchia, to the 
Promontorio Circeo, a distance of about 85 M. , and between the Apen- 
nines and the sea, a width of 25 M. The city is built on both banks of 
the Tiber, the largest river in the Italian peninsula, which intersects 
the city from N. to S. in three wide curves. The banks of the 
Tiber are connected by Eight Bridges : the Ripetta Bridge , the 
highest; the new Ponte Vmberto ; the Ponte S. Angelo, near the 
castle of that name ; the Ponte Leonino, a suspension bridge, cross- 
ing from the Lungara; the Ponte Sisto; the new Ponte Qaribaldi; 
a seventh traversing the island between the second and third bends of 
the river, called Ponte 8. Bartolommeo (the ancient Pons Cestius) 
from Trastevere to the island, and thence to the left bank the Ponte 

144 Topography. ROME. View. 

de Quattro Capi (Pons Fabricius); finally, below the island, a new 
bridge near the old Ponle Rotto. Other bridges are projected. The 
water of the Tiber, is turbid (the 'flavus Tiberis 7 of Horace). The 
average width of the river is about 65yds. and its depth 20 ft., 
but it sometimes rises as much as 30-35 ft., as was the case during 
the great inundation of 1871. The construction of an artificial 
channel for the river has been undertaken. The navigation of the 
river, by means of which the commerce of imperial Rome was 
carried on in both directions , with transmarine nations as well 
as with the Italian provinces, is now comparatively insignificant. 

The prospect from one of the hills of Rome — and no city is 
richer in ever-varying and delightful views — is bounded towards 
the E. by the unbroken chain of the Apennines, which rise at a 
distance of 10 to 20 M. In the extreme N. towers the indented 
ridge of Soracte (2260 ft.), occupying an isolated position in the 
plain, and separated by the Tiber from the principal range of the 
Apennines. Farther E., and still more distant, is the Leonessa 
group (7255 ft.), which approaches the Central Apennines, Con- 
siderably nearer lies the range of the Sabine Mts. The summit at 
the angle which they form by their abutment on the Campagna is 
M. Gennaro(4160 ft.), perhaps the Lucretilis of Horace ; the village 
at the base is Monticelli (1295 ft.). Farther off, on the slope of the 
hill, lies Tivoli, recognisable by its villas and olive-gardens. More 
towards the S., on the last visible spur of the Sabine Mts. (2515ft.), 
is situated Palestrina, the Prseneste of antiquity. A depression 
4 M. in width only, separates the Apennines from the volcanic Al- 
ban Mts., above which a few peaks of the distant Volscian Mts. 
appear. On the E. spur of the Alban Mts. lies the village of Co- 
lonna (1180 ft.). The following villages are Rocca Priora (2350 ft.) 
and Monte Porzio (1530 ft.); then the town of Frascati (2220 ft.), 
below the ancient Tusculum. The highest peak of the Alban Mts. is 
M. Cavo (3130 ft.), once surmounted by a temple of the Alban Ju- 
piter, now by a Passionist monastery. On its slope lies the village 
of Rocca di Papa (2645 ft.), loftily and picturesquely situated, be- 
low which, towards the plain, is the town of Marino (1320 ft.). 
The village , with the castle farther to the W. on the hill, is Castel 
Gandolfo ; the mountain then gradually sinks to the level of the 
plain. Towards the W. the sea is visible from a few of the highest 
points only. On the N. the eye rests on the Janiculus (280 ft.), a 
volcanic chain of hills approaching close to the river, beyond which 
the horizon is bounded by mountains also of volcanic formation : 
towards the sea, to the^eft, the mountains of Tolfa (2040 ft. ), then 
the heights around the lake of Bracciano with the peak of Rocca 
Romana (2020 ft.), the Ciminian Forest (now generally called the 
mountains of Viterbo, 3465 ft.); the nearest point to the right is 
the crater of Baccano, with the wooded hill of M. Musino (1320 ft.). 
The plain enclosed by this spacious amphitheatre of mountains, and 

Seven Hills. ROME. Topography. 145 

intersected by the Tiber and the Anio, which descends from Tivoli 
and falls into the former I1/2 M. above Rome, contains a sprinkling 
of farms and villages, but is far more replete with witnesses of its 
former greatness and present desolation in the innumerable and ex- 
tensive ruins which cover it in every direction. 

The city proper lies on the Left Bank of the Tiber, partly in the 
ancient Campus Martius, a plain adjoining the river, and partly on 
the surrounding hills. Modern Rome is principally confined to the 
plain, while the Heights on which the ancient city stood were for 
centuries almost uninhabited, and have only recently again begun 
to be occupied by houses. These are the far-famed Seven Hills of 
Rome. The least extensive, but historically most important, is the 
Capitoline (165 ft.), which rises near the Tiber and the island. It con- 
sists of a narrow ridge extending from S.W. to N.E., culminating in 
two summits, separated by a depression. Contiguous to the Capitoline, 
in a N.E. direction, and separated from it by a depression, extends 
the long Quirinal (170 ft.). On the N. a valley, in which the Piazza 
Barberini is situated, separates the Quirinal from the Pincio (165 ft.), 
which, as its ancient name 'collis hortorum' indicates, was occupied 
by gardens , and not regarded as part of the city. To the E. of the 
Quirinal, but considerably less extensive, rises the Viminal (175 ft). 
Both of these may be regarded as spurs of the third and more impor- 
tant height, the Esquiline (245 ft.), which, forming the common basis 
of these two, extends from the Pincio on the N. to the Caelius. Its 
present distinguishing feature is the conspicuous church of S. Maria 
Maggiore ; while S. Pietro in Vincoli and the ruins of the Thermae 
of Titus mark the ancient quarters which stood on the hill where it 
approaches the Viminal, Palatine, and Caelius. To the S. E. of the 
Capitoline, in the form of an irregular quadrangle, rises the isolated 
Palatine (165 ft.), with the ruins of the palaces of the emperors, 
and on the low ground between these hills lies the ancient Forum. 
Farther S., close to the river, separated from the Palatine by the de- 
pression (70 ft.) in which the Circus Maximus lay, is the Aventine 
(150 ft.). Lastly, to theE. of the latter, is the long Caelius (165 ft.); 
in the low ground between the Caelius, Palatine, and Esquiline is 
situated the Colosseum; and farther E., by the city-wall, between 
the Caelius and Esquiline, is the Lateran. 

On the Right Bank of the Tiber lies the more modern and 
smaller part of the city, divided into two halves : on the N. the Borgo 
around the Vatican and St. Peter's, encircled with a wall by Leo IV. 
in 852 and erected into a separate town; and to the S., on the river 
and the slopes of the Janiculum, Trastevere, which from ancient times 
has formed a tete-de-pont of Rome against Etruria, and was a densely 
peopled suburb in the reign of Augustus. These two portions are 
connected by the long Via della Lungara, constructed by Sixtus V. 

The wall enclosing this area, which was inhabited during the 
imperial epoch by 172-2 million souls, has a length of about 10 M. 

Baedeker. Italy II. 10th Edition. 10 

146 1. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. Porta del Popolo. 

on the left bank and is pierced by 13 gates. It is constructed of 
brick, and on the outside about 55 ft. high. The greater part of it 
dates from 271 to 276. It -was begun by the Emp. Aurelian, com- 
pleted by Probus, and restored by Honorius, Theodoric, Belisarius, 
and several popes. The wall on the right bank dates mainly from 
the time of Pope Urban VIII. (comp. the Plan of 'Ancient Rome', 
p. 207). The Italian government has recently begun to fortify 
Rome by a series of detached forts forming a circle of about 30 M. 
in circumference round the city. 

The following description of Rome is arranged in accordance 
with a division of the city into five districts , the extent of which is 
marked on the clue-map at the end of the Handbook. 

J. Strangers'' Quarter and Corso, the chief centre of business. 

II. The Eastern Quarters, including the Quirinal, Viminal, and 
Esquiline Hills, anciently covered with houses, afterwards long given 
over to fields and vineyards, but now again becoming of importance 
in consequence of the municipal improvements inaugurated in 1870. 

III. Rome on the Tiber (left bank), the closely packed and tor- 
tuous city of the middle ages, the abode of the poorer classes, recently 
much altered and broken up by the construction of new streets. 

IV. Ancient Rome, to theS., containing the chief monuments of 

V. The Right Bank of the Tiber, including the Vatican, St. Pe- 
ter' s, and Trastevere. 

/. Stranger^ Quarter and Corso. 

The N. entrance to Rome is formed by the Porta del Popolo 
(PL I, 18), not far from the Tiber, through which, before the con- 
struction of the railroad, most visitors approached the Eternal 
City. It lies at the beginning of the main highway which connects 
Rome with Tuscany, Umbria, and N. and E. Italy generally. The 
gate was constructed in 1561 by Vignola, and the side towards the 
town by Bernini in 1655, on the occasion of the entry of Queen 
Christina of Sweden. In 1878 it was enlarged by the addition of 
two side-portals. The gate is named after the adjoining church 
of S. Maria del Popolo. — Outside the gate, on the right, is the 
Villa Borghese, see p. 334. 

Within the gate lies the handsome *Piazza del Popolo (PL I, 
18), adorned with an Obelisk between four water-spouting lionesses, 
which was brought by order of Augustus from Heliopolis after the 
defeat of Antony, placed in the Circus Maximus , and , according to 
the inscription, dedicated to the Sun. It was removed to its pres- 
ent position by order of Sixtus V. in 1589. The shaft is 78 ft. in 
height, and the whole monument with the pedestal and cross 118 ft. 
— Towards the W. the Piazza is bounded by an arched wall with 

S. Maria del Popolo. ROME. I, Strangers' 1 Quarter. 147 

figures of Neptune and Tritons, opposite which is a similar structure 
adorned with Roma between the Tiber and the Anio. On each side 
of the latter is an approach to the Pincio (p. 148). 

Three streets diverge from the piazza on the S. : to the right 
the Via di Eipetta (p. 184), parallel with the river; in the centre 
the Corso (p. 152) ; and to the left the Via del Babuino > leading to 
the Piazza di Spagna fp. 150). — Between the two latter streets 
stands the church of S. Maria in Monte Santo , adjacent to which, 
on the right, is that of S.\ Maria de' Miracoli, both dating from the 
latter half of the 17th cent., with domes and vestibules, designed 
by Rinaldi, and completed by Bernini and Fontana. 
/ *S. Maria del Popolo (PI. I, 18), said to have been founded by 
Paschalis II. in 1099 on the site of the tombs of the Domitii, the 
burial-place of Nero , which was haunted by evil spirits, was en- 
tirely re-erected by Baccio Pintelli (? or Meo del Caprind) under 
Sixtus IV. in 1477. The interior was afterwards decorated by Ber- 
nini in the rococo style. It consists of nave, aisles , transept , and 
octagonal dome, and contains handsome monuments of the 15th cent, 
(comp. p. xix) and other works of art. (The sacristan shows the 
choir and chapels; fee Y2 f r 

Right Aisle. The 1st Chapel , formerly delta Rovere, now Venuti, was 
painted by Pinturicchio : *Altar-piece, Adoration of the Infant Christ ; in the 
lunettes, life of St. Jerome. On the left, the tomb of Cardinal della Rovere, 
right, that of Cardinal di Castro ; on the pillar to the left, a bust of F. Catel, 
the painter (d. 1857) by Troschel. — In the 2nd Chapel : Assumption of Mary, 
altar-piece by G. Maratta. — 3rd Chapel, painted by Pinturicchio : above the altar, 
Madonna with four angels ; on the left , Assumption of the Virgin ; in the 
lunettes, scenes from the life of Mary; in the predelle representations of 
martyrs in grisaille ; on the right, tomb of Giov. della Rovere (d. 1483) ; on 
the left, recumbent bronze figure of a bishop. — In the 4th Chapel marble 
sculptures of the end of the 15th cent, above the altai : St. Catharine be- 
tween St. Anthony of Padua and St. Vincent; right, tomb of Marcantonio 
Albertoni (d. 1485) ; left, that of the Cardinal of Lisbon (d. 1508). 

Right Transept. On the right, tomb of Cardinal Podocatharus of Cyprus. 
Near it is a door leading into a passage, at the end of which is the sacristy, 
containing the former * Canopy of the high-altar of Alexander VI. of the 
year 1492, with an ancient Madonna of the Sienese school and the beautiful 
monuments of (left) Archbishop Rocca (d. 1482), and (right) Bishop Gomiel. 

Left Aisle. 1st Chapel, on the left and right of the altar, two ciboria 
of the 15th cent. ; left, tomb of Card. Ant. Pallavicino (erected 1507). By an 
adjacent pillar the rococo monument of a Princess Chigi, by Posi (1771). — 
The *2nd Chapel was constructed under the direction of Raphael by Agostino 
Chigi in honour of St. Mary of Loreto, in the form of a Greek cross, with 
a lofty dome, in the style affected for such structures in the 16th century. 
On the vaulting of the dome are eight "Mosaics by Aloisio della Pace (1516), 
from Raphael's cartoons: — 'Around the central circular scene, which re- 
presents the Creator surrounded by angels, are grouped seven planet sym- 
bols and a genius leaning on a globe, separated by ornamental divisions. 
Each planet is represented by an ancient deity: Diana, Luna, Mercury, 
Venus, Apollo, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. They are pourtrayed in half- 
figure with appropriate action, and each is enclosed within a segment of 
the zodiac, on which rests an angel, either pointing to the Creator above 
or in the act of adoration. This association of gods and angels recalls 
the prophets and sibyls of Michael Angelo, each of whom is also accom- 
panied by a genius. But Raphael's composition^ entirely independent, 
with a distinct significance of its own , and one of a kind which shows 


148 /. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. Pincio. 

the master's power in its highest manifestation 1 . — The altar-piece, a 
Nativity of the Virgin, is by Sebastiano del Piombo, the other pictures by 
Salviat'i. Bronze relief over the altar, Christ and the Samaritan woman, 
by Lorenzetto ; in the niches four statues of prophets : over the altars (left) 
"Jonah, perhaps designed by Raphael, and (right) Habakkuk, by Bernini; 
at the entrance, (left) Daniel, by Bernini, and (right) Elijah by Lorenzetto. 

Left Tkansept : Tomb of Cardinal Bernardino Lonati (15th cent.). 

In the Choir "Ceiling- frescoes by Pinturicchio (1479): Madonna, the Four 
Evangelists, and the Four Fathers of the church , Gregory , Ambrose, Je- 
rome, and Augustine, in excellent preservation, and long deservedly ad- 
mired for the skilful distribution of space. Beneath are the "Tombs of the 
cardinals Girolamo Basso della Rovere and Ascanio Sforza by Andrea San- 
sovino, erected by order of Julius II. (1505), 'the perfection of sculpture com- 
bined with decoration'. The same pope is said to have caused the two fine 
stained-glass windows to be executed by Claudius and William of Marseilles. 

The church gives a title to a cardinal. In the adjacent Augustine 
monastery Luther resided during his visit to Rome (1510). 

If we ascend the Pincio by the approaches named at p. 147 (gates 
closed one hour after Ave Maria) , we observe in the first circular 
space two granite columns (columnae rostratae) from the temple of 
Venus and Roma (p. 233), adorned with the prows of ships (mod- 
ern); in the niches three marble statues, and above them captive 
Dacians, imitations of antiques. Beyond these, a large relief. Half- 
way up are an antique granite basin, with a fountain, and an Eques- 
trian Statue of Victor Emmanuel II. , under a loggia. 

The *Pincio (PI. I, 18), the collis hortorum, or 'hill of gardens', 
of the ancients, was probably called Mons Pincius from a palace of 
the Pincii situated here in the later period of the empire. Here 
were once the famous gardens of Lucullus , in which Messalina, 
the wife of Claudius, afterwards celebrated her orgies. A vineyard 
belonging to the monastery of S. Maria at the foot of the hill was 
converted by Valadier, during the Napoleonic regime, into beau- 
tiful pleasure-grounds. This is a fashionable drive in the evening, 
when the Italians frequently pay and receive visits in their carriages, 
presenting a gay and characteristic scene. A military band plays 
here several times weekly in the latter part of the afternoon (p. 126). 
The walks are shaded by plantations and groups of trees , and (as 
suggested by Mazzini in 1849) adorned with busts of celebrated 
Italians. — The projecting terrace at the summit (150 ft.) com- 
mands a magnificent *View of modern Rome. 

Beyond the Piazza del Popolo and the new quarter in the Prati del 
Castello, on the opposite bank of the Tiber, rises the huge pile of St. Peter's, 
adjoining which is the Vatican to the right, and near it the city-wall. 
Among the hills which bound the horizon, the point planted with cypresses 
to the right is Monte Mario. To the left of St. Peter's , close to the Tiber, 
which is not visible , is the round castle of S. Angelo , with the bronze 
angel which crowns it. The pines on the height to the left of the castle 
belong to the Villa Lante on the Janiculum, with the Passeggiata Mar- 
gherita. Farther to the left, on the height, the facade of the Acqua Paola, 
adorned with a cross. Between the spectator and the river is a labyrinth of 
houses and churches. The following points serve as landmarks. Of the 
two nearest churches that with the two towers to the right is S. Giacomo 
in the Corso, that with the dome to the left, S. Carlo in the Corso ; between 
the two appears the flat dome of the Pantheon, beyond which a part of 

Villa Medici. ROME. I. Strangers' Quarter. 149 

the Campagna is visible. To the left of this, on the height in the distance, 
rises the long, undecorated side of the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, and 
behind it appears the tower of the senatorial palace on the Capitol. On 
the right side of the Capitol lies the Palazzo Caffarelli (German embassy), 
in front of which the upper part of the column of M.Aurelius in the Piazza 
Colonna is visible. Adjacent to the Capitol, on the left, is the bright-looking 
Villa Mills, shaded by cypresses, on the Palatine. Farther to the left a low 
brick-built tower on the Quirinal, the so-called Torre di Nerone. To the 
extreme left, and less distant, is the extensive royal palace on the Quirinal. 

The N. side of the Pincio is supported by lofty walls , opposite 
which are the grounds of the Villa Borghese. In a small round 
space near the middle of the hill, beside a Cafe, rises an Obelisk, 
which Hadrian once erected in Egypt to the memory of Antinous. 
It was afterwards brought to Rome, and erected here in 1822. To 
the right of the walk leading to the S. exit is a monument by 
Ercole Rosa, erected in 1883 to the memory of the brothers Cairoli 
of Pavia, who fell in battle near Rome in 1867 and 1870. The 
monument to the left, in the form of a globe, commemorates Galileo 
Galilei, who was confined from 1630 to 1633, at the instance of the 
Inquisition, in the Villa Medici (see below). — The exit is closed 
by an iron gate. 

Leaving the Pincio by the S. gate , we observe to the left the 
Villa Medici. In front of it is an avenue of evergreen-oaks and a 
fountain, whence a celebrated view of St. Peter's, most striking 
towards evening or by moonlight, is obtained. 

The Villa Medici (PI. I, 18), erected in 1540 by Annibale Lippi 
for Cardinal Ricci da Montepulciano, came into possession of Car- 
dinal Alessandro de' Medici about 1600, and afterwards belonged to 
the grand-dukes of Tuscany. In 1801 the French academy of art, 
founded by Louis XIV., was transferred hither. The garden is 
open to the public, and is entered by the gate to the left , or by the 
staircase to the right in the house (25-30 c). 

Among the ancient reliefs built into the walls of the tastefully deco- 
rated facade of the villa next to the garden is one of the 'Judgment of 
Paris 1 , the subject of a famous engraving by Marc Antonio. The wing 
contains a Collection or Casts (open on Wed. &Sat., 8-12, and for three 
hours in the afternoon before dusk ; the keeper proffers a written cata- 
logue, for the use of which 25-30c. is given), comprising many from statues 
not preserved at Rome, e.g. from the Parthenon of Athens, and the museum 
of the Louvre , which are valuable in the history of art. Adjoining the 
wing is a terrace, the front-wall of which is adorned with casts. We 
ascend a flight of steps (fee of a few soldi to the gardener who opens the 
door) and traverse the oak-grove to the right. We next ascend 60 steps 
to the Belvedeke, whence a fine view, now somewhat circumscribed, is 

The street passing the front of the Academy ends in the Piazza 
dblla Trinita, where to the left rises the church of S. Trinita 
de' Monti. The Obelisk in front of it, a conspicuous object from 
many points, is an ancient imitation of that in the Piazza del 
Popolo, and once adorned the gardens of Sallust. 

S. Trinita de' Monti (PI. I, 20), erected by Charles VIII. of 
France in 1495, and plundered during the French Revolution, was 

150 1. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. Piazza di Spagna. 

restored by Mazois in 1816 by order of Louis XVIII. It is open on 
Sundays only, before 9 a.m., and in the evening at Vespers (1 hr. 
before Ave Maria), when the nuns, for whom Mendelssohn com- 
posed several pieces, perform choral service with organ-accompani- 
ment. When the door is closed , visitors ascend a side-staircase on 
the left, and ring at a door under a metal roof. 

Left, 1st Chapel : Cast of the Descent from the Cross, by Achtermann. 
2nd Chapel: altar-piece al fresco, "Descent from the Cross, by Daniele da 
Volterra, his master-piece (much injured and freely restored) ; the excel- 
lence of the drawing and composition (still better seen in the study at the 
Lateran, p. 271) is attributed to the aid of Michael Angelo. 3rd Chapel: 
•Madonna, altar-piece by Veil. 4th Chapel : *St. Joseph, by Langlois. 6th 
Chapel : Christ, the Wise and Foolish Virgins, and Return of the Prodigal, 
an altar-piece by Seitz. — Right, 3rd Chapel: Assumption of the Virgin, 
Dan. da Volterra. 5th Chapel : Presentation in the Temple , Adoration of 
the Magi, Adoration of the Shepherds, of the School of Raphael. 6th Chapel: 
Resurrection, Ascension, Descent of the Holy Ghost, School of Perugino. — 
In the Transept, which is supported by Gothic arches, paintings by Perino 
del Vaga and F. Zuccaro. 

The convent connected with the church has been occupied by 
the Dames du Sacre Cceur (teachers of girls) since 1827. 

We quit the piazza to the left by the Via Sistina, which leads in 
5 min. to the Piazza Barberini (p. 171), and in 20 min. more to S. 
Maria Maggiore (p. 176). To the right is the small Via Oregoriana, 
which after 3 min. is intersected by the Via Capo le Case. 

To the right, Via Sistina No. 64, is the Casa Zuccari, once 
the house of the family of the artists of that name (marked by a 
memorial - tablet in 1872; paintings by Federigo Zuccaro on the 
ground-floor). In 1816 it was occupied by the Prussian consul Bar- 
tholdy,who caused one of the rooms to be adorned with frescoes by 
German artists then at Rome, among whom were Cornelius, Over- 
beck, Veit, and Schadow. The frescoes, however, were removed 
to the National Gallery at Berlin in 1888. 

The long Scala di Spagna (PI. I, 20; 'Gradinata di S. Trinita 
de' Monti'), which descends from S. Trinita to the Piazza di Spagna 
by 135 steps, was constructed by Al. Specchi and De Sanctis in 
1721-25. Models for artists with their picturesque costumes frequent 
its vicinity. To the left of the steps as we descend is the house 
where John Keats died in 1821 (marked by an inscription). 

The Piazza di Spagna (PI. I, 17; 82 ft.), the centre of the 
strangers' quarter, is enclosed by hotels and attractive shops. At 
the foot of the steps is La Barcaccia (barque) , a tasteless fountain 
by Bernini. Towards the N. the Via del Babuino , containing the 
new English church of All Saints, in the Gothic style, by Street 
(p. 119), and also several hotels, leads to the Piazza del Popolo 
(seep. 146). John 6 ib son, the sculptor, died in 1866 at Via del 
Babuino 144. In the S. prolongation of the long Piazza di Spagna 
rises the Column of the Immaeolata (PI. 1, 20, 1), erected by Pius IX. 
in honour of the 'Immaculate Conception of the Virgin' , a dogma 
promulgated in 1854; on the top of the cipolline column stands the 

Fontana di Trevi. ROME. /. Strangers' Quarter. 151 

bronze statue of Mary ; beneath are Moses , David , Isaiah , and 

At the S. end of the piazza is the Colleyio di Propaganda Fide 
(PI. I, 19, 16), founded in 1622 by Gregory XV., and extended 
by his successor Urban VIII. (whence '■Collegium TJrbanurrC), an 
establishment for the propagation of the Roman Catholic faith, where 
pupils of many different nationalities are educated as missionaries. 
The printing-office of the college was formerly celebrated as the 
richest in type for foreign languages. — On the right is the Palazzo 
di Spagna, or palace of the Spanish ambassador, whence the piazza 
derives its name. Opposite lies the small Piazza Mignanelli (PI. I, 
20), a station of the omnibuses to St. Peter's and the Piazza Mon- 
tanara (Nos. 8 & 23, pp. 1, 2 of the Appx.). 

Opposite the Scala di Spagna is the Via db' Condotti, with its 
numerous shops of jewellery, mosaics, antiquities, and photographs. 
It terminates in the Corso (see p. 152). 

To the S.E. from the Piazza di Spagna runs the Via de 1 Due 
Macelli, to the left of the Propaganda, and to the right the Via di 
Pkopaganda. The latter leads to S. Andrea delle Fratte (PI. I, 19) 
at the corner of the Via di Capo le Case, the next cross-street. 
This church was erected under Leo XI. by La Ouerra; the tasteless 
dome and campanile are by Borromini; the facade was added in 
1826 by Valadier. 

The pictures in the Interior are poor works of the 17th cent. : the 
two angels by the tribune , by Bernini , were originally destined for the 
bridge of S. Angelo. In the 2nd Chapel on the right is (on the right side) 
the monument of Mile. Falconnet by Miss ffosmer; on the last pillar to 
the right, in front of the aisle, the monument of the artist R. Schadow 
(d. 1822), by E. Wolff. In the 3rd Chapel to the left, by the right wall, is 
the tomb of Angelica Kauffmann (d. 18tf7) ; adjacent, by the pillar to the 
right, lies 'Maler Muller' (d. 1825). The Danish archaeologist Zoega and a 
converted prince of Morocco are also interred in this church. 

In the Via di Capo le Case stands the church of S. Oiuseppe a 
Capo le Case (PI. I, 19), adjoining which is the Musbo Aiitistico- 
Industbjale, an unimportant collection of terracottas , majolica, 
glass, ivory and wood carving, and other products of the artistic in- 
dustries of Italy (adm. daily except Wed., 9-3, 50 a). Descriptive 
labels are attached to the articles exhibited. 

"We follow the Via di Propaganda towards the S., passing in 
front of S. Andrea delle Fratte, and turn to the right into the Via 
del Pozzetto, and then to the left into the Via Poli (PI. I, 19). The 
last , which is almost immediately intersected by the Via deW 
Angelo Custode (p. 154), a new street connecting the Piazza Bar- 
berini and the Piazza Colonna, crosses the small Piazza Poli, skirts 
the Palazzo Poli, and leads to the Fontana Trevi. 

The *Fontana di Trevi (PI. I, 19), which vies in magnificence 
with the Acqna Paola, is erected against the S. side of the Palazzo 
Poli , and was completed from a design by Nice. Salvi (1735) in 

152 I. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. The Corso. 

1762. In the central niche is a figure of Neptune, by Pietro Bracci; 
at the sides, Health (left) and Fertility (right); in front, a large 
stone basin. 

The ancient Aqua Virgo, now Aequo, Vergine, which issues here, was 
conducted by M. Agrippa from the Campagna , chiefly by a subterranean 
channel 14 M. in length, to supply his baths at the Pantheon (p. 195), in 
B.C. 19. It enters the city by the Pincio, not far from the Porta del Po- 
polo. The name originated in the tradition that a girl once pointed out 
the spring to thirsty soldiers. The fountain was restored by Hadrian I., 
Nicholas V., and others. In 1453 the latter pope conducted hither the 
main stream of the aqueduct, and the fountain then exchanged its ancient 
name for its present name of Trevi (a corruption of 'Trivio'J, which it 
derives from its three outlets. This aqueduct yields daily upwards of 
13 million cubic feet of water, perhaps the best in Rome. The fountains 
in the Piazza di Spagna, the Piazza Navona, and the Piazza Farnese are 
supplied from the same source. — On quitting Rome, the superstitious 
partake of the water of this fountain, and throw a coin into the basin, 
in the pious belief that their return is thus ensured. 

The busy Via delle Muratte (p. 155) leads to the W. from the 
Fontana Trevi to the Corso. Opposite the fountain is SS. Vincenzo 
ed Anastasio (PI. I, 19, 3), erected in its present form, with a de- 
graded facade, from designs by M. Lunghi the Younger, at the 
beginning of the 17th century. 

The Via di S. Vincenzo, called farther on the Via de' Lucchesi, 
terminates in the little Piazza Pilotta, in which, to the right, 
stands the Palazzo MutiPapazzurri, (PI. II, 19, 9), built by Mattia 
de' Rossi in 1644. (From the Via de' Lucchesi the Via della Dataria 
leads on the left to the Quirinal; p. 174.) To the right of the Piazza 
Piiotta lies the Piazza SS. Apostoli (p. 160). The Via della Pi- 
lotta, skirting the rear of the Palazzo Colonna (No. 17 is the en- 
trance to the Galleria Colonna), and passing under the two arches 
which unite that palace with the Giardino Colonna (p. 163), leads 
to the Via Nazionale (p. 169). 

The Corso. 

The *Corso , which corresponds" with the ancient Via Flaminia 
leading from the Capitol, extends from the Piazza del Popolo 
(p. 146), between the Via di Ripetta and Via del Babuino, to the 
Piazza di Venezia, and is now the principal street of Rome. It con- 
tains numerous shops and is enlivened , especially towards even- 
ing, by crowds of carriages and foot-passengers. Its length is 1650 
yds., or nearly a mile. 

The first part of the street as far as the Piazza S. Carlo is less 
frequented than the other portions. No. 518, to the right, between 
the first two cross-streets, is the Pal. Rondinini (PI. I, 17, 18), the 
court of which contains an unfinished Pieta by Michael Angelo. No. 18, 
the house opposite, was once inhabited by Goethe; inscription: 'In 
questa casa immagino e scrisse cose immortali Volfango Goethe. 
II Comune di Roma a memoria del grande ospite pose 1872'. 

On the right, beyond the third cross-street, is the church of 

The Corso. ROME. J. Strangers' Quarter. 153 

S. Oiacomo in Augusta, or degli Incurabili (PI. I, 17, 2), with a 
facade by C. Maderna. It belongs to the adjoining surgical hospital, 
which extends to the Via Ripetta and accommodates 340 patients 
(founded 1338, enlarged 1600). Nearly opposite, on the left, is 
the small Augustine church of Oesii e Maria , with facade by Ri- 
naldi. — [In the Via de' Ponteftci, the third transverse street from 
this point to the right, is the Mausoleum of Augustus (p. 184). ] 

The Corso next leads to the Piazza S. Carlo, in which, on the 
right, is S. Carlo al Corso (PI. I, 17), the national church of the 
Lombards, and the resort of the fashionable world, with a tasteless 
facade. It was erected in the 17th cent, by Onorio Lunghi and 
completed by Pietro da Cortona. 

Ceiling-paintings in the Interior by Giacinlo Brandi. Over the high- 
altar is one of the finest works of Carlo Maratla : the Virgin recommending 
S. Carlo Borromeo to Christ. (The heart of S. Carlo is deposited under 
this altar.) Chief festival of the church, 4th Nov. 

The busy Via de' Condotti and other streets to the left lead to the 
Piazza di Spagna (p. 150); the Via della Fontanella di Borghese, 
prolonging the Via de' Condotti towards the "W., leads to the Palazzo 
Borghese (p. 184) and the Ponte S. Angelo (p. 274). 

Farther on in the Corso, on the right, No. 418 A, is the spacious 
Palazzo Buspoli, built by Ammanati in 1586, and now containing 
the Restaurant Morteo (p. 112). 

To the left, at the corner of the Via Frattina (No. 151), is the 
Palazzo Bernini, the vestibule of which contains one of the most 
exaggerated specimens of Bernini's style , a group representing 
'Time bringing the truth to light'. 

In a small piazza on the right side of the Corso, opposite the Via 
Frattina, rises S. Lorenzo in Lucirta (PI. I, 16), a church of ancient 
origin, but frequently restored. The only old part is the campanile, 
the top of which is modern. The church and adjoining monastery 
have belonged to the Minorites since 1606. 

The Portico is supported by four columns; at the door are two half- 
immured mediaeval lions. — In the Interior, by the 2nd pillar to the 
right, is the tomb of Nic. Poussin (d. 1665), erected by Chateaubriand; 
above the high-altar a Crucifixion by Guido Reni. 

Farther on, to the right, a little back from the street and partly 
concealed by other houses , is the unfinished Pal. Fiano (Pi. I, 
16, <9). The passage to the court, entered from No. 4, Piazza in 
Lucina, contains some good reliefs of figures and ornamental designs 
from the Ara Pacis, set up by Augustus in B.C. 9 (other remains 
in the Villa Medici, the Vatican, and the Uffizi at Florence). In 
front of this palace a triumphal arch of M. Aurelius stood until 
1662 (see inscription opposite, No. 167, recording that Alexan- 
der VII. levelled and widened the Corso for the horse-races ; reliefs, 
see p. 219). 

The Via delle Convertite on the left leads to the Piazza di S. Sil- 
vestro, which is embellished with a monument to the poet Pietro 
Metastasio (b. at Rome 1698, d. at Vienna 1782), erected in 1886. 

154 I. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. The Cor so and its 

In the N.W. corner of the piazza rises the venerable church of S. 
Silvestro in Capile (PI. I, 16), erected, together with a monastery, by 
Paul I. (757-67) on the site of his own house. The entrance-court 
has been preserved, but the church has been frequently rebuilt. 
The 'head of John the Baptist' has been preserved here since the 
13th cent, (festival, 31st Dec). Part of the monastery has been 
converted into the handsome Post and Telegraph Office, which has 
entrances from the piazza and the Via della Vite. Another part of 
the old monastery contains the ministerial Offices of Public Works. 
— Opposite S. Silvestro is the English Churchofthe Trinity (p. 119), 
erected in 1874, with a handsome facade in the early-Renaissance 
style. — At No. 11, Via di Mercede, which leads to the E. from the 
Piazza di S. Silvestro, is a tablet recording that Sir Walter Scott 
lived here when at Rome in 1832. 

Farther on in the Oorso , to the right, is the Pal. Verospi 
(No. 374), now Toklonia (PI. 1, 16, 10), erected by Onorio Lunghi, 
and restored by Alessandro Specchi. A loggia on the first floor is 
adorned with pleasing mythological frescoes by Fr. Albani, recall- 
ing the famous Farnesina works (p. 323). — Opposite begins the 
wide Via dell' Angelo Custode (see p. 151), which leads past the 
church of S. Maria in Via (by Mart. Lunghi, 1594; facade by Rain- 
aldi, 1600) and the N. front of the Palazza Poli (p. 151), to the 
Piazza Barberini (p. 171). The large establishment of the Fratelli 
Bocconi, at the corner, was built in 1886-87. 

To the right, farther on, at the corner of the Piazza Colonna, is 
the extensive Pal. Chigi, begun in 1562 by Giac. della Porta, and 
completed by C. Maderna. It contains a few antiques and a small 
collection of pictures, but is not open to the public. The 'Biblio- 
theca Chisiana' contains valuable MSS. (adm., see p. 124). 

The handsome *Piazza Colonna (PI. I, 16) is bounded on the 
N. by the Pal. Chigi, and on the S. by the Pal. Ferrajuoli (PI. 20). 
In the Corso, to the E., is the Pal. Piombino (PI. 22), and opposite 
the Corso the former post-office, with a portico of ancient Ionic 
columns from Veii (p. 389). 

The *Column of Marcus Aurelius, rising in the centre of the 
piazza named after it, is embellished like that of Trajan with reliefs 
from the emperor's wars against the Marcomanni and other German 
tribes on the Danube. 

The column consisls of 28 blocks, besides the basement and capital, 
in all 95 ft. in height, and is approached by steps. In 1589 Sixtus V. 
caused it to be restored and crowned with a statue of St. Paul. At that 
period it was ascribed to Antoninus Pius, after whom it is still frequently 
named. — The Piazza Colonna is much frequented in the evening. Mili- 
tary music here in the height of summer (p. 126). 

Adjoining the Piazza Colonna (beyond the old post-office) is 
the Piazza di Month Citobio, on the right side of which is the 
spacious Camera de' Deputati (PI. I, 16, 24), begun for the Lu- 

Side-Streets. ROME. I. Strangers' Quarter. 155 

dovisi family by Bernini (1650), but finished under Innocent XII. 
by C. Fontana for the 'Curia Innocentiana', or papal tribunal. The 
court in the interior was roofed oyer in 1871, and fitted up for the 
use of the Italian parliament. The sittings usually take place in 
the afternoon. Entrance to the public seats at the back, No. 10. 
The door-keeper will sometimes provide visitors with better places 
(fee 1 fr.). — The rising of the piazza towards the N. is due to the 
buried ruins of what has been erroneously identified with the am- 
phitheatre of Statilius Taurus (B.C. 31). 

The Obelisk in the centre of the piazza, like that in the Piazza 
del Popolo (p. 146), was brought to Rome by Augustus, and used 
as the indicator of a sun-dial. It stood till the 9th cent., was after- 
wards damaged, but was restored and erected here in 1789 under 
Pius VI. It was originally erected in the 7th cent. B.C. by Psam- 
metichus I. Height, including the globe and pedestal, 84 ft. 

The Pantheon (see p. 193) may be reached hence by turning to 
the right at the foot of Monte Citorio (S.W.), and crossing the small 
Piazza Oapranica (p. 195). We turn to the left and proceed to the 
Piazza di Pietra, in which is the *Dogana di Terra (PI. I, 16, 75), 
formerly a custom-house, now the exchange. Imbedded in the fa- 
cade are eleven Corinthian columns, 41 ft. high, of a Temple of 
Neptune, built by Hadrian , which once possessed 15 in its length 
and 8 in its breadth. The three middle columns and a fragment of 
the wall of the cella have been lately brought to light. The pedes- 
tals here bore the statues, representing conquered provinces, now 
in the Palazzo de' Conservatori (p. 211). 

The Via de' Pastini leads hence to the Pantheon (p. 193), while 
the Corso is regained by the Via di Pietra to the left. 

Continuing to follow the Corso from the Piazza Colonna, we ob- 
serve, to the left, opposite the above-named Via di Pietra, the Via 
delle Muratte (p. 152), leading to the Fontana Trevi. 

Farther on, also on the left , where the Corso expands into the 
'Piazza Sciarra', we reach the *Falazzo Sciarra-Colonna (No. 239 ; 
PI. I, 16), the handsomest palace in the whole street, erected in the 
17th cent, by Flaminio Ponzio, with a portal of later date. 

The Picture Gallery in this palace is now shown only to visitors 
with a recommendation from high quarters. Principal works : Raphael, 
Violin-player, dated 1518; Palma Vecchio, Female portrait, signed 'Tam- 
bend' ; Bern. Luini, 'Vanity and Modesty', half-figures ; Caravaggio, Players ; 
Perugino, St. Sebastian; Guido Reni, Magdalene. 

Opposite is the imposing Savings' Bank, by Cipolla (1868). 

The Via del Caravita, the first side-street on the right, leads 
to the Piazza hi S. Ignazio (PI. II, 16), in which is the Jesuit 
church of S. Ignazio, designed by the Padre Grassi, with a facade 
by Algardi. The building was begun by Card. Ludovisi in 1626, 
after the canonisation of the saint, but not completed till 1675. 

156 I. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. Museo Kircheriano. 

Interior. The impression is marred by the had taste of the decora- 
tions, which, however, are less obtrusive than in most Jesuit churches. 
The paintings on the vaulting, dome, and tribune, and the picture over 
the high-altar are by the Padre Pozzi, an able master of perspective , by 
whom the chapel of St. Lod. Gonzaga, in the aisle to the right, was also 
designed. The perspective of the paintings on the ceiling and dome is 
correctly seen from a circular stone in the centre of the nave. 

On the front of this church is a Time-Ball, regulated from the Obser- 
vatory (p. 15"?), the fall of which is the signal for the discharge of the 
time-gun at the Castello S. Angelo. 

On the S. the choir of the church adjoins the old Jesuit Collegio 
Romano (PL II, 16), where the higher branches of classics, mathe- 
matics, philosophy, etc., were taught, and degrees conferred. The 
extensive building was erected at the end of the 16th cent., under 
Gregory XIII. and Sixtus V. , by B. Ammanati. The massive principal 
facade looks towards the Piazza del Collegio Romano. A number of 
the rooms contain the Biblioteca Vittorio Emanuele (Director, Com- 
mendatore D. Onoli) consisting of the old Library of the Jesuits, 
augmented by the libraries of many suppressed monasteries and 
constant new acquisitions (in all about 500,000 vols, and several 
thousand MSS.). This library is especially important on account of 
its richness in modern works, in which most of the other Roman 
libraries are deficient, and for its easy accessibility and convenient 
arrangements (comp. p. 115). — The building also contains the Liceo 
Ennio Quirino Visconti and several collections, the chief of which 
(on the second floor, up three flights of steps) is the — 

Museo Kircheriano, founded by the learned Athanasius Kircher, 
born in 1601, a Jesuit and teacher at "Wurzburg in 1618, afterwards 
professor of mathematics at the Coll. Romano, and celebrated for his 
mathematical and scientific researches (d. 1680). In 1870 the mu- 
seum was acquired by government, which has founded here an 
extensive ethnographical and pre- historical collection (adm. see 
p. 123). The director is Commendatore Pigorini. 

We first turn to the left, and enter the Corridor. The Show- Cases in 
the centre contain small articles in bronze, iron, ivory, and bone, with a 
large collection of antique Roman and Italian bronze coins (aes grave). 
The Cabinets by the walls contain terracotta figures (chiefly votive), lamps, 
clay vessels, and small objects in glass and ivory. 2nd Cab. to the left 
(No. Ill): Silver goblets found in the mineral spring at Vicarello (p. 391), 
among which are three in the form of milestones and inscribed with the 
names of the chief stations on the route from Gades (Cadiz) in Spain to 
Rome 5 a book consisting of 7 plates of lead inscribed with mystical symbols 
(end of the 2nd cent. A.D.). 3rd Cab. to the right (No. VIII): Large bronze 
tablet with a dedicatory inscription to Minerva in the Faliscan dialect; 
above, an iron ring with a bronze label bearing the inscription 'I have 
run away, catch me, and restore me to my master, who will reward you 
with a solidus', generally supposed to have been intended for a slave, but 
more probably a dog-collar. 

I. Room. In the centre is the famous Ticoronian Ciata, named after 
its first owner, dating from the 3rd cent. B.C., and found near Palestrina 
in 1744. It is a toilet-casket of cylindrical form, adorned with admirably- 
engraved designs , representing the arrival of the Argonauts in Bithynia, 
and the victory of Polydeuces over king Amycus. The feet and the figures 
on the lid are of inferior workmanship ; on the latter the inscriptions : 
'Novios Plautios med Romai (me Romse) fecid', and 'Dindia Macolnia fileai 

Museo Kircheriano. EOME. I. Strangers' Quarter. 157 

dedit' (comp. Introd.). - Also in the centre is an ancient "Bronze Chair 

nf t v7 l tK ■ , a' a ? y 'H windows are !>™nze figures of Bacchus and 
of a Youth intended for a pillar. The Wall-Cases contain Egyptian wooden 
and bronze statuettes, Etruscan idols, small bronze figures of the Roman 
period, weapons, candelabra, etc. - The — 

II. Boom, to the left, at the end of Room I, contains early-Christian 
tombstones and sarcophagus-reliefs. In the centre is a piece of ancient 
wall, m a black frame, with a caricature of the Christians scratched noon 
llL* man ,™ lth th f h ,ead of an ass, affixed to a cross, with a man at the 
side, and the words AX«?«(«vo? at.[3 8 T 8 9*ov (Alexamenos worships God) 
found in the Psedagogmm on the Palatine (comp. p. 247). This probably 
represents the sarcastic wit of an imperial page at the expense of some 
Christian companion. — The Cabinets contain mediaeval and Oriental cu- 
riosities forming part of the original Kircher collection. 

The remaining rooms contain the Ethnographical and Prehistoric 
Museum. In the long Coreidoe, which we next enter, are objects from 
the Po ar Regions and from N. and S. America (with explanatory labels). 
— Cabinet at the end of the corridor: Embroidered mantle from Mexico 
time of Fernando Cortez - Then, to the right, are three parallel Coeridors 
devoted to Australia, Polynesia, India, Japan, and Africa. - We now 
turn to the right and enter the long Coeeidoe parallel to the first-men- 
nn°™ fl V a C t 0n J a , 1 , Mng , tll 1 f P 5 u ehlst ? ric Collections. Objects of the stone period 
come first, followed by those from lake-dwellings and those of the bronze 
age. Among the most interesting objects are the cinerary urns in the 
shape of the primitive peasants' huts (from Corneto); the models of megali- 
thic monuments (menhirs and dolmens) from Terra d'Otranto; a model of 
t\» a J^ n?a ° f" r t fl ' < l'- °V onical tower supposed to have been erected by 
the aboriginal inhabitants of Sardinia as a refuge in case of hostile attack 

ma.v* •£ ° n ar - 6 Ame , rlcan antiquities, including some rare Mexican 
masks with mosaic work. 

_ From the section with the model of the Nurago we turn to the right 

Jrin. to RotF "^77 C °S tamS . the : T u reasure of Praeneste, found at Pales- 
trma (p. 383) in 1877 and purchased by Government. Next the door is a 
much patched antique vessel, ornamented with fantastic figures of animals 
Under the windows are fragments of silver and bronze vessels. The chief 
objects are exhibited m the Cabinet in the centre: No. 1. Breast (or head) 
decoration, with 131 lions, horses, and various fantastic animals attached 
to it in rows, the details of which are most elaborately executed in granu- 
1„^Z°a hlHi Ce ^ "? tw0 c y linders terminating in heads of animals, and 
f" ♦ ,T th °^ ? recian pa , ttern in a similar st >' le - Of the severa ad- 
jacent golden cylinders, the finest is No. 4, embellished with two rows of 
figures of animals and exquisite arabesques. The small rod found in the 
cylinder lies alongside of it. No. 2. Golden fibula; 26. Fragments of a silver 
bowl with representations of four boats, Egyptian symbols and figures, and 
a battle-scene (in the centre), and inscribed with a Phoenician name in small 
characters (above the wing of a hawk); 25. Elegant silver bowl, the in- 
terior adorned with a central figure and two rows of gilded reliefs (royal 
hunting-scenes, horses, and birds), and terminating in a snake. 23. Large 
round silver-gilt goblet, with six snakes forming the handles; the bowl 
is decorated with rows of figures of armed men, wild beasts, and birds. 
M. bilver-gilt bowl , the interior of which is enriched with two rows of 

a™"™ ° X |<?' • n S ' a ™ trC ?. S; U was found Bering to an oxydised iron 
axe (No. 89, in Case V), which has taken the impression of part of it. 
*„* two-handled golden vessel (No. 20), the daggers numbered 27 and 28, 
1= ?J t ^cry-reliefs, Nos. 45-49 and 51, are also fine. In Case V. are the 
largest objects of the treasure of Prfeneste : 75. Fragments of a large cal- 
dron with griffins; heads as handles; 72. Iron tripod, with bronze bowl, 
the margin of which is embellished with three human figures and three 
animals, m a very primitive style. 

«- ^fSf^T' wMch squired a European reputation under Padre 
becchi (d. 1878), is shown in the forenoon to visitors with an introduction. 

1 58 J. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. Doria Gallery. 

In the Corso, beyond the Piazza Sciarra, on the right, is the 
Palazzo Simonetti (No. 307). Opposite is I Marcello (PI. II, 16), in 
the small piazza of that name, a church mentioned as early as 499, 
re-erected by Giacomo Sansovino in 1519, and recently entirely 
modernised. The poor facade is by Carlo Fontana. 

The 4th Chapel on the right contains paintings by Perino del Vaga, 
completed after his death by San. da Volterra and Pellegrino da Modena, 
and the monument of the celebrated Card. Consalvi (d. 1824), minister of 
Pius VII., by Rinaldi. Paintings in the Tribune by Giov. Battista da Novara; 
those of the 2nd Chapel to the left by Fed. Zuccaro. 

On the right is the small church of 8. Maria in Via Lata, men- 
tioned as early as the 7th cent., but in its present form dating from 
the 17th; facade by Pietro da Cortona; from the vestibule a stair- 
case ascends to an oratory (built by Vignola) in which St. Paul and 
St. Luke are said to have taught. The ViaLata (called Via Flaminia 
outside the town ; p 336) was the ancient main street of the city, 
nearly corresponding with the present Corso. Below this church 
and the Palazzo Doria lie extensive ancient walls, which once 
belonged to the Septa Julia, an edifice begun by Cassar and com- 
pleted by Agrippa, used for taking the votes of the national as- 
sembly, but converted into a market-place in the reign of Tiberius, 
when this practice had fallen into disuse. 

Adjoining S. Maria in Via Lata is the *Palazzo Doria, formerly 
Pamphllj (PI. II, 16), an extensive pile of buildings, and one of the 
most magnificent palaces in Rome ; facade towards the Corso by Val- 
vasori, that towards the Coll. Romano by P. da Cortona, and another 
towards the Piazza di Venezia by P. Amati. The handsome court, 
surrounded by arcades, is entered from the Corso (No. 305). To the 
left is the approach to the staircase ascending to the *Galleria Doria 
on the 1st floor (Tues. and Frid., 10-2; during the Easter fort- 
night, daily; catalogues in each room; fee '/j fr.). In winter the 
galleries and other rooms are very cold. — The Doria Gallery re- 
sembles the other Roman collections in being devoted to no parti- 
cular school, and in possessing examples of every different style, 
but the founders have perhaps shown a preference for works of the 
17th century. The ante-chambers are badly lighted , so that the 
pictures are not seen to advantage, but most of the works here are 
hardly above mediocrity. The visitor should, however, note the 
predella of a now lost altar-piece by Peselli (II. Room, 29, 39), a 
good specimen of early-Florentine painting, and the Madonnas of 
Niccolb Rondinello (II. Room), a little known master, who has hap- 
pily imitated the golden colouring of the old Venetians, and is one 
of Giov. Bellini's ablest followers. 

The gems of the collection are in the three galleries. Raphael, 
the prince of cinquecentists, is represented by the portraits of two 
Venetian scholars , Andrea Navagero and Agostino Beazzano ; but 
their authenticity has been questioned, and the touch is certainly 
somewhat different from Raphael's usual style, although the vigorous 

Doria Qallery. ROME. I. Strangers' Quarter. 1 59 

tone and breadth of colouring may be accounted for by his habit of 
fresco painting. Johanna of Arragon is a copy only (II. Gallery, 
53), and so too is Titian's Periods of Life (I. Gall. 20). Porde- 
none's Daughter of Herodias (II. Gall. 40), and Lor. Lotto's portrait 
of himself (II. Gall. 34), on the other hand, are admirable Vene- 
tian works. The portrait of Andrea Doria by Sebastian del Piombo 
is not Venetian in character, but is interesting from the faculty 
displayed by the master of imparting an air of dignity to a for- 
bidding subject. With this work the visitor should compare the por- 
trait of Pope Innocent X., by Velazquez (I. Gall. ; no number), and 
the coldly aristocratic portrait of Gianettino Doria by A. Bronzino 
(II. Gall. 31). The colouring of the former is strikingly rich, com- 
pletely eclipsing Piombo's massiveness of style. The skilful manner 
in which the three shades of red are blended should be particularly 

Oarofalo (or Ortolano, to whom the picture has recently been 
ascribed), though not a master of the highest rank, has produced 
an admirable work in his Nativity of Christ (II. Gall. 61). The 
landscape-painters of the 17th cent, are also well represented. In 
the landscapes of Annibale Carracci (III. Gallery) we observe a con- 
flict between historic and scenic imagination , and the obtrusion of 
the former at the expense of harmony of effect. The pictures by 
Salvator Rosa (VII. Room) are not among his best works, but Claude 
Lorrain's landscapes (III. Gall. 5, 13, 24, 34), are justly admired. 
His 'mill' , and the landscape with the temple of Apollo, may be 
regarded as models of ideal landscape ; the effect is produced by 
•the skilful gradations of distance : the foreground is inclosed by 
trees on both sides, the middle distance gently softened off , and 
the background formed by mountain outlines. — The Netherlands 
School of the 15th and 17th cent, is scantily represented, but some 
of the pictures, as Memling's Descent from the Cross (corner-cabi- 
net), and Lievens' Sacrifice of Isaac (II. Gall. 26), are worthy rivals 
of their Italian neighbours. 

I. Room : also copying-room, to which the finest pictures in the 
collection are frequently brought. Antiquities: in the middle, a Cen- 
taur in pietra dura and rosso antico (freely restored) ; four Sarco- 
phagi with (No. 1) the hunt of Meleager, (3) history of Marsyas, (6) 
Diana and Endymion, and (no number) procession of Bacchus. Two 
fine circular altars ; 2. Duplicate of the so-called Diana of Gabii 
in the Louvre ; 4. Archaic statue of the bearded Dionysus ; and a 
number of statuettes, some of fine quality. Pictures : 21, 22, 24, 25, 
27, 29, 30, 34. Landscapes by 0. Poussin and his followers; on the 
entrance-wall, Perino del Vaga, Madonna; between the windows 
(no number), **Velazquez, Pope Innocent X. To the left we enter 
the — 

II. Room. 10. Franc. Francia, Madonna; *17. School ofOuido 
Reni , Judith with the head of Holofernes ; *22. Ouercino , John 

160 I. Strangers 1 Quarter. ROME. Doria Gallery. 

the Baptist at the Jordan; 23. Sassoferrato, Mater Dolorosa; 24. 
Rondinello, Madonna; 28. Pisanello, Sposalizio; 29. Peselli, St. 
Sylvester before Maximinus II.; *3i. Fra Filippo Lippi, Annun- 
ciation; 38. Pisanello, Nativity of the Virgin; 39. Peselli, Leo IV. 
exorcising a dragon; *40. Ouercino, St. Agnes at the stake; *41. 
Rondinello, Virgin and Child. Ascribed to Holbein, 42. Portrait of 
a man, with a carnation and a purse, signed 'at the age of 40, 1545'; 
45. Portrait of a woman, signed 'at the age of 36, 1545'. 44. Nea- 
politan School, Mary Magdalene ; 46. Carlo Saraceni, Juno placing 
the eyes of Argus in the peacock's tail ; 47. Oiov. Bellini (ascribed 
by Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle to Bissolo~), Presentation in the 
Temple ; 55. School of Mantegna, St. Anthony ; 96. (to the right 
of the entrance) Marco Basaiti (ace. to C. and C; not Perugino), 
St. Sebastian. — In the centre, Jacob wrestling with the angel, a 
group in marble, of Bernini's school. 

III. Room (closed). 

IV. Room (very dark). To the right on entering: 33. Cara- 
vaggio, St. John; *17, 31. P. Bril, Landscapes. Over the door: 
1. Paris Bordone, Mars, Venus, and Cupid. In the centre a 
recumbent river-god in pietra dura. On the left wall : 8. Caravaggio, 
Melon-seller; in two frames, antique bronzes and other objects. 
By the window a bronze vessel with graffiti in a peculiar style, of 
late origin. *19, *25. Orizonte, Landscapes; 32. Scipio Pulzone 
(generally called Oaetano), Betrothal of St. Catharine. 

V. Room: 13. 0. Poussin , Palazzo Salviati and the Janiculus 
(p. 327); 21. Beccafumi, Betrothal of St. Catharine; 22. Holy 
Family and St. Catharine (not by Titian); 25. Ouercino, St. Joseph ; 
27. Domenichino, Landscape; 31. Poussin, Landscape. 

VI. Room. Over the door: 5. D. Ghirlandajo, Holy Family; 
15. Maratta, Madonna ; *9. Spanish School, Portrait of a boy. To 
the right of the exit, 39. School of Oiov. Bellini, Marriage of St. 
Catharine. — The raised passage-room contains several small land- 
scapes by Brueghel, Orizonte, and others. 

VII. Room: Salv. Rosa, 3. Landscape, 8. Belisarius; 19. Maz- 
zolini, Massacre of the Innocents. 

VIII. Room : J. A. Borgognone and C. Maratta, Capture of the 
town of Castro in 1649, one of the chief military exploits of Pope 
Innocent X.; *17. Lod. Carracci, St. Sebastian; opposite, 22. Lod. 
Carracci, Holy Family. In the corner a *Head of Serapis in marble. 

IX. Room : Several interesting ancient portrait-heads ; land- 
scapes by Momper, Tempesta, and Orizonte ; fruit-pieces by Weenix. 

X. Room : Subjects from still-life. 

We now enter the galleries. To the left is the — 

I. Gallery : 2. Oarofalo , Holy Family ; 3. Ann. Carracci, 

Magdalene; 8. Quinten Massys, Two male heads; 9. Sassoferrato, 

Holy Family; 11. J. Miel, Madonna; 13. Padovanino , Descent 

from the Cross; 14. Titian, Portrait (called Marco Polo) ; 15. A. del 

Doria Gallery. ROME. I. Strangers' Quarter. 161 

Sarto(f), Holy Family; 16. Honthorst, Lot and his daughters; 20. 
Titian, The three Periods of Life, a copy of the original in London ; 
*25. CI. Lorrain , Landscape -with the flight to Egypt ; *26. Oaro- 
falo, Visitation; 32. Saraceni, Repose during the flight into Egypt ; 
36. Brueghel , Creation of the animals ; 37. Nic. Poussin . Copy of 
the Aldobrandine Nuptials (p. 321); 49. P. Veronese (?), Angel; 
50. 0. Romano, Holy Family, after Raphael- 51. Dosso Dossi, 
Christ expelling the money-changers from the temple. Opposite, 
at the last window : 5. School of Mantegna, Bearing of the Cross. 

II. Gallery (chiefly remarkable for its admirable portraits) : 
3. Oiov. Bellini (or Rondinello~), Madonna; *6. Fr. Francia, Ma- 
donna; 11. Pordenone, Portrait; 13. Mazzolini , Christ in the 
Temple; 14. (not Titian), Portrait; 15. Lor. Lotto, St. Jerome; 
no number, Quinten Massys , Money-changers disputing; 19. Ru- 
bens, Portrait; 21. C. Saraceni, Repentant Magdalene ; 22. Van 
Dyck (?), Portrait ; 25, 32, 60, 67. Brueghel, The four elements ; 26. 
Jan Lievens, Sacrifice of Isaac; 30. Rembrandt, Faun; *31. Angela 
Bronzino, Gianettino Doria; *34. Lor. Lotto, Portrait of a bearded 
man; no number, **Sebastian del Piombo, Portrait of Andrea Doria; 
beneath, bust of Doria; *40. Oiov. Ant. Pordenone, Daughter of 
Herodias with the head of the Baptist, a model of female vigour and 
dignity ; 49. Rubens, Portrait of his confessor (an early work) ; 52. 
Titian, Portrait ; 53. After Raphael, Johanna of Arragon, Nether- 
landish copy; 54. Portrait of a poet (not by Titian); *61. Oarofalo 
(Ortolano?), Nativity; 65. Old copy of Qiorgione's Concert (in the 
Pitti Gallery); *69. Correggio, Allegorical representation of Virtue, 
unfinished dead-colouring in tempera; 78. Morone, Portrait; no 
number, **Raphael, Navagero and Beazzano ; 77. Titian and his 
wife (according to C. & C. , by Sofonisba Anguissola). — The ad- 
jacent room (generally closed) contains works by unknown masters 
of the 16th century. At the end of the gallery is a portrait-bust 
of Donna Olimpia Maidalchini-Pamfili, by Algardi. 

III. Gallery: 3, 8, 30, 35. An. Carracci, Landscapes with 
historical accessories ; 5. Claude Lorrain, Landscape with Mercury's 
theft of the cattle; *11. Bronzino, Portrait of Macchiavelli ; *13. 
CI. Lorrain, Mill; A. Carracci, 14. Salutation, 15. Nativity; Oerh. 
van der Meire, 18. Madonna, 22. Hermit; 19. A. Carracci, Pieta; 
*24. CI. Lorrain, Landscape with temple of Apollo; 25. B. Schi- 
done, Angel healing St. Rochus ; 26. Mazzola, Portrait; 27. Oior- 
gione (?), Portrait ; 28. P. Veronese, Portrait ; 31. Fra Bartolommeo (?), 
Holy Family; 32. Dosso Dossi , Vannozza , mother of Caesar and 
Lucrezia Borgia (?) ; 34. CI. Lorrain, Landscape with Diana hunting. 

Adjacent is a small Corner- Cabinet : *Memling, Entombment ; 
Basaiti, Holy Family; Mostaert, Girl reading; Rubens, Lady with 
a glove; Teniers, Rustic festival. 

IV. Gallery : Roman sculptures of little importance. 

Baedekeb. Italy II. 10th Edition. H 

102 J. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. S.Marco. 

Opposite the Palazzo Doria rises the new Palazzo Odetcalchi 
(romp. p. 166), erected in 1887-88 in the Florentine style. Ad- 
jacent is the Pal. Salviati, built by Rinaldi and occupied from 1725 
to 1800 by the French Academy of Art (p. 149). 

On the S. the Corso is terminated by the Piazza di Vbnbzia 
(PI. II, 16, 19; 48 ft. above the sea-level), to the right in which, at 
the corner, rises the Pal. Bonaparte, formerly Rinuccini (PI. II, 16 ; 5), 
erected by De Rossi, where Madame Lsetitia, mother of Napoleon I., 
died on 2nd Feb., 1836. The piazza is named after the imposing 
*Palazzo diVenezia, built (1455) in the Florentine style, in which 
the effect is produced by massiveness (p. xlix). The building was 
formerly attributed to Qiuliano da Majano, but existing documents 
record that it was erected by Francesco del Borgo di S. Sepolcro for 
Pope Paul II. (1455). To what extent Bernardo di Lorenzo partici- 
pated in the work is uncertain. The palace was presented in 1560 by 
Pius IV. to the Republic of Venice, with which it subsequently came 
into the possession of Austria, and it is still the residence of the 
Austrian ambassador, as before the cession of Venetia. The large 
court with arcades is little more than begun ; and so also is a second 
and smaller court to the left of the other. Many of the stones of 
this building are said to have been obtained from the Colosseum. 

Opposite the side-entrance of the Pal. di Venezia is the Palazzo 
Torlonia (PI. II, 19, 2), formerly Bolognetti, erected about 1650 by 
C. Fontana , occupying the block as far as the Piazza SS. Apostoli, 
and the property of the late banker Prince Torlonia, Duke of Bracciano 
(d. 1886). It is lavishly decorated, and contains numerous 
works of art, but is not shown to the public. Permessi for the Villa 
Albani (comp. p. 122) are procured on the ground-floor, to the left. 
— The N. corner of the palace has been removed to make way for 
the Via Nazionale (see p. 169), which is continued towards theW. 
by the Corso Vittorio Emanuele (pp. 197 et seq.). 

From the Piazza Venezia we proceed straight through the narrow 
Ripresa dei Baebeei, so named because the 'Barbary' horses used 
in the races of the Carnival were stopped here. The first cross-street 
to the left leads to Trajan's Forum (p. 240). 

To the right the Via S. Marco leads to the Piazza di San Marco 
(PI. II, 16), laid out in promenades. Here, on the right, lies — 
/ S. Marco, incorporated with the Pal. di Venezia. This church is 
very ancient, being supposed to date from the time of Constantine. 
It was re-erected in 833 by Gregory IV., and adorned in 1455 by 
Giuliano da Majano (? Domenico di Francesco^) with a fine vestibule 
and probably with the coffered ceiling of the nave. The interior, 
dating from the 17th cent., was modernised by Card. Quirini in 
1744. Festival on 25th April. 

Vestibule. Roman and ancient Christian inscriptions, built into the 
walls. St. Mark in relief, above the handsome inner principal portal. The 
Interior is approached by a descent of several steps. With the exception 
of the tribune and the beautiful ceiling, all the older parts have been 

Pal. Colonna. ROME. /. Strangers' Quarter. 163 

disfigured by restorations. The Tribune, with its handsome pavement 
(opus Alexandrinum), lies a few steps higher than the rest of the church. 
The mosaics (in the centre Christ; left, the saints Mark, Agapetus, and Agnes; 
right, Felicianus and Mark escorting Gregory IV.) date from the most de- 
graded period ot this art (about 833) and have been justly described as 
'utter caricatures'. In the Right Aisle, 1st Chapel : altar-piece by Palma 
Giovane, the Resurrection. 3rd Chap. : Adoration of the Magi, Maratta. At 
the end, adjoining the tribune: -Pope Mark, an admirable old picture, per- 
haps by Carlo Crivelli. In the Left Aisle, 2nd Chap.: altar-relief, Greg. 
Barbadigo distributing alms, by Ant. d'Este. 4th Chap. : St. Michael, Mola. 

In the Piazza, in front of the church, is the so-called Madonna 
Lucrezia , the mutilated marble bust of a colossal female statue 
(priestess of Isis) which carried on conversations with the Abbate 
Luigi near the Pal. Vidoni (p. 198; no longer extant), similar to 
those of Pasquin with the Marforio (comp. p. 201). 

The Via di S. Marco terminates in the Via Aracmli, which to 
the left leads to the Piazza Aracceli (p. 209) and the Capitol, and 
to the right to the Piazza del Gesu (p. 197). 

In the prolongation of the Ripresa de' Barberi, beyond the Via 
S. Marco, a whole block has recently been levelled to afford an un- 
impeded view of the large Monument of Victor Emmanuel (p. 210) 
and to make room for its substructure. — To the left diverges the 
Via di Marforio (PL II, 19, 20), leading to the Forum. The name 
is derived from Forum Martis (or Forum of Augustus). The famous 
statue of Marforio which once stood in this street, opposite the Career 
Mamertinus , is now in the Capitoline Museum (p. 216). At the 
beginning of this street, to the left, is the Tomb of Cuius Poblicius 
Bibulus (PI. I, 19, 2; now entirely built over), to whom the ground 
was granted by the Senate as a burial-place for himself and his family 
in recognition of his merits ('honoris virtutisque causa', as the in- 
scription records) towards the end of the republic. This point must 
therefore have lain outside the walls of Servius, which ran im- 
mediately below the Capitol , interments within their limits having 
been prohibited. — At the end of the Via di Marforio, to the right, 
are the church of S. Oiuseppe de' Falegnami [Career Mamertinus; 
p. 237) and the Forum Romanum (p. 222). 

To the E. of the Piazza di Venezia, at the bend of the Via Na- 
zionale (p. 169), between the piazza in front of the SS. Apostoli 
(p. 165) and the Via della Pilotta (p. 152), rises the extensive 
Palazzo Colonna (PI. II, 19), begun by Martin V., and after- 
wards much extended and altered. It is now in great part occupied 
by the French ambassador, and a number of rooms on the ground- 
floor, with interesting frescoes, are therefore closed. The *Galleria 
Colonna on the first floor (adm., see p. 123; 1/2 f r - on leaving) is 
entered from the Via della Pilotta, No. 17. 

I. Room. From right to left. Tintoretto, Narcissus-, Moroni, 
Portrait ; *Pietro Novelli, Marcantonio Colonna ; Muziano (of Bres- 
cia, an imitator of Michael Angelo), Vittoria Colonna, the friend of 
Michael Angelo; Lor. Lotto, Card. Pompeo Colonna (?), a genuine, 

164 /. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. Pal. Colonna. 

but much damaged work ; Oiorgione ('?), Giacomo Sciarra Colonna ; 
Pourbus, Franc. Colonna; Tintoretto, Angels in glory with fou- 
busts; Moretto da Brescia (?), Portrait; Ag. Carracci, Pompeo Co- 
lonna; Hieron. Bosch (not Cranach), Temptation of St. Anthony; 
Van Dyck, Lucrezia Colonna ; Dom. Ghirlandajo (?), Reconciliation 
between the Romans and Sabines; *Bonifacio (not Titian), Madonna 
with saints ; *Pietro Novelli , Isabella Colonna and her infant son 
Lorenzo Onofrio, a good work, deserving notice apart from the rarity 
of the master; Dom. Ghirlandajo (or, according to C. &C, Cosimo 
Rosselli), Rape of the Sabine women ; *Palma Vecchio, Madonna 
with St. Peter and the donor, the effect of the group being taste- 
fully enhanced by a background of bushes. In the centre a Renais- 
sance column of red marble with scenes from a campaign in relief. 
A staircase, on which is placed a cannon-ball fired into the city 
during the bombardment of 1849, descends to the — 

II. Gallehy, with ceiling - paintings by Coli and Oherardi 
(Rattle of Lepanto, 8th Oct. 1571, which Marcantonio Colonna at 
the head of the papal fleet assisted in gaining). On the walls 
mirrors painted with flowers (by Mario de' Fiori] and genii (by C. 
Maratta). The statues here are of no great value, most of them mod- 
ernised. Reliefs built into the wall under the windows (left) : 
Head of Pallas ; Wounded man, borne away by his friends ; Selene 
in the chariot (archaistic style). Right wall : *Rubens, Assumption 
of the Virgin ; *Sustermans, Fed. Colonna; Crist. Allori, Christ in 
Hades; Salviati, Adam and Eve; *Van Dyck, Don Carlo Colonna, 
equestrian portrait ; Guercino, Martyrdom of St. Emmerentia ; 8. 
Gaetano, Family group of the Colonnas (1581). Left wall : Tin- 
toretto, Double portrait; N. Poussin , Pastoral scene; Niccolb 
Alunno, Madonna rescuing a child from a demon. 

III. Room. The great attraction here consists of eleven water- 
colour *Landscapes by Gaspard Poussin, which are among his finest 
works and the most valuable in this gallery. Some of them are un- 
favourably hung, but every one of them will repay careful inspection. 
They represent a mountain-road close to a profound ravine, a bleak 
plain lashed by a storm, a calm lake enclosed by majestic trees, 
a riven rocky landscape with waterfall, and various other subjects. 
Notwithstanding the simplicity and uniformity of the materials 
used, these works will not fail to interest by the excellence of the 
composition and drawing. ■ — Window-wall : Berchem, Huntsman ; 
Claude Lorrain (?), Landscape ; Wouverman (?), Chase and cavalry- 
skirmish; N. Poussin, Metamorphosis of Daphne ; a large cabinet 
with ivory carving by Franc, and Dom. Steinhard (in the centre, 
the Last Judgment, after Michael Angelo). Opposite (exit-wall) : 
Canaletto, Architectural piece ; Crescenzo d'Onofrio, Landscape. 

IV. Room. Ceiling-painting by Battoni and Luti (in honour of 
Martin V.). Entrance-wall: P. Veronese, Portrait of a man ; Hol- 
bein (f), Lor. Colonna; over the door, Bordone (not Bonifacio"), 

88. Apostoli. ROME. /. Strangers' Quarter. 165 

Holy Family. Right wall: Albano, Rape of Europa ; *8pagna St 
Jerome; Domenico Puligo, Madonna; Ann. Carracci, Bean-eater- 
Paris Bordone, Madonna with saints. Exit-wall: Giov Bellini' 
St Bernhard; Girolamo Trevisani, Poggio Braociolini; Bronzino, 
Holy Family; *Titian, Onuphrius Panvinius, an admirable study of 
the master s best period (name arbitrary). Window-wall • F Mola 
Cam and Abel ; Sassoferrato, Madonna; Quido Rent, St. Agnes ' 

V. Room. Throne-room, with handsome old carpet. 

VI. Room. Entrance-wall : Parmeggianino, Holy Family ; Innoc 
da Imola , Same subject ; two *Madonnas surrounded by smaller cir- 
cular pictures, erroneously attributed to Van Eyck, but by a later 
Dutch master, interesting on account of their elaborate miniature- 
like execution. Right wall: Fr. Albano, Two landscapes ; Gentile 
daFabnano (or, according to C. & C, Stefano da ZevioX Madonna • 

Gmho Romano, Madonna (comp. p. lyii); Jacopo d'Avanzo, 
Crucifixion; Giov. Santi (father of Raphael), Portrait; Luini, 
Madonna (much damaged). Exit-wall : Fra. Fil. Lippi (?), Madonna • 
Luca Longhi, Same subject; S. Botticelli, Same subject 

The beautiful Garden, on the E. side of the Via della Pilotta 
(entered by Via del Quirinale 12; comp. p. 175), contains several 
antiquities, fragments of a colossal architrave, said to have belonged 
to Aurelian's temple of the sun, and considerable portions of the 
brick-walls of the Thermae of Constantine (?), which formerly ex- 
tended over the entire Piazza di Monte Cavallo (p. 173). The terrace 
commands a good survey of the city. 

On the N. the Pal. Colonna is adjoined by the church and con- 
vent ot the SS. Apostoli, the latter now containing the offices of 
the Ministry of War. 

The church of *SS. Apostoli (PI. II, 19), facing the piazza of 
the same name, was founded by Pelagius I. in honour of SS. Philip 
and James, re-erected under Clement XL in 1702, and restored 
after a fire m 1871. The vestibule by Baccio Pintelli (?), the only 
part of the building earlier than 1702, contains (on the left) the 
monument of the engraver Giov. Volpato by Canova (1807), and (on 
the right) an ancient *Eagle with chaplet of oak-leaves, from Tra- 
jan s Forum. Chief festival on 1st May. 

Interiok Right Aisle, 3rd Chapel: St. Anthony by Luti. In the Left 

to "the ?p D ft ovefth D T 6nt f ^° m the Cr0SS ^ Fran °- M »™°- I" the end 
to the left, over the entrance into the sacristy : "Monument of Clement XIV 
by Canova, on the pedestal Charity and Temperance. In the tribune with 
mfn^erecte/ hv*T V ^ .*° . be the « in Rome), are the monu- 
™at of Pietrn r^ K IV ^° "? tw0 ne P h «ws , the Cardinals Eiario, 
»lt»t ™* ™ «i ( 1474 > °? «»e left, and that of Alexander behind the 

Si irnVT? 1 by t he organ - ° n the vauited filing of the 

a fine fJ^Zt Z H The °i der Church was d "orated by Melozzo da Forli', 
nth™ /ragment of whose frescoes is now in the Quirinal (p. 175), and 
others are in the sacristy of St. Peter's (p 054) ^ y " ' ' 

m »„f T ^ e m- S T g ? !," th , e mo " aster y adjacenf to 'the church contains a menu- 
™ e ;'^ ^chael Angela who lived and died in the parish of SS. Apostoli, 
and the tomb of Card. Bessarion (d. 1472). 

166 II. Eastern Quarter. ROME. Railway Station. 

Opposite the front of the SS. Apostoli is the old Pal. Odescalchi, 
bnilt by Bernini. 

II. The Eastern Quarter. 
Quirinal. Viminal. Esquiline. 

On the Quirinal at a very early period lay a Sabine town, the 
union of which with that on the Palatine formed the city of Rome. 
The Servian Wall (p. 130) ran from the Capitol along the N. W. side 
of the Quirinal, and then to the E. behind the Baths of Diocletian 
and the church of S. Maria Maggiore, enclosing the Quirinal, Viminal, 
and a part of the Esquiline. According to the new division of the 
city by Augustus, this quarter comprised two districts, the Alta 
Semita (Quirinal) and the Exquiliae (Esquiline). The building of 
Aurelian's wall shows that this quarter was afterwards extended. 
According to the medieval division these districts formed a single 
region only, named the Bione Monti, the most spacious of the four- 
teen quarters in the city, as it extended from the Porta Pia to the 
now closed Porta Metrovia, below the Lateran, and to the Forum 
Romanum. Its inhabitants, called Montigiani, differ, like those of 
Trastevere, in some of their characteristics from the other Romans. 
Pius IV. constructed the long main street from the Piazza del 
Quirinale to the Porta Pia (Via del Quirinale and Via Venti Set- 
tembre). The second main street, intersecting this one and leading 
from the Pincio to S. Maria Maggiore (Via Sistina and Via Quattro 
Fontane), was made by Sixtus V., who also provided the hill with 
water. With the exception of these inhabited quarters almost the 
entire E. part of Rome was until lately occupied by vineyards and 
gardens. But the selection of the city as the capital of the kingdom 
of Italy gave a strong impulse to its extension, and a new quarter 
has sprung up here near the station, which already rivals the older 
districts in business activity and prosperity. The main artery of 
traffic here is the Via Nazionale, which runs from the Piazza delle 
Terme along the ridge of the Quirinal to the Piazza Venezia , a 
distance of nearly a mile. Beyond the Piazza Venezia it is continued 
by the Corso Vittorio Emanuele (p. 197). 

On the E. side of the Piazza delle Tekme (PI. I, 25) is the 
handsome Eailway Station, constructed by Miriere and Bianchi 
in 1872. Opposite the arrival-platform begins the wide Via Cavour, 
leading to the Piazza dell' Esquilino and the Forum (see p. 176). 
The main front of the station faces the Thermas of Diocletian. The 
open space here, now called the 'Piazza del Cinque Cento', is 
embellished with a Monument to the 500 Italian soldiers who were 
surprised and slain at Dogali by the Abyssinians in 1886. A small 
obelisk found at the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva in 1882 has 
been incorporated in this monument. Adjacent is a copious fountain, 
fed by the Acqua Mareia , which has been recently restored. In 
the evening the piazza is lighted by electricity. 

S. Maria degli Angeli. ROME. II. Eastern Quarter. 1 67 

The Thermee of Diocletian (PI. I, 25), which give name to the 
piazza, were the most extensive thermae in Rome, and were construct- 
ed by Maximian and Diocletian at the beginning of the 4th century. 
The principal building was enclosed by a wall, the outline of the 
round central portion ('exedra') of which, is preserved by the new 
houses at the beginning of the Via Nazionale (p. 169). The corners 
of the main building were occupied by two circular structures, one 
of which is now the church of S. Bernardo (p. 169), and the other 
belongs to a prison. , The circumference of the baths is said to have 
been about 2000 yds., or half as much as that of the Baths of Cara- 
calla (p. 255), and the number of daily bathers 3000. The front 
faced theE., and the circular part, mentioned above, was at the 
back. Tradition ascribes the execution of the work to condemned 
Christians, in memory of whom a church, no longer existing, was 
erected here as early as the 5th century. 

Pius IV. entrusted Michael Angelo with the task of converting 
part of the Thermae into a Carthusian Convent. A large vaulted 
kail was accordingly converted into the church of *S. Maria degli 
Angeli (PI. I, 25), which was consecrated in 1561. The present 
transept was then the nave, the principal portal was in the narrow 
end on the right, and the high-altar placed on the left. In 1749 Van- 
vitelli entirely disfigured the church by converting the nave into the 
transept, blocking up the portal, and other injudicious alterations. 

A small Rotunda is first entered. The first tomb on the right is. that of 
the painter Carlo Maratta (d. 1713). The first tomb on the left is that of 
Salvator Rosa (d. 1673). In the Chapel , Christ appearing to Mary Magda- 
lene, an altar-piece by Arrigo Flamingo. 

We next enter the great Tkansept. The niche on the right in the passage 
contains a colossal statue of St. Bruno, by Houdon; in the chapel on the left, 
the "Delivery of the Keys, an altar-piece by Muziano. The transept (formerly 
the nave) is 100 yds. long, 29 yds. wide, and 90 ft. high. Of the 16 columns, 
each 40 ft. in height, eight are antique, of oriental granite, which were 
barbarously painted by Vanvitelli, and the others were disengaged from 
the brick wall when the church was restored. — Most of the large 
pictures here and in the tribune were brought from St. Peter's, where they 
were replaced by copies in mosaic. In the right half (on the pavement the me- 
ridian of Rome, laid down in 1703) : on the right, Crucifixion of St. Peter by 
Ricciolini; Fall of Simon Magus, after F. Van ni (original in St. Peter's); on 
the left, :! St. Jerome among the hermits, Muziano (landscape by Bril) ; Miracles 
of St. Peter, Baglioni. At the narrow end: chapel of B. Piccolo Albergati. 
In the left half: on the left, Mass of St. Basil with the Emperor Valens, 
Subleyras; Fall of Simon Magus, Pomp. Baltoni; on the right, Immaculate 
Conception, P. Bianchi; Resuscitation of Tabitha, P. Costanzi. At the nar- 
row end : chapel of St. Bruno. 

In the Tribune (one of the monks acts as guide here, V2 f r -)» r 'g !lt i 
Romanelli, Mary's first visit to the Temple ; *Bomenichino, Martyrdom of St. 
Sebastian (fresco) ; left, Pomarancio, Death of Ananias and Sapphira ; Ma- 
ratta, Baptism of Christ. The choir contains two monuments (1. Pius IV., 
r. Ant. Serbelloni), designed by Michael Angelo. 

The remaining buildings are still partly occupied by the Carthus- 
ians and partly by various charitable and educational institutions. 
A good view is afforded by the roof of the church, to which visitors 
may ascend with the permission of the Prior. 

168 II. Eastern Quarter. ROME. Museo d. Terme. 

Passing through the arch with a cross, to the right of the church, 
and then through the door to the left in the court, with the inscrip- 
tion 'Ospedale Margherita per i Poveri Ciechi', we reach the new 
*.Museo delle Terme, which occupies several small rooms detached 
from the convent-court and part of the cloisters (adm., see p. 124). 

The following are among the chief treasures of this collection. "Female 
figure , a replica of the Barberini Juno (p. 309) , found in 1878 on the 
Palatine (admirable in the treatment of the drapery, but inferior in 
general effect to other reproductions of the same type). — *Youthful Faun, 
with deer-skin, from Hadrian's Villa. — "Nude bronze figure of a youth 
leaning on a staff, with portrait-features pointing to the Hellenic epoch 
(found, like the following, in building the new theatre in the Via Nazionale). 
— '"Bronze figure of a pugilist, evidently represented as conversing with 
a comrade or an umpire. The realism of this repulsive figure, extending 
to the marks of injury received in fighting, is masterly in execution. — 
"Bacchus, a youthful figure in bronze, with inlaid silver ornamentation, 
found in the Tiber in sinking the foundations of the Ponte Garibaldi. — 
Sleeping Hermaphrodite, found in building the Teatro Costanzi. — "Mural 
paintings and stucco ornamentation, from the house of a Roman citizen, 
found in the Tiber works at the garden of the Villa Farnesina (p. 323). 

The central court, laid out as a garden, contains the larger sculptures 
and architectural fragments. The large cypresses here, said to have been 
planted by Michael Angelo, were blown down in 1888. 

Adjoining the Piazza delle Terme is the Piazza 8. Bernardo, with 
the Fontanone dell' AcauA Felice (PI. I, 22), erected by Domen- 
ico Fontana under Sixtus V. The badly-executed copy of the Moses 
of Michael Angelo is by Prospero Bresciano, who is said to have died 
of vexation on account of his failure ; at the sides Aaron and Gideon 
by Oiov. Batt. delta Porta and Flam. Vacca; in front four modern 
lions (originals in the Vatican). The Acqua Felice was conducted 
hither in 1583 from Colonna in the Alban Mts., a distance of 13 M., 
by order of Sixtus V. (Felice Peretti). 

The Via Venti Settembre , the name of which refers to the 
entry of the Italians in 1870, unites the Porta Pia (p. 341) with the 
Quirinal , ending at the four fountains of the Via Quattro Fontane 
(p. 170). In this street , opposite the Acqua Felice , stands the 
church of S. Maria della Vittoria (PI. I, 23), so called from an 
image of the Virgin which is said to have been instrumental in 
gaining the victory for the imperial troops at the battle of the 'White 
Hill' near Prague, afterwards deposited here, but burned in 1833. The 
church, with the exception of the facade, was erected by C. Maderna. 

In the 2nd Chapel on the right, an altar-piece (Mary giving the Infant 
Christ to St. Francis) and frescoes by Domenichino. In the left transept the 
notorious group of St. Theresa by Bernini (covered \ 5 s.). In the 3rd Chapel on 
the left, the Trinity by Guercino, and a Crucifixion attributed to Guido Reni. 

In the Via Venti Settembre, to the right, nearer the Porta Pia, 
is the Finance Office (PL I, 26), built by Canevari. 

A little to the S.W. of S. Maria della Vittoria, also in the Piazza 
S. Bernardo, is the ancient church of S. Susanna (PI. I, 22, 23), 
altered to its present form in 1600 by C. Maderna. Paintings on the 
lateral walls from the history of Susanna, by Baldassare Croce ; those 
of the tribune by Cesare Nebbia. — Opposite, and standing a little 

Via Nazionale. ROME. II. Eastern Quarter. 169 

back , is the church, of S. Bbrnabdo (PI. I, 22) , a circular edifice, 
originally one of the corners of the Thermae of Diocletian (p. 167), 
and converted into a church atthe end of the 16th century. The vault- 
ing is ancient, but like the Pantheon was once open. — The Via 
Torino leads hence to the Via Nazionale (see below). 

On the E. side of the station, opposite the departure-platform, the 
largest and best-preserved part of the Wall of Servius (PI. I, 25, 28), which 
protected the city on this undefended side, has been exposed to view. 
The wall, which is supported by a strong embankment, with its broad 
moat and numerous towers, might until recently be traced to the arch 
of Gallienus (p. 179) ; but the only parts now extant are a fragment in 
the Piazza Manfredo Fanti and another by the so-called Auditorium of Mae- 
cenas on the Via Merulana (see p. 181). 

Towards the N.E. , passing the new buildings now springing up in 
this quarter, we reach (10 min.) the Campo Militare (PI. I, 29, 32), the 
camp of the Praetorians of imperial Rome, originally established by Tiberius, 
but destroyed by Constantine so far as it lay without the town -wall, 
from which it projects in a quadrangular form. At the end to the left, 
and on the side, traces of gates are still distinguished; the wall was 
skirted by a passage, under which are several small chambers. The Campo, 
which has been enclosed by a wall, is again devoted to military purposes. 

Opposite the entrance of the church of S. Maria degli Angeli 
(p. 167), and through the middle of the circular wall of the Ther- 
nise, runs the broad Via Nazionale (PI. I, 22 ; II, 19, 16), now one of 
the busiest streets of the city, and during the season as thronged 
with passengers and vehicles as the Corso itself (Tramway, No. 1, 
see p. 3 of Appendix). On the right the Via Torino leads to S. Ber- 
nardo (see above). In the Via Nazionale stands the Hotel Quirinal 
and, farther on , the new American Episcopal Church of St. Paul, 
a Gothic structure by Street, with chimes (p. 119). The most im- 
portant cross-street is the Via Agostino Depretis (Via Quattro Fon- 
tane) , which leads on the right to the Pal. Barberini (p. 170) and 
on the left to S. Maria Maggiore (p. 176). 

To the left in the Via Nazionale (No. 154) is the Qalleria Tene- 
rani ("Wed., 1-4; at other times, fee), a complete collection of the 
original models of the sculptor P. Tenerani (d. 1869). — To the right 
is the small church of S. Vitale, on a site considerably lower than 
the new street-level ; and farther on the handsome Palazzo delle 
Belle Arti, built as an exhibition-building in 1880-83 by Piacen- 
tini, and the Palazzo Huffer. Farther on, to the left, are the new 
building of the Banca Rornana and the gardens of the Villa Aldo- 

At the beginning of the Via del Quirinale (p. 173) , the Via 
Nazionale expands into a triangular piazza, in the middle of which, 
within a railing, is a fragment of the Servian Wall (see above), ex- 
cavated in 1875. Another fragment, with a well-preserved gateway, 
has been built into the Pal. Antonelli, on the right (No. 158; stair- 
case on the right of the court). To the S., behind the 17th cent, 
church of S. Caterina di Siena (PL II, 19, 14), rises the Torre delle 
Milizie (PI. II, 19, 6), erected about 1200 by the sons of Petrus 

170 II. Eastern Quarter. ROME. Pal. Barberini. 

Alexius, commonly called Torre di Nerone, because Nero is said to 
have witnessed the conflagration of Rome from this point (no ad- 
mission). — To the right, at the corner of the Via Magnanapoli, 
is the church of SS. Domenico e Sisto (PI. II, 19, 25), with its lofty 
flight of steps, built by Vincenzo della Greca about 1640. 

The Via Magnanapoli is prolonged by the Via S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, 
leading to S. Maria Maggiore (comp. p. 176). At the beginning of this 
street, to the left, is the church of S. Agata in Suburra (PI. II, 22), 
dating from the 5th cent., but restored in 1633, and now possessing 12 
granite columns only of the original edifice. It belongs to the adjacent 
seminary for Irish priests. The left aisle contains the Monument of Daniel 
O'Connett (d. 1847; who bequeathed his heart to this church), with a 
relief by Benzoni , erected in 1856. To the right of the entrance is the 
tomb of John Lascaris, author of the first modern Greek grammar (d. 1535). 

From the above-mentioned triangular space the Via Nazionalo 
descends the slopes of the Quirinal (95 ft.) in a wide curve. The 
flight of steps on the left descends to Trajan's Forum (p. 240). 
Farther on, to the left, is a mediaeval tower of the Colonna, with im- 
mured fragments from the Forum of Trajan. At the next corner, to 
the left, stands a new Waldensian Church, and to the right the 
new Teatro Drammatico. We then skirt the S. facade of the Pal. 
Colonna (p. 163) and proceed between the Via della Pilotta (p. 152) 
and the Piazza SS. Apostoli (p. 163) to the Piazza di Venezia 
(P- 162). 

The Via Agostino Depbetis (PI. I, 22), mentioned at p. 169, 
hitherto named the Via Quattro Fontane, forms a continuation of 
the Via Sistina (p. 150), like which it owes its construction to 
Sixtus V. Turning from the Via Nazionale to the right into the 
N.W. part of this street (which runs to the S.E. to S. Maria Maggiore ; 
see p. 176), we soon reach (5 min.) the four fountains, from which 
it took its former name, at the point of intersection with the Via del 
Quirinale (p. 173) and the Via Venti Settembre (p. 168). To the 
left is the small church of S. Carlo or S. Carlino (PI. I. 22, 2), built 
by Borromini in the most extravagantly 'baroque' style ; to the 
right, in the Via Venti Settembre, is the Pal. Albani, originally 
built by Dom. Fontana, and afterwards inhabited by Cardinal Al. 
Albani, the friend of Winckelmann. [Uence to the Porta Pia (p. 341) 
we take about 20 min. more , passing the new War Office , the 
churches mentioned at pp. 167, 168, and the Acqua Felice (p. 168).] 

The continuation of the street, leading to the Piazza Barberini, 
has retained the name of Via Quattko Fontane (PI. I, 22). At 
the end of it, to the right, at the corner of the Piazza Barberini, 
lies the handsome — 

* Palazzo Barberini (PI. I, 22), begun by Maderna under Ur- 
ban VIII., and completed by Bernini (p. lix). The court, laid out as 
a garden, contains a marble statue of Thorvaldsen, by B.Wolff, after 
a work by the master himself, erected here, near his studio, by his 
pupils and friends. — The principal staircase is to the left under 

Piazza Barb erini. ROME. II. Eastern Quarter. 171 

the arcades; built into it is a Greek *Tomb-reiief ; on the landing 
of the first floor, a *Lion in high-relief, from Tivoli. A number 
of mediocre ancient sculptures are distributed throughout the courts 
and other parts of the building. — At the right end of the arcades 
a winding staircase (13 steps, then to the right) ascends to the 
Galleria Barberini (admission, see p. 124; catalogues for the use 
of visitors). This is the gallery of disappointment. In Raphael's 
Fornarina we expect to find a beauty radiant with the charms of 
youth, whereas her features present an almost haggard appearance, 
to which the ill-preserved condition of the picture further con- 
tributes. In Quido Reni's Beatrice Cenci we hope to see a 
countenance Judith-like, and characterised by stern resolve, in- 
stead of which we encounter a pale, delicate face. Lastly, when 
we inspect Duress Christ among the Scribes, we are almost tempted 
to doubt its authenticity ; the numerous heads are ungrouped, some 
of them resemble caricatures, and it is in the execution of the 
hands alone that the workmanship of the great master is apparent. 
I. Room: 16. Pomarancio, Magdalene; 20. Parmeggianino, Betrothal of 
St. Catharine. — II. Room: 33. After Raphael, Madonna; 36. Innocenzo da 
Imola, Madonna; 38. Titian, Cardinal Bembo, painted about 1540 but re- 
touched; 53. FranciaO), Madonna with St. Jerome; 59. Sodoma, Madonna; 
64. Giov. Bellini (1), Madonna; 68. Mengs, Portrait of his daughter ; 69. Pon- 
tormo (after Morelli), Pygmalion; 72. Francia, Madonna; 73. MasaccioH), 
Portrait of himself. — III. Room : *76. Titian (? C. & C. ascribe it to Palma 
Vecchio), 'La Schiava', female portrait; 79. CI. Lorrain, Castel Gandolfo; 81. 
Bronzino, Portrait; *82. Barer, Christ among the doctors, painted at Venice 
in five days in 1506 ('opus quinque diemm'); -86. Raphael, Portrait of the so- 
called Fornarina , so frequently copied, unfortunately marred by restoration ; 
85. S. Oaelano, Lucrezia Cenci, stepmother of Beatrice ; 87. Spanish School, 
Anna Colonna ; "88. Guido Reni, Beatrice Cenci (p. 202) ; 90. N. Poussin, Death 
of Germanicus; 92. Claude Lorrain, Wharf; 94. And. del Sarto, Holy Family. 

Ascending the spiral staircase 60 steps farther , we turn to the 
right into the Principal Saloon, with frescoes by Pietro da Cortona. 
A small door to the right leads hence into the Sculpture Saloon, 
containing, among a number of ancient and modern works, an ad- 
mirable *Statue by a Greek master, near the wall opposite the en- 
trance, representing a woman with one arm extended. It was formerly 
supposed to be a nymph, a Dido, or a Laodamia; but it more pro- 
bably represents a suppliant for protection at an altar, grasping a 
twig (now broken off) in the right hand. 

On the highest floor is the Biblioteca Barberina (Thurs. 9-2) 
which contains 7000 MSS., including those of numerous Greek and 
Latin authors, of Dante, etc., a number of ancient bronze cistas 
from Palestrina, miniatures by Giulio Clovio (a pupil of Raphael), 
etc. Librarian, the Abbe Pieralisi. 

The ViaQuattroFontane, like the ViaSistina(jp. 150) and the Via 
del Tritone (p. 154), ends in the PrAzzA Barbbbiki (PI. I, 19, 
22). In the centre the *Fontana del Tritone, by Bernini, a Triton 
blowing on a conch. Ascending the Piazza, we come to the Via di 
S. Nicola di Tolentino, with several new hotels , which leads to the 

172 II. Eastern Quarter. EOME. Villa Ludovisi. 

church of that name, and then, under the name of Via S. Susanna, 
turns to the right to the Fontana dell' Acqua Felice and the Piazza 
delle Terme (p. 166). — The second street to the left, on the N. 
side of the Piazza Barherini, is the Via di S. Basilio, which leads 
to the Villa Ludovisi (see below) , and through the Porta Salara to 
the Villa Albani (p. 338 ; 1 M.). 

To the left of the Piazza Barherini rises the Piazza de' Cappuc- 
cini, in which is situated the church of S. Maria della Concezione 
(PL I, 23), or dei Cappuccini, founded in 1624 by Card. Barherini. 

In the Interior, over the door, a copy of Giotto's Navicella (in the ves- 
tibule of St. Peter's, p. 281), by Beretta. 1st Chapel on the right : "St. Michael, 
a famous work by Ouido Reni; in the 3rd, remains of frescoes by Domen- 
ichino. Over the high -altar a copy of an Ascension by Lanfranco , now 
destroyed. Beneath a stone in front of the steps to the choir lies the 
founder of the church, Card. Barberini ('hicjacet pulvis cinis et nihil'); on 
the left the tomb of Alex. Sobiesky (d. 1714), son of John III. of Poland. 
Last chapel on the left: Altar-piece by Sacchi; in the first, one by Pietro 
da Cortona. 

Beneath the church are four Bdkial Vaults (shown by one of the 
monks), decorated in a ghastly manner with the bones of about 4000 
departed Capuchins. Each vault contains a tomb with earth from Jeru- 
salem. In the case of a new interment, the bones which have been long- 
est undisturbed are used in the manner indicated. The vaults are illu- 
minated on 2nd JJov. (All Souls Day), after Ave Maria. 

A little to the N.W. is 8. Isidoro (PI. I, 20), founded in 1622. 

Behind, in the Corso di Porta Princiana is the Villa Malta, occu- 
pied by Lewis I. of Bavaria, before his accession. Opposite is the 
entrance to the Aurora Casino of the old Villa Ludovisi (see below). 
— The Porta Pinciana (PI. I, 21, 24), after having been walled up 
for centuries , was re-opened in 1888 to facilitate communication 
with the new quarter outside the Porta Salara. 

Leaving the Piazza Barberini, and following the Via di S. Ba- 
silio (see above), we reach (5 min.) a corner from which the street 
to the right leads to the gate, and that to the left to the entrance 
of the former — 

Villa Ludovisi (PI. I, 23), the gardens of which have fallen a 
prey to the extension of the town. The villa was erected in the first 
half of the 17th cent, by Card. Ludovisi, nephew of Gregory XV., 
and was afterwards inherited by the Princes of Piombino, who sold the 
greater part of it in 1885. The magnificent *Collection of Ancient 
Sculptures contained in one of the Casinos, is to be transferred to a 
new building erected for it close by. The two Casinos, however, 
have been retained , though that with the gallery of statues will 
only remain until a museum has been prepared to shelter its con- 
tents (the latter may therefore be temporarily inaccessible). From 
the gateway (Y2 fr- on leaving) we proceed to the right to the — 

I. Casino, containing a *Collection of valuable ancient sculp- 

Vestibule: 1, 3, 7, 8. Hermae; by the entrance-wall, to the right, 20. 
Head of Juno, very ancient; 18. Candelabrum in the form of a twisted 

Piazza del Quirinale. ROME. II. Eastern Quarter. 173 

tree; 15. Sitting statue of a Roman, by Zenon. To the left of the entrance : 
25. Female draped figure; 31. Tragic mask, mouth of a fountain in rosso 
antico. — Saloon : "28. Group of a barbarian , who , having killed his 
wife, plunges the sword into his own breast (right arm improperly restored), 
a work of the Pergamenian school (the 'Dying GauF in the Capitol also 
belongs to this group ; see Introd. p. xxxiii). To the right of the entrance : 
*55. . Warrior reposing (Mars?), probably destined originally to adorn the 
paproach to a door; 51. Statue of Athene from Antioch; 47. Cast of the 
statue of jEschines at Naples ; 46. Bust , name unknown ; above it , *45. 
Head of a Medusa, of the noblest type ; 43. Rape of Proserpine, by Bernini ; 
above it, 42. Judgment of Paris, a relief, the right side restored accord- 
ing to Raphael's design; **41. The so-called 'Juno Ludovisi' , the most 
celebrated, and one of the most beautiful heads of Juno ; 30. Mercury, in 
the same position as the so-called Germanicus in Paris. Left of the ent- 
rance : *1. Mars reposing , of the school of Lysippus : *7. Theseus and 
iEthra (or Telemachus and Penelope commonly called Orestes and Electra), 
by Menelaos , pupil of Stephanus (p. xxxvi) ; *9. Youthful Satyr ; 14. 
Dionysus with a satyr; 15. Head of Juno; 21. Bronze head of Marcus 

The Casino dell' Aueoka, to the W., which on the ground-floor 
contains a vigorous ceiling-fresco of * Aurora by Ouercino, and on the first 
floor a *Fama by the same, is seldom open to visitors. The entrance is 
in the Corso di Porta Pinciana, opposite the Villa Malta (p. 172). 

The prolongations of the Via di S. Basilio (p. 172) are the Via 
Sallustiana and the Via di Porta Salara, which lead in 8 min. 
from the Villa Ludovisi to the Porta Salara (p. 338). Here in an- 
cient times lay the magnificent Gardens of Sallust, the historian, 
which afterwards became the property of the emperors. 

We now enter the Via del Qtjirinalb at the four fountains of 
the Via Agostino Depretis (p. 170). To the right are buildings 
connected with the royal palace; to the left the church of 8. An- 
drea, by Bernini. In a few minutes more we reach the *Piazza 
del Quirinale (PI. II, 19), recently extended and levelled, in 
the centre of which is a Fountain with an antique granite basin. 
Adjacent to the fountain are an Obelisk, 48 ft. high, which once 
stood in front of the mausoleum of Augustus and was erected 
here in 1787, and the two colossal marble **Horse Tamers from 
which the piazza formerly derived its name (Piazza di Monte Ca- 
vallo). These admirable groups once stood in front, probably at 
the entrance, of the Thermae of Constantine (p. 174), which were 
situated here. They are frequently mentioned in history, and have 
never been buried nor concealed from view. The inscriptions on the 
pedestals , Opus Phidiae and Opus Praxitelis are apocryphal , the 
groups being works of the imperial age (prob. 4th cent.), copied 
from originals of the school of Lysippus. In the middle ages these 
were supposed to be the names of two philosophers, who, having di- 
vined the thoughts of Tiberius , were honoured by the erection of 
these monuments in recognition of their wisdom. 

Opposite the Royal Palace, on the left, is the Pal. of the Con- 
sulta, erected under Clement XII. byDelFuga, formerly the seat 
of a tribunal of that name, charged with the internal administration 
of the Papal States. It is now occupied by the offices of the Minister 

174 Jl. Eastern Quarter. ROME. Palazzo Reg io. 

of the Exterior. On the S.W. side of the piazza, behind the obelisk, 
stands the Palazzo della Dataria, erected by Paul V. Farther on, to 
the left, is the Pal. Kospigliosi (see below). 

The piazza commands a fine *View of the town, with the 
dome of .St. Peter's in the background. During the excavations 
preparatory to the construction of the steps and the road extensive 
fragments of the walls of the Thermae of Constantine were found, 
and below them older walls of solid blocks, belonging apparently to 
the walls of Servius Tullius. The new Via della Dataria descends 
straight to the Corso, and the first transverse street to the right, the 
Via di S. Vincenzo, leads to the Fontana Trevi (p. 151). 

The Palazzo Regio, formerly Apostolico al Quirinale (PI. 1, 19), 
begun in 1574 under Gregory XIII. by Flaminio Ponzio, continued 
under Sixtus V. and Clement VIII. by Fontana, and completed 
under Paul V. by Maderna, has frequently been occupied by the 
popes in summer on account of its lofty and healthful situation. 
The conclaves of the cardinals were at one time held here , and the 
name of the newly-elected pope was proclaimed from the balcony of 
the facade towards Monte Oavallo. Pius VII. died here in 1823. 
After 20th Sept. 1870, the palace was taken possession of by the 
Italian government, and being now the residence of the king, the 
greater part is seldom shown to the public. 

From the principal entrance we pass between the sentinels, and ascend 
the broad staircase to the left at the end of the vestibule. At the top of 
the staircase we write our names in a book, and obtain an escort (1 fr.). 
Adjacent to the Sala Regia, with frescoes by hanfranco and Saraceni, is 
the Cappella Paolina, erected by Carlo Maderna, and decorated with gilded 
stucco-work and copies in grisaille of Raphael's Apostles in SS. Vincenzo 
ed Anastasio alle Tre Fontane (p. 354) and with tapestry of the ISth cen- 
tury. To the right lies a suite of Drawing and Reception Rooms, newly 
fitted up, and adorned with pictures and tapestry, chiefly modern. The 
reception-room of the ambassadors, beyond the throne-room, contains a 
portrait of the Emperor William I., by Karl Arnold, presented in 1874. In 
the 10th room, mosaics on the floor from Hadrian's villa. In the 14th, a 
'Ceiling-painting by F. Overbeck (1859), to commemorate the flight of Pius IX. 
in ISiS: Christ eluding the Jews who endeavoured to cast him over a preci- 
pice (Luke iv. 28, 29). In the 15th, views from the Vatican. Towards the 
garden are the Royal Guest-Chambers, once occupied by Napoleon I., 
Francis I. of Austria, and in 1861 by Francis II. of Naples. The frieze 
of the former audience-chamber here is a cast of Thorvaldsen 1 s ::: Triumphal 
Procession of Alex, the Great, ordered by Napoleon I. for this saloon. After 
1815 the original became the property of the Marchese Sommariva, and is 
now in the Villa Carlotta near Cadenabbia on the Lake of Como, formerly 
his residence. In the small Chapel deir Annunziata an "Annunciation, an 
altar-piece by Ouido Reni. — In the Court a staircase ascends to the right 
under the arcades; on the landing, "Christ surrounded by angels, a fresco by 
Melozzo da Forli (p. 89), transferred thither in 1711 from SS. Apostoli. 

The Garden, which is rarely shown, was tastefully laid out by 
G. Maderna. It contains rare plants and several antiques, and com- 
mands a fine view. — [Omnibus from the Piazza del Quirinale to 
S. Agnese Fuori, see p. 2 of the Appx.] 

The *Palazzo Rospigliosi (PI. II, 19), erected in 1603 by Card. 
Scipio Borghese, nephew of Paul V., on the ruins of the Thermse 

S. Silvestro al Quirinale. ROME. II. Eastern Quarter. 175 

of Constantine, afterwards became the property of the princes Ros- 
pigliosi, relations of Clement IX., of Pistoja. The palace contains 
frescoes from the Baths of Constantine, a beautiful CI. Lorrain 
(Temple of Venus), and other treasures of art, but is only shown 
by special permission of the prince. The S.E. corner of the palace 
has been removed to make way for the new Via Nazionale (p. 109). 
Admission to the Casino, see p. 124 C/2 f r -)- 

We enter the court by a gate in the Via del Quirinale and then as- 
cend the steps to the left. Several small statues in the Garden. 

Along the external Wall of the Casino are placed ancient sarcophagus- 
reliefs (Hunt of Meleager, Rape of Proserpine, etc.). By the door to the 
right we enter the — 

Principal Hall. * :;: Ceiling-painting by Quido Reni: Aurora strewing 
flowers before the chariot of the god of the sun, who is surrounded by 
dancing Horae, the master's finest work. The colouring deserves special 
notice. The strongest light is thrown upon the figure of Apollo, whose 
hair and ilesh are of golden hue. Of a corresponding tint are the yellowish- 
red robes of the nymphs nearest to Apollo. The colours are then gradually 
shaded off from blue to white, and from green to white, while the dun- 
coloured horses accord with the clouds in the background (p. lix). Op- 
posite the entrance is a mirror, in which the painting may be conveniently 
inspected. — On the frieze, landscapes by Paul Bril, and on the ends of 
the sides , Triumph of Fauna and Cupid (from Petrarch), by Tempesia. 
Eight wall : Statue of Athene Tritogeneia with a Triton ; * Van Dyck, Portrait. 

Room on the Right. In the centre a bronze steed from the Thermae 
of Constantine. Opposite the entrance, Domenichino , Fall of man. Left 
wall : "Lorenzo Lotto , Vanita. Right wall : "Dutch School , Portrait ; Do- 
menichino, Venus and Cupid; "Luca Signorelli, *Holy Family. Entrance- wall : 
L. Carracci (V), Samson. — Room to the Left: entrance- wall , over the 
door, Passignano, Pieta; Quido Reni, Andromeda; Portrait of N. Poussin 
(at the age of 56), a copy of the original in the Louvre. Left wall : Dan. 
da Volierra , Bearing of the Cross. In the corner a bronze bust of Sept. 
Severus. On these two walls and the following : Christ and the Apostles, 
thirteen pictures, attributed to Rubens, probably only partly by him ; Domen- 
ichino, Triumph of David. 

No. 12, opposite the Pal. Rospigliosi, is the entrance to the 
garden of the Pal. Colonna (p. 163). In the Via del Quirinale, 
farther on, to the right, is the church of — 

S. Silvestro al Quirinale (PI. II, 19), erected at the close of the 
16th cent., and with the adjacent monastery belonging to the frater- 
nity of St. Vincent de Paul since 1770. 

In the Dome four oval frescoes by Domenichino: David dancing before 
the Ark, Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, Judith, Esther and Ahasuerus. 
In the 2nd Chapel to the left, two landscapes by Polidoro Caravaggio and 
his assistant Maturino: Betrothal of the Infant Christ with St. Catharine, 
and Christ appearing as the gardener to Mary Magdalene. 

The Via del Quirinale ends, as mentioned at p. 169 , at the Via 

The S.E. Part of the Via Agostino Depbetis (PI. I, 22, II, 
25 ; p. 170) leads from the Via Nazionale (p. 169) directly to the 
choir of S. Maria Maggiore. We turn to the right before reaching 
the piazza in front of the latter, enter the Via Urbana, and in a few 
paces reach — 

S. Pudenziana (PI. II, 25; open till 9 a.m.; custodian, Via 

176 II. Eastern Quarter. ROME. S. Maria Maggiore. 

Quattro Fontane 81 , to be found from 1 to 4) , traditionally the 
oldest church in Rome , erected on the spot where St. Pudens and 
his daughters Praxedis and Pudentiana, who entertained St. Peter, 
are said to have lived. The church , the earliest record of which 
dates from 499, has been frequently restored ; it was much altered 
in 1598, and has recently been modernised in very bad taste. In 
the facade, lately adorned with mosaics (St. Peter with SS. Pudens 
and Pudentiana; on the left Pius I., on the right Gregory VII.), is 
an ancient portal borne by columns , which has also been restored. 
Pleasing campanile of the 9th century. Chief festival on 19th May. 

Interior. The nave and aisles are of unequal length. In the pillars 
are still to be seen the ancient marble columns which originally supported 
the wall. The "Mosaics in the Tribune (4th cent.), Christ with S. Praxedis 
and S. Pudentiana and the Apostles , and above them the emblems of 
the Evangelists on each side of the cross, are among the finest in Rome 
(p. xlv ; several of those on the right are modern). The Dome above the 
high-altar was painted by Pomarancio. The Aisles contain remains of an 
ancient mosaic pavement. In the left aisle is the Cappella Caetani, over 
the altar of which is an Adoration of the Magi, a relief in marble by Oli- 
vieri. At the extremity of this aisle is an altar with relics of the table at 
which Peter is said first to have read mass. Above it Christ and Peter, a 
group in marble by O. B. della Porta. 

Below the church are ancient vaults in a good style of architecture, 
which the custodian shows if desired. 

On the summit of the Viminal, not far off, stands the church of 
S. Lorenzo in Panisperna (PI. II, 22), on the spot where St. Lawrence is 
said to have suffered martyrdom, an old edifice, but frequently restored. — 
Hence to the Via Nazionale, see p. 170. 

In the Piazza dbll' Esquilino, the square in front of the choir 
of S. Maria Maggiore, stands one of the two Obelisks which formerly 
rose in front of the mausoleum of Augustus, 48 ft. in height (the 
other is on the Quirinal, p. 173). It was erected here by Sixtus V. 
in 1587. — The piazza is intersected by the broad Via Cavour 
(p 166), which is carried through the valley between the Esquiline 
and Viminal to the Forum Romanum. 

The facade of the church overlooks the Piazza S. Maria Maggio- 
re, which is embellished with a handsome Column from the basilica 
of Constantine, 16 ft. in circumference, and 46 ft. in height, placed 
here and crowned with a bronze figure of the Virgin by Paul V. 

** S. Maria Maggiore (PI. II, 25), also named Basilica Liberiana, 
or iS. Maria ad Nines, or 8. Maria ad Praesepe, from the manger 
which it contains, derives its usual name from its being the largest 
of the eighty churches in Rome dedicated to the Virgin. It is also 
one of the oldest churches at Rome, and indeed in Christendom. 
This is one of the five patriarchal churches (p. 135), and has a spe- 
cial 'jubilee entrance'. The principal festivals are on Christmas 
Day, 5th Aug., and the Assumption (loth Aug.). According to 
a legend which cannot be traced farther back than the 13th cent., 
the Virgin appeared simultaneously to the devout Roman patrician 
Johannes and to Pope Liberius (3!72-66) in their dreams, com- 
manding them to erect a church to her on the spot where they 

8. Maria Maggiore. ROME. //. Eastern Quarter. 177 

should find a deposit of snow on the following morning (5th Aug.). 
The Basilica Liberiana, which they are said to have built in obed- 
ience to this vision , was re-erected by Sixtus III. (432-40), who 
named the church <S. Maria Mater Dei , shortly after the Council of 
Ephesus had sanctioned this appellation of the Virgin (430). Of 
this edifice the nave with its ancient marble columns and mosaics 
is still preserved. In the 12th cent, the church was farther altered 
in the mediaeval style. Eugene III. added a new porch, Nicholas IV. 
a new tribune adorned with mosaics, and Gregory XI. gave the 
campanile its present form and its pointed roof. About the end of 
the 15th cent, began a new period in the history of the church, 
when the irregularities of the mediaeval additions were removed, 
and symmetrical lines were formed by the erection of accessory 
buildings and straight walls. The two large side-chapels, covered 
with domes, were added by Sixtus V. in 1586 and Paul V. in 1611. 
The exterior of the tribune was remodelled by Clement X., and 
the final restoration was entrusted by Benedict XIV. to Fuga. 

The Facade, designed by Fuga in 1743, consists of a porch with 
a loggia above it, opening towards the piazza in three arches. The 
five portals in this porch correspond with four entrances to the 
church (the last of which on the left, the Porta Santa , is now 
built up), and with a niche on the right. To the right is a statue 
of Philip IV. of Spain. The loggia (staircase to the left in the 
vestibule; one of the vergers opens the door), from which the pope 
formerly pronounced his benediction on 15th Aug., contains mo- 
saics from a facade of the 13th cent., restored in 1825. 

Above, in the centre, Christ; on the left the Virgin, SS. Paul, John, 
and James; on the right SS. Peter, Andrew, Philip, and John the Baptist. 
Below, on the left, the vision of Pope Liherius and the Patrician Jo- 
hannes ; on the right, the meeting of the two, and the tracing of the site 
of the church on the newly-fallen snow. 

The Interior, dating from the pontificate of Sixtus III., 93 yds. long 
and 19 yds. wide, and subsequently enlarged, produces a rich and 
imposing effect. The pavement of the Nave dates from the 12th cent, 
(p. xlvii) and the handsome ceiling was executed from designs by Giul. da 
Sangallo. The architrave, adorned with mosaic, is supported by 42 Ionic 
columns, 33 in marble and 4 in granite, above which, and on the chancel 
arch, are "Mosaics of the 5th cent., in the ancient style (p. xlvi; good light 
early in the morning). Those on the arch represent events from the Life of 
Mary, Annunciation, Infancy of Christ, Slaughter of the Innocents, etc. ; left 
wall, history of Abraham and Jacob; right wall, Moses and Joshua (several 
of the pictures were restored in 1825). In front of the chancel arch is 
the High-Altar, consisting of an ancient sarcophagus of porphyry, said to 
have been the tomb of the Patrician Johannes, and containing the remains 
of St. Matthew and other relics ; the canopy is borne by four columns of 
porphyry. In the apse of the Tbibdne are * Mosaics by Jacobus Torriti 
(1292) : Coronation of the Virgin, with saints, near whom are Pope Nicho- 
las IV. and Card. Jac. Colonna (comp. p. xlviii). 

At the beginning of the nave are the tombs of Nicholas IV. (d. 1292) 
on the left, and Clement IX. (d. 1669) on the right, erected by Sixtus V. and 
Clement X. respectively. Right Aisle: First chapel: Baptistery with fine 
ancient font of porphyry. Farther on is the Cap. del Crocefisso with 10 col- 
umns of porphyry, containing five boards from the 'Manger of the Infant 
Christ' (whence termed Cappella del Presepe). — In the Eight Tkansept is 

Baedeker. Italy II. 10th Edition. 12 

178 II. Eastern Quarter. ROME. 8. Prassede. 

the sumptuous *Sistine Chapel, constructed by Fontana, and of late gor- 
geously restored ; in the niche on the left, an altar-piece (St. Jerome) by 
Ribera; on the right, occupying the whole wall, the monument of Sixtus V., 
with a statue of the Pope by Valsoldo ; on the left, monument of Pius V. 
by Leonardo da Sarzana. Over the altar, a canopy in gilded bronze re- 
presents angels bearing the church; in the 'Confessio' under the staircase- 
a statue of S. Gaetano, by Bernini, and by the altar a relief of the Holy 
Family, by C'ecchino da Pietrasanta (1480). — At the end of the right aisle, 
the Gothic monument of Card. Consalvi (Gunsalvus, d. 1299) by Giov. Cosmas. 
Left Aisle. 1st Chapel (oftheCesi): Martyrdom of St. Catharine, altar- 
piece by Girol. da Sermoneta ; on the right and left two bronze statues to 
the memory of cardinals of the family. 2nd Chapel (of the Pallavicini-Sforza), 
said to have been designed by Mich. Angelo : Assumption of Mary, altar- 
piece by Gir. Sermoneta. — In the Left Tkansept, opposite the Sistine Chapel, 
is the Bokghese Chapel, constructed by Flarninio Ponzio in 1611, and also 
covered with a dome. Over the altar, which is gorgeously decorated with 
lapis lazuli and agate , is an ancient and miraculous picture of the Virgin 
(almost black), painted according to tradition by St. Luke, which was car- 
ried by Gregory I. as early as 590 in solemn procession through the city, 
and again by the clergy during the cholera in 1837 and in the war of 
1860. The frescoes in the large arches are by Guido Reni, Lanfranco, 
Cigoli, etc. The monuments of the Popes (1.) Paul V. (Camillo Borghese, 
d. 1621) and (r.) Clement VIII. (Aldobrandini, d. 1605) are by pupils of Ber- 
nini. The crypt contains tombs of the Borghese family. 

In the light corner of the Piazza S. Maria Maggiore is a side- 
entrance to the church of — 

*S. Prassede (PI. II, 25), erected by Paschalisl. in 822, and dedi- 
cated to St. Praxedis, the daughter of St. Pudens with whom Peter 
lodged at Rome, and the sister of S. Pudentiana. It was restored by 
Nicholas V. about 1450, again in 1832, and finally in 1869. The 
church is generally entered by the side-door. 

Interior. The nave is separated from the aisles by 16 granite columns 
(six others, bearing arches, having been replaced by pillars). The "Mosaics 
(9th cent. ; p. xlvi) deserve special notice. On the triumphal arch the new 
Jerusalem guarded by angels, Christ in the centre, towards whom the saved 
are hastening; on the arch of the tribune the Lamb, at the sides the seven 
candlesticks and the symbols of the Evangelists ; lower down the twenty- 
four elders (interesting as showing the mode in which the art accommo- 
dated itself to the spaces allotted to it ; thus , in order to follow the curve 
of the arch, the arms of the foremost elders in the middle and upper rows 
gradually increase in length) ; in the round part of the apse, Christ sur- 
rounded with saints (on the left Paul, Praxedis, and Pope Paschalis with 
the church ; on the right Peter, Pudentiana, and Zeno). On either side 
of the tribune are galleries. — Eight Aisle. The 3rd chapel is the Chapel of 
the Column (ladies admitted on the Sundays of Lent only; the sacristan 
opens the door when desired). At the entrance are two columns of black 
granite with ancient entablature. The interior is entirely covered with 
mosaics on gold ground (about the 10th cent.), whence the chapel is some- 
times called Orto del Paradiso. On the vaulting a medallion with head of 
Christ, supported by four angels. Above the altar a Madonna between the 
saints Praxedis and Pudentiana. To the right in a niche , the column at 
which Christ is said to have been scourged. The 4th chapel contains the 
tomb of Card. Cetti (d. 1474). At the extremity of the right aisle the Cap. del 
Crocefisso contains the tomb of a French cardinal (d. 1286). — In the Left 
Aisle by the entrance-wall is a stone-slab, on which St. Praxedis is said to 
have slept. The 2nd Cap. di S. Carlo Borromeo contains a chair and table 
once used by the saint. The 3rd Cap. Agiati contains paintings by the Cav. 
oVArplno. — The marble spout of a fountain in the nave indicates the 
spot where St. Praxedis collected the blood of the martyrs. 

The Confessio (keys kept by the sacristan) contains ancient sarcophagi 

8. Bibiana. ROME. //. Eastern Quarter. 179 

with the bones of the sister saints Praxedis and Pudentiana on the right, 
and those of martyrs on the left. The altar is decorated with fine mosaic 
of the 13th century. Above it an ancient fresco of the Madonna between the 
sisters. — The Saceistt contains a Scourging by Giulio Romano. 

To the S. and S.E. of the Piazza S. Maria Maggiore run two 
new thoroughfares, the Via Merulana, on the right, leading to 
the Lateran (p. 267), and the Via Carlo Alberto , on the left. 
In the latter, to the left, is the church of S. Antonio Abbate, with 
a portal of the 13th cent. ; interior uninteresting. S. Antonio is 
the tutelary saint of animals , and in front of the church from 17th 
to 23rd Jan., domestic animals of every kind used to he blessed and 
sprinkled with holy water. 

A cross-street leads to the right from the Via Carlo Alberto to 
the church of S. Vito and the Arch of Gallienus (PI. II. ; 25, 28). 
This honorary arch was erected in 262 in honour of the Emp. Gal- 
lienus 'on account of his bravery , surpassed only by his piety' by 
a certain M. Aurelius Victor. The architecture is simple, but in the 
degraded style of the age. 

The Via Mazzini and Via Rattazzi lead to the left from the Via 
Carlo Alberto to the Piazza Manfredo Fanti' , in which stands the 
handsome Aquarium (PI. II, 28), built from a design by E. Bernich 
in 1885 (adm. from 9.30 a.m., 1 f r. ; director, Prof. Vinciguerrd). 

The Via Carlo Alberto ends at the large Piazza Vittoiiio Ema- 
nublb (PI., II, 29), which is embellished with flower-beds. Here, 
on the left, are considerable remains of a water-tower of the Aqua 
Julia (PI. II, 28), in the niches of which the so-called trophies of 
Marius, now on the balustrade of the Capitol, were formerly placed 
(p. 210). The ruin, called Trofei di Mario, has been partly restored, 
and is under the care of a 'guardia degli scavf. — At the N. angle 
of the piazza rises the church of S. Ewebio, re-erected in the 18th 
cent., with the exception of the campanile. The ceiling-painting, 
the glory of St. Eusebius , is one of the earliest works of Raphael 
Menys ; the high- altar-piece is by Bald. Croce. 

Several new streets, not yet completed, lead from the Piazza 
Vittorio Emanuele to the church of S. Bibiana (PI. II, 31), conse- 
crated in 470, and rebuilt for the last time in 1625 by Bernini. It 
contains eight antique columns ; above these are frescoes from the 
life of the saint, on the right by Ciampelli, on the left by Pietro 
da Cortona (modernised). The statue of St. Bibiana on the high- 
altar is by Bernini. To the left by the entrance is the stump of a 
column, at which the saint is said to have been scourged to death. 
— The Via di S. Bibiana leads to the new Porta di S. Lorenzo and 
the basilica of that name, which may be conveniently visited at this 
juncture (see p. 343). "We may return by tramway-line No. 2 (p. 3 
of the Appx.). 

The wide Viale Principessa Margherita leads hence to the 
Piazza Guglielmo Pepe (with remains of the above-mentioned Aqua 
Julia) and the (10 min.) Railway Station (p. 166). On the right 

12 * 

180 //. Eastern Quarter. ROME. Porta Maggiore. 

it leads in 5 min. to the so-called Temple of Minerva Medica 

(PL II, 32), the ruin of an ancient Nymphaeum in the form of a 
decagon, 55 yds. in circumference, with deep niches in the -walls, 
and originally covered with marble below and stucco above. This 
must have belonged to some splendid bath-establishment, as many 
ancient statues have been found in the vicinity. One of these, the 
Minerva Giustiniani of the Braccio Nuovo in the "Vatican (p. 316), 
has given rise to the otherwise unfounded appellation of 'Temple 
of Minerva'. In the middle ages the ruin was called Le Oalluzze 
a name which has been conjectured to be a corruption of (the Thermae 
of) 'Gaius and Lucius Cassar', of whose existence, however, there 
is no other hint. The vaulting existed down to 1828. The build- 
ing, which is architecturally interesting , dates from about the 3rd 
cent, after Christ. 

The dusty and unfinished Via Conte Verde , the middle street 
running from the S.E. side of the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, leads 
to the church of S. Croce in Oerusalemme (see below); the Via 
Emanuele Filiberto , the street to the right , leads to the Lateran 
(p. 267); and the Via Principe Eugbnio, on the left, to the Porta 

The * Porta Maggiore (PL II, 35) was originally an archway 
belonging to the Aqua Claudia, above which the Anio Novus flowed 
through a second conduit. The inscriptions record the construction 
of both aqueducts by the Emp. Claudius, A.D. 52, the Claudia, 
45 M. in length, bringing water from the neighbourhood of Subiaco, 
and the Anio Novus coming from the sources of the river of that 
name , a distance of 62 M. ; and also their restoration by Vespasian 
in 71, and by Titus in 81. Atirelian converted the monument into 
one of the gates of his city-wall; and the Colonnas used it in the 
middle ages as the nucleus of a fortification. The gate derives its 
name either from its imposing dimensions , or from the church of 
that name. It was purged of the later additions by Gregory XVI. 
— Two roads diverged hence : to the left the Via Praenestina, and 
to the right the Via Labicana, now named Via Casilina. 

Between the two roads, outside the gate, on the removal of the 
fortifications of Honorius, which have been re-erected by the wall 
to the right, was discovered the * Monument of the Baker Eurysaces, 
dating from the close of the republic ; it is erected in imitation of 
grain-measures laid alternately in vertical and horizontal rows. 

The monument was erected by the baker himself; and the principal 
inscription, repeated several times, is to the effect that — 'This is the 
monument of Marcus Vergilius Eurysaces, a public purveyor of bread and 
an official'. Some of the reliefs represent grinding, baking, and other 
parts of his trade, and others refer to his post of purveyor to the city. 

From this point to the Amphitheatrum Castrense and the Porta 
S. Giovanni, see p 273, to the Campagna, see p. 345. 

From the Porta Maggiore a road leads to (5 min.) S. Croce in 
Gerusalemme, passing under the arch of the Claudian aqueduct, and 

S. Croce in Gerusalemme. ROME. II. Eastern Quarter. 181 

skirting the wall on the inside. From S. Maria Maggiore to this 
church by the Via Conte Verde is a walk of 20 minutes. 

S. Croce in Gerusalemme (PL II, 36), one of the seven pil- 
grimage-churches, once named Basilica Sessoriana, because the 
Sessorium, perhaps an ancient court of judicature, formerly stood 
here, is said to have been erected by St. Helena in honour of her 
discovery of the Cross. As early as 433 a Council met here. The 
church was rebuilt by Lucius II. in 1144, and was modernised 
under Benedict XIV. in 1743, by Oregorini, who added the poor 

Interior. The nave was originally borne by 12 antique columns of 
granite, of which 8 only are now visible. An ancient sarcophagus of basalt 
below the high-altar contains the relics of SS. Anastasius and Csesarius. 
In the tribune are modernised !: Frescoes of the Invention of the Cross, as- 
cribed to Pinturicchio (according to C. & C, by Fiorenzo di Lorenzo). The 
church contains numerous relics, including the 'Inscription on the Cross'. 

To the left of the tribune a staircase descends to the Crypt, where on 
the left is an altar with a marble relief (Pieta) ; at the sides are statues 
of Peter and Paul of the 12th century. On the right the chapel of St. Helena 
(to which ladies are admitted on 20th March only). On the vaulting are 
* Mosaics , after Bald. Peruzzi , representing the Four Evangelists. In the 
centre, Christ. In the arch over the entrance, on the left St. Helena, right 
St. Sylvester; over the altar, on the left St. Peter, on the right St. Paul. 
The altar-statue of St. Helena is an exact copy of the Barberini Juno in the 
Sala Rotonda of the Vatican (p. 306) , with a cross for the sceptre in the 
right hand, and a nail of the cross for the vase in the left. 

The greater part of the old Cistercian monastery formerly belong- 
ing to the church is now used as a barrack. 

On the other side of S. Croce is an apse with arched windows 
and the beginning of adjoining walls, which are supposed to have 
belonged to a Temple of Venus and Cupid , or a Nymphaeum of 
Alexander Severus, or to the Sessorium mentioned above. 

From S. Croce to the Lateran is a dusty and shadeless walk of 
5 min. (p. 266). 

From S. Maria Maggiore the Via Mkrtjlana (PI. II, 26, 29, 30 ; 
omnibus No. 7 and tramway No. 3, see pp. 1, 3 of Appx.) leads to 
the right to the Lateran (in */4 hr.; p. 265). 

The first cross - street to the right is the Via di S. Martina, 
which, under different names , leads through a well-peopled quarter 
to the Forum. To the left is the Via di S. Vito, in which stands S. 
Alfonso de 1 Liguori , a Gothic chuTch built by Wigley in 1855, at 
the cost of a Mr. Douglas. At the end of the street are the church of 
8. Vito and the Arch of Oallienus (see p. 179). The next cross- 
streets to the right are the broad new Via dello Statuto , which 
unites with the Via Cavour , and the Via di S. Pietro in Vincoli 
(see below). 

In this neighbourhood, but scarcely accessible on account of the n w 
streets in progress, are the so-called Sette Sale (PI. II, 26), consisting of 
seven, or rather nine, parallel vaulted chambers , which appear to have 
been used as reservoirs for the Thermae of Titus (p. 237). 

182 II. Eastern Quarter. ROME. <S. Martino ai Monti. 

Farther on in the Via Merulana , to the right, is the new and 
unfinished Palazzo Field. Adjacent is a small triangular space, 
where a building in 'opus retioulatum' was discovered in 1874. It 
is supposed to have belonged to the Gardens of Maecenas which lay- 
here. The oblong chamber, now roofed in, has a number of steps 
rising at the N. end, like the seats in an amphitheatre. The walls 
were richly decorated with paintings, which are now rapidly fading. 
It is used as a storehouse for newly discovered sculptures and in- 
scriptions and contains nothing of general interest. Outside the S. 
and E. walls are seen fragments of the Servian wall (p. 169). Adm. 
on Thurs., 9-11 and 2-5. 

Still farther on in the Via Merulana, at the corner of the Via La- 
bicana (by which we may reach 8. Clemente and the Thermie of 
Titus in 5 min. ; see p. 237), is the small church of S. Pietro Mar- 
cellino, founded at a very early period and entirely renewed under 
Benedict XIV. Opposite is the imposing new House of the Francis- 
cans , built in 1885-87. We then reach the Piazza del Laterano 
(p. 265). 

From the Via Merulana diverges the Via di S. Pietho in Vin- 
coli to the Vf . , leading to the church of — 

S. Martino ai Monti (PI. II, 26), erected by Symmachus about 
the year 500, adjacent to the Baths of Trajan and an old church of 
Pope Sylvester. It was rebuilt in 844 by Sergius II. and Leo IV., and 
handsomely modernised about 1650. Principal festival, 11th Nov. 

The Interior, a basilica with a roof of straight beams, contains 24 an- 
tique columns. In the S. aisle six :;: Frescoes by G. Poussin y from the life of 
Elijah, the patron of the order (marred by restoration). In the N. aisle 
six smaller ^Frescoes. Also two pictures representing the interior of the 
old churches of the Lateran and of St. Peter. — The Presbyterium is eleven 
steps higher; below is the Crypt. From the latter we enter a large vault, 
probably once belonging to Therms', but at an early period converted info a 
church. The vaulting bears traces of ancient painting. This is supposed to 
be the site of Pope Sylvester's church, of the period of Constantine. 

In 5 min. more we reach the church of * S. Pietro in Vineoli 

(PL II, 23; 150 ft. above the sea-level), also named Basilica Eu- 
doxiana after Eudoxia , wife of Valentinian III. , who founded the 
church about the year 442, as a receptacle for the chains of St. 
Peter which had been presented by her to Pope Leo I. It was 
restored by Pelagius I. and Hadrian I., the vestibule added by Baccio 
Pintelli(V), and the whole is now modernised. Admission before 
11 a.m. and after 3 p.m.; when closed, visitors ring at the ad- 
jacent door to the left, No. 4 ( l / 2 fr.). 

Interior. The nave and aisles are separated by 20 antique Doric 
columns. To the left of the entrance is the monument of the Florentine 
painters Pietro and Antonio Pollajuolo (d. 1498). The fresco above it, 
representing the plague of 680, is attributed to the latter master. The 
Left Aisle contains the monument (in the corner) of the learned Card. Nico- 
laus Cusanus (from Cues on the Moselle, d. 1465). Above it a relief: Peter 
with keys and chains, on the left the donor (Kic. Cusanus), right an angel. 
— On the 3rd altar to the left a mosaic of the 7th cent, with St. Sebastian. 

S. Pietro in Vincoli. ROME. II. Eastern Quarter. 183 

At the end of the Right Aisle is the monument of Pope Julius II. (p. 71) with 
the "Statue of Moses by Michael Angelo, one of his most famous works. The 
monument was originally destined for St. Peter's, and intended to be a most 
imposing work, consisting of upwards of 30 statues. Owing to various ad- 
verse circumstances the portion preserved here was alone completed. (Two 
statues destined for this monument are at the Louvre.) The statues of Moses 
(who is represented by mediaeval Christian artists with horns owing to 
an erroneous translation of Exodus xxxiv. 35), Rachel, and Leah (as 
symbols, on the left of meditative, on the right of active life) alone were 
executed by the great master, and even these were not entirely his own 
workmanship. The grouping only of the remainder was from his design. 
The figure of the pope (who is not interred here) by Maso del Bosco is a 
failure; the prophet and the sibyl at the side are by Raf. da Montelupo. — 
To the right of the choir is St. Margaret, an altar-piece by Guercino. — 
The Choik contains an ancient marble seat from a bath, converted into 
an episcopal throne. A cabinet under the high-altar, with bronze "Doors 
(by the Pollajuoli, 1477), contains the chains of St. Peter, which are ex- 
hibited to the pious on 1st August. 

The adjacent monastery of the Canonici Regolari is now the seat 
of the physical and mathematical faculty of the university. The 
handsome old monastery-court, by Oiuliano da Sangallo, planted 
with orange-trees , is embellished with a fountain by Antonio da 
Sangallo. (Entrance by No. 5, to the right of the church.) — Op- 
posite the facade of the church is the Collegium Maroniticum, with 
an old tower commanding a fine view. 

Proceeding to the left , and then , where the street divides", to 
the left again, we reach the Thermae of Titus (p. 237) in 5 minutes. 
— The street in a straight direction descends to the Basilica of Con- 
stantine (p. 232), which is conveniently visited after the church 
of S. Pietro. To the right of S. Pietro in Vincoli is the church 
of S. Francesco di Paola, with a monastery, now the B. Istituto 

III. Home on the Tiber (Left Bank). 

That part of the city which extends to the W. from the Corso as 
far as the river was uninhabited in the most ancient times [Campus 
Martius), but was gradually covered with buildings as Rome ex- 
tended her sway, and as far back as the Republic, but more parti- 
cularly in the reign of Augustus, it became the site of many palatial 
edifices, and the new town of ancient Rome. This quarter, which 
is now densely peopled, and was till quite lately in the main med- 
iaeval in character, consists of a network of narrow and dirty streets 
and lanes , enlivened by the busy traffic of the lower classes , and 
containing many highly interesting churches and palaces of the 
middle ages and the Renaissance. The present government has 
undertaken the task of improving this quarter by the construction 
of new and broad streets. The following description begins with 
the N. side. 

From the Piazza del Popolo the broad Via di Ripbtta (PI. I, 
15, 14), with its prolongation the Via della Scrofa, leads to the S. 
in 16 min. to S. Luigi de' Francesi and the Piazza Navona (Circo 

184 III. Left Bank. ROME. Mausoleum of Augustus 

Agonale). On the right, 4 min. from the Piazza del Popolo, is a 
modern building with a central paTt in the shape of a horseshoe (11 
Ferro di Cavallo), erected by Gregory XVI., and now containing 
the Direzione Centrale del Lotto, and studios belonging to the Acca- 
demia di Belle Arti, or di S. Luca (p. 238). 

In the Via de' Pontefici, a cross-street to the left, is the entrance 
(No. 57; on the right) to the Mausoleum of Augustus (PI. I, 17), 
erected by that emperor as a burial-place for himself and his family, 
and in which most of his successors down to Nerva were interred. 
On a huge substructure , which contained the mortuary chambers, 
arose a mound of earth in the form of terraces , embellished with 
cypresses, surmounted by a statue of the emperor, and environed 
with a park. In the middle ages it was converted into a fortress by 
the Colonnas ; and a theatre (Anfiteatro Umberto I.) is now fitted up 
within its precincts. A few of the tomb-chambers are still preserved. 
Fee l ji fr. Generally closed at midday. 

To the left in the Via di Ripetta we next reach the church of 
.5. Rocco (PL I, 14) , erected in 1657 by De Bossi , with a facade 
added by Valadier in 1834. Immediately beyond it , on the right, 
is the Harbour of the Ripetta, constructed by Clement XI. in 1707; 
the picturesque curving flights of steps (built in 1704 with stones 
from the Colosseum) have lost greatly in effect from the construction 
of the Ponte di Ripetta, a new iron bridge leading to the Prati di 
Castello (p. 275). To the left is the end of the Palazzo Borghese 
(see below). 

A little farther on , the street takes the name of Via dblla 
Scrofa (PI. I, 3 ; II, 3), which it retains as far as the Piazza of 
S. Luigi de' Francesi (see pp. 189 et seq.). 

The Via della Scrofa is soon intersected (about 9 min. from the 
Piazza del Popolo) by an important street, the Via dblla Fonta- 
nblla (PI. I, 16), which diverges from the Corso opposite the Via 
Condotti. At the Via della Scrofa it assumes the name of Via del 
Clementino , beyond which it is continued , as the Via di Monte 
Brianzo and the Via Tordinona, to the Ponte S. Angelo. The church 
of S. Trinita de' Monti (p. 149) is visible the greater part of the way, 
forming the termination of the street. In the Piazza Nicosia , ad- 
joining the Via del Clementino , is the new Palazzo Oalitzin (PL I, 
13, 13), an imitation of the Pal. Giraud (p. 276). In the Via Tor- 
dinona the houses on the river-side have recently been levelled 
with the ground. A spacious quay named the Lungo Tevere, and 
a new bridge named the Ponte Umberto are in progress. 

Turning to the left from the Via della Scrofa into the Via della 
Fontanella, we Teach the Piazza Borghese, with the celebrated — 

*Palazzo Borghese (PL I, 16), begun by order of Card. Deza 

Palazzo Borghese. ROME. III. Left Bank, lbo 

in 1590 by the architect Mart. Lunghi the Elder, and completed by 
Flaminio Ponzio by order of Paul V., through whom it came into 
the possession of the Borghese family. The principal facade is 
towards the Via della Fontanella ; the more imposing lateral facade 
is towards the Piazza Borghese. On the ground-floor and first floor 
the *Court is surrounded by arcades resting on clustered granite 
columns (permessi for the Gallery obtained to the left). Below 
these are three ancient colossal statues (a Muse , an Apollo Musa- 
getes, and a portrait-statue) ; and at the end of the right passage 
a fragment of the statue of an Amazon. Behind lies the small 
garden, containing three rococo fountains by Rainaldi, and some 
trifling antiquities. In the centre of the left side of the arcades is 
the entrance to the **Galleria Borghese (admission, see p. 122; 
catalogues for the use of visitors) , hitherto the most important in 
Rome next to that of the Vatican, but much weakened in 1888 by 
the removal of several of its greatest treasures. Other changes may 
be expected. The following account refers to the collection as it 
was in summer, 1889. — Among the works which have been removed 
were several paintings of the Older School, but the 15th century, 
through the gallery was founded at a time when the works of that 
period were not generally appreciated , is still better represented 
here than in the other private galleries of Rome. Among these 
are an admirable Holy Family ascribed to Lorenzo di Credi (Room I, 
No. 54) and two good specimens of the Milanese School of Leo- 
nardo da Vinci (Christ imparting his blessing, a small work by 
Marco d'Oggionno, I. Room, No. 33; Christ bearing his Cross, by 
Solario, II. Room, No. 42). 

Among the works ascribed to Raphael the Entombment (II. 
Room, No. 38) alone is authentic. The picture is not well pre- 
served, and is perhaps not entirely by Raphael's own hand. The 
impression produced by it is disappointing, the composition seems 
too studied, and the colouring cold (p. liii). The predelle belong- 
ing to it are in the Vatican (p. 301). The Fornarina (II. Room, 
No. 65), the Madonna d'Alba (II, 39), Pope Julius II. (II, 18), 
and others ascribed to Raphael are copies; the unknown Cardinal 
(II, 21) is by a somewhat later Florentine master , who for the 
colouring of the gown has used a different kind of red from Ra- 
phael. It is quite as improbable that the so-called Portrait of 
Cesare Borgia (II, 26) was executed by Raphael. Cesare Borgia 
died in 1507, whereas the costume of the portrait is in the style 
of the middle of that century. The painter of this unknown per- 
sonage was perhaps Angela Bronzino. The IX. Room contains 
several Frescoes transferred hither from the Villa of Raphael, and 
ascribed to that master; but they are unlike his workmanship, both 
in composition and execution. 

The School of Feeeara of the 16th cent, is copiously and 
well represented. A fine example of Mazzolini's richness of colour- 

186 III. Left Bank. ROME. Palazzo Borghese. 

ing is his Adoration of the Magi (II, 59). Dosso Dossi's Circe 
(III, 11) conducts us into a world of fancy, similar to that depicted 
by Ariosto in his Orlando. Lastly there are several excellent works 
by Oarofalo, the Raphael of Ferrara (II, 9 : Descent from the Cross). 

The CoiOTJEisTs of the XVI. Cent, will not fail to attract the 
visitor. To Sodoma the gallery is indebted for a Pieta (I, 7) and 
a Holy Family (II, 44), in which the head of the Madonna is radiant 
with beauty. At a comparatively recent period (1824) an important 
work by Correggio was secured for the gallery. It represents Danae 
with Cupids sharpening their arrows (III, 40). The figure of Danae 
is rather graceful than strictly beautiful, but the Cupids are very 
charming, and the chiaroscuro masterly. ■ — A whole room is de- 
voted to the Venetian School. Titian's so-called Earthly and 
Heavenly Love (X, 21) is one of those creations which produces 
an indelible impression on the beholder. The picture rivets the 
attention like a poetical dream, and after the eye has feasted on the 
charms of the colouring the composition still captivates the imagi- 
nation. The Arming of Cupid (X, 2) is one of the finest mytho- 
logical works by the same master. Bonifacio is another master who 
supplies us with examples of the richness of colouring of the Ve- 
netian School (XI, 16, being the finest). Giorgione , on the other 
hand, is not fairly represented by the only specimen of his handi- 
work which the gallery possesses (X, 13). 

As it is generally the case in the Roman galleries, the painters 
of the later revival of art, the adherents of the Carracci and the 
Naturalists, figure very numerously here. Domenichino' s Diana 
(V, 15) contains a number of nymphs with lifelike heads, and 
an excellent background of landscape ; and Albani's Elements (V, 
11-14) are superb decorative pictures. On the other hand, the 
works of Caravaggio , the chief of the naturalists (V, 26) , are re- 
pulsive. The pictures by German and Netherlandish masters in 
the XII. Room are unimportant. — The apartments are artistically 

I. Room. *Decorations in grisaille and gold , by Carlo Villani. 
Left: *1. Sandro Botticelli, Madonna; 2. Sodoma, Pieta, unfor- 
tunately darkened by age; 3, 5, 6, 7. Pinturicchio (?), History of 
Joseph, panel-pictures such as were used in Florence for the doors 
of cupboards, the lids and sides of 'cassoni', etc. ; 8. Luini (a copy), 
Vanita; *13. Solaria (?), Ecce Homo; *25. School of Leonardo, 
Madonna; 16. Piero di Cosimo, Madonna with the Child, St. John, 
and angels; lS.Perugino, St. Sebastian; 19. Sodoma (J), Leda 
and the swan , an excellent copy of a celebrated picture by Leo- 
nardo; 21. Mazzolino, Madonna; 24. Portrait of Petrarch; 32. 
Luini (a copy), St. Agatha; *33. Marco da Oggionno , Youthful 
Christ; 34. Perugino, Madonna (a copy), *35. Ridolfo Ohirlandajo 
(according to Passavant , by Timoteo della Vite), Portrait of a boy, 
erroneously called a portrait of Raphael by himself; 42. * Andrea 

Palazzo Borghese ROME. III. Left Bank. 187 

Solario , Christ hearing the Cross ; 43. Fr. Francia (?), Madonna ; 
*53. Ant. Pollajuolo, The Nativity; *54. Lorenzo di Credi (?), 
Holy Family, a work of the highest rank; 55. Fr. Francia (?), St. 
Anthony ; 57. Fr. Francia, Madonna ; 67. Oarofalo (?), Adoration of 
the Child. 

II. Room. 6. Qarofalo , Madonna with St. Joseph and St. 
Michael; *9. Qarofalo, Christ mourned over hy his friends; 18. 
Raphael, Portrait of Julius II., an admirable copy; 19. Perugino 
Portrait of a woman (copy); *21. Raphael (?), Portrait of a car- 
dinal; 22. Copy after Raphael , John in the wilderness; *26. Ra- 
phael (?), Portrait of Caesar Borgia (?) ; 29. Giulio Romano (? more 
likely Bald. Peruzzi) , "Venus ; 30. (?) Portrait of a woman ; 34. 
Andrea del Sarto (?), Madonna; *38. Raphael, Entombment (1507), 
his last work before going to Rome , ordered by Atalanta Baglioni 
for her chapel in S. Francesco de' Conventuali at Perugia (p. 53), 
afterwards purchased by Paul V. ; 39. Raphael, Madonna di Casa 
dAlba , an old copy ; 40. Fra Bartolommeo , Holy Family ; *44. 
Sodoma, Holy Family ; 53. Raphael (?), Portrait of Perugino ; *54. 
Antonello da Messina , Portrait; 55, 56, Oarofalo, Madonna and 
saints ; 59. Mazzolini, Adoration of the Magi ; 60. Qarofalo, Ma- 
donna ; *65. Portrait of the so-called Fornarina , a good copy of 
Raphael's original in the Pal. Barberini (p. 171), perhaps by Sasso- 

III. Room. 1. Qarofalo, Madonna; *11. Dosso Dossi, The 
Sorceress Circe; 13. Solario (?), Mater Dolorosa; 14. Sofonisba 
Anguissola, Portrait of a woman; 22. School of Raphael, Holy 
Family ; 24. Andrea del Sarto (?), Madonna with angels ; *28. Ma- 
donna with the Child and St. John, by the same (?); 35. Andr. 
del Sarto (?), Venus with two Cupids ; *40. Correggio , Danae, one 
of his finest easel-pieces; 41. Luca Cambiasi, Venus and Cupid 
on dolphins (unfinished); 42. Bronzino (?), Portrait of Cosimo de' 
Medici ; 46. Mary Magdalene, after Correggio's original at Dresden ; 
47. Ann. Carracci, St. Francis ; *48. Sebast. del Piombo, Scourging 
of Christ (the same piece is in S. Pietro in Montorio as a fresco, 
p. 328); 49. And. del Sarto (?), Mary Magdalene. 

IV. Room. *2. Domenichino, Cumsean Sibyl ; 4. Lod. Carracci, 
Head; 10. Cav. d'Arpino, Rape of Europa; 14. Sch. of the Carracci, 
Entombment; *15. Quido Cagnacci , Sibyl; 21. Ag. Carracci, 
Entombment ; 33. Luca Giordano , Martyrdom of St. Ignatius ; 
Carlo Bold, 36. Madonna, 37. Mater Dolorosa, 34. Head of Christ ; 
38. Sassoferrato, Madonna. 

V. Room. *11, 12, 13, 14. Francesco Albani , The Four Ele- 
ment, landscapes with mythological accessories ; *15. Domenichino, 
Diana and her Nymphs practising with their bows ; 25. Fed. 
Zuccaro, Christ bewailed by angels; 26. Caravaggio, Madonna with 
St. Anna and the Child Jesus; 27. Varotari (il Padovanino), 
Venus ; 28. Cav. d'Arpino, Battle. 

188 III. Left Bank. ROME. Palazzo Borghese. 

VI. Room. 1. Valentin, Return of the Prodigal Son ; *3. Andrea 
Sacchi, Orazio Giustiniani ; 5. Guercino, Return of the Prodigal; 
7. Pietro da Cortona, Giuseppe Ghislieri; 8, 10. Caravaggio, 
David; 11. Baroccio , Flight of .(Eneas from Troy; *13. Titian, 
Three perioils of life, a copy by Sassoferrato (original in London); 
IS. Sassoferrato, Madonna; 24, 25. Landscapes in the style of 
Poussin ; 36. Caravaggio, Boy with fruit. 

VII. Room. The lower part of the wall is adorned with mirrors, 
on which Cupids (by Ciroferri) and garlands (by Mario de' Fiori) 
are painted. Above, in small niches, are 16 ancient portrait-busts, 
some freely restored. In the centre is a table of mosaic composed 
of stones some of which are extremely rare. 

VIII. Room, containing a number of small objects of art. 13. 
Marcello Provenzale , Madonna; 6"\ P. Bril (?), Orpheus with the 
animals in a landscape; 73. Vanni, The Graces; *75. Female head, 
a silver-point drawing of the School of Leonardo ; *83. View of 
the Villa Borghese in the 17th century. — To the left a passage 
adorned with landscape-frescoes leads to the — 

IX. Room. Three *Frescoes (under glass) from the so-called 
Villa of Raphael, which formerly stood within the grounds of the 
Villa Borghese, and was removed in 1849 (p. 334): 1. Marriage 
of Alexander and Roxana, from a drawing in the Albertina in 
Vienna, which bears the name of Raphael; 2. Nuptials of Vertum- 
nus and Pomona, of inferior value; 3. The so-called 'Bersaglio 
de' Dei' (shooting contest of the gods), from a drawing in the Brera 
at Milan ascribed by Raphael to Mich. Angelo ; this obscure com- 
position is perhaps borrowed from Lucian (Nigrinus , C. 36). All 
three were probably executed by Raphael's pupils. — Returning to 
the mirror-room, and leaving it by the door to the left in the oppo- 
site wall, we enter the — 

X. Room. Opposite the entrance: 1. Moroni, Portrait; *2. Ti- 
tian, Cupid equipped by Venus and the Graces (c. 1560); 4. Sch. 
of Titian, or of Oiorgione, Judith, said to have the features of 
Titian's wife; 6. Sch. of Ferrara, Cupid and Psyche ; *9. Lor. Lotto 
Portrait; 13. Oiorgione (or school of Ferrara?), David with the 
head of Goliath; 14. Paolo Veronese, John the Baptist preaching 
repentance; *16. Titian, St. Dominic; 20. Paolo Veronese, Venus 
with satyr and amoretti. — **21. Titian, 'Amor sagro e profano' 
or rather 'Artless and Sated Love', one of Titian's greatest works, 
representing a favourite allegory of 16th cent, painters ; to the right 
is the charming figure of Artless Love, to the left Sated Love (see 
also p. 186). — 22. Leonello Spada, Concert ; 26. School of Palma 
Vecchio, Portrait; 30. Leandro Bassano , The Trinity; *36. Giov. 
Bellini (?), Madonna, an early work. 

XL Room. 2. Paolo Veronese (?), St. Anthony about to preach 
to the fishes; 5. Palma Vecchio, Lucretia; 14. Andr. Schiavone, 
Last Supper; 15. Bonifacio Junr., Christ among his disciples; 

S. Agostino. ROME. III. Left Bank. 189 

*16. Bonifacio, Return of the Prodigal ; 17. Titian, Samson (re- 
touched); 18. Bonifacio, Christ and the adulteress; 19. Palma 
Vecchio (?), Madonna ; *3'2. Palma Vecchio, Holy Family ; 33. Por- 
denone, Family-portraits. 

XII. Room. Dutch and German masters. 1. VanDyckf?), Cruci- 
fixion ; *7. Entomhment , by the same (?) ; 8. D. Teniers, Genre 
picture; 9. A. Brouwer (?), Genre picture ; 10. Dutch School (Pieter 
Codde) , Soldiers; 11. Le Due , Conversation-piece; lb. Brabant 
Sch. , Mary's visit to. Elizabeth ; 17. Oherardo delta Notte (Hont- 
horst), Lot and his daughters; 25. Durer (?) , Portrait (said to be 
of Duke Louis VI. of Bavaria); 27. VanDyckf?), Portrait; 44. 
Lucas Cranach, Venus and Cupid. 

Among the pictures formerly in the Gallery, which have now been 
removed to the Prince's private rooms, the following may be mentioned: 
Al. Allori, Risen Clirist; several portraits by Giov. Bellini; Lor. di Credi, 
Madonna with the flower-glass; Fr. Francia, St. Stephen; Guercino, Fe- 
male half-figure, and a Mater Dolorosa; Ouido Reni, St. Joseph; Scliool of 
Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna; Lor. Lotto, Madonna with SS. Onuphrius 
and Augustine; Perugino, Portrait of himself ; Ribera, St. Stanislaus with 
the Child Jesus ; Oiulio Romano and his scholars, frescoes from the Villa 
Lante; Sassoferralo, Madonna; Titian, Portrait of himself. 

Following the Via della Scrofa (p. 184) from the Palazzo 
Borghese and after 5 min. taking the fourth cross-street to the 
right (in front, straight on, is S. Luigi de' Francesi, p. 193), we 
reach the Piazza di S. Agostino. 

*S. Agostino (PL I, 13), erected by Baccio PintelliQf) in 1483 
by order of Card. d'Estouteville, the protector of the Augustinians, 
on the site of an old oratorium, was the first Roman church with 
a dome. The facade and the spacious flight of steps are said to have 
been constructed of stones from the Colosseum. The interior, in 
the form of a Latin cross, was restored in 1750 , and again in 
1860, when it was adorned with frescoes by Oagliardi. 

Interior. On the entrance-wall a "Bladonna and Child, in marble, 
by Jacopo Tatti, surnamed Jac. Sansovino after his master Andrea Sanso- 
vino, surrounded by numerous votive offerings. In the 1st Chapel on the 
right, St. Catharine by Venusli; in the 2nd, Nucci's free copy of the lost 
Madonna della Eosa of Raphael ; in the 4th, * Christ delivering the keys to 
Peter, a group by Cotignola. By the 5th Chapel is the monument (the second 
to the left) of the learned Onofrio Panvinio (d. 1568). Adjoining the door 
of the sacristy is the monument of the learned Cardinal Noris. — The 
Right Transept contains the chapel of St. Augustine with an altar-piece 
by Guercino: St. Augustine between John the Baptist and Paul the Hermit. 

The High Altar was decorated by Bernini; the image of the Madonna is 
said to have been painted by St. Luke, and brought from the church of St. 
Sophia at Constantinople. In the chapel on the left of this are preserved 
the remains of St. Monica, mother of Augustine; altar-piece by Gotlardi. 

The 2nd Chapel in the Left Aisle contains a "Group in marble (St. Anna, 
Mary, and Jesus) by Andrea Sansovino (1512). In the 4th , St. Apollonia, 
altar-piece by Muziano. In the Nave, on the 3rd pillar to the left, "Raphael's 
Prophet Isaiah, holding a scroll with the words from Is. xxvi, 2, painted 
in 1512, but unfortunately retouched by Dan. da Vollerra, and now much 
injured. In the execution of this work the great master is said to have 
been influenced by that of M. Angelo in the Sistine Chapel. 

To the right of the church is the entrance to the Biblioteca 

190 III. Left Bank. ROME. Palazzo Lancelotti. 

Angelica, consisting of upwards of 100,000 vols, and 2945 MS S., 
(adm., see p. 116). 

Proceeding from the Piazza S. Agostino straight through the 
archway, we reach the Piazza S. Apollinahe (PI. I, 13), in which 
are situated the Seminario Romano, a kind of grammar-school, and 
S. Apollinare, an old church, rebuilt in 1552 and 1750, and owing 
its present form to Fuga. To the left, over the altar in the inner 
vestibule, is a Madonna by Perugino (?). — Opposite the church is 
the Pal. Altemps, of the 16th cent., completed by the elder Lunghi, 
possessing a handsome double court with arcades, the lateral colon- 
nades of which are built up, and containing a few ancient statues. 

From the Piazza S. Apollinare the Via Agonale leads to the S. 
to the Piazza Navona (see below). In a straight direction we reach 
the Piazza di Tor Sanguigna , whence the narrow Via de' Coronari 
and the Via di Panlco lead to the (10 min.) Ponte San Angelo. 

The Via delta Maschera d'Oro , No. 7 in which is adorned with 
a frieze with paintings from the myth of Niobe by Polidoro da Cara- 
vaggio (much damaged), leads to the Palazzo Lancelotti (PI. 1, 
13, 2), erected under Sixtus V. by F. da Volterra, and completed 
by C. Maderna, with a portal by Domenichino. The court contains 
ancient statues and reliefs. In the private apartments of Prince 
Lancelotti, shown by special permission only, stands the celebrated 
**Discus Thrower, found on the Esquiline in 1761 , a marble copy 
of the bronze statue by Myron (p. 305). 

The * Piazza Navona (PI. II, 13), now officially named Circo 
Agonale, occupies, as its form still indicates, the Circus or Stadium 
of Domitian. The name 'Navona', which was used in the middle 
ages, is said to be derived from the agones , or contests which took 
place in the circus. It is embellished with three Fountains. That 
on the N. side, by Leon, della Bitta and Greg. Zappola, erected in 
1878, represents Neptune in conflict with a sea-monster (polypus); 
round the central group are Nereids and sea-horses. Not far from 
it , in the centre of a large ancient basin of Pentelic marble, rises a 
fountain erected by Bernini under Innocent X.; at the corners of the 
lofty mass of rock, the different parts of which represent the four 
quarters of the globe, are placed the gods of the four largest rivers, 
the Danube , Ganges, Nile, and Rio della Plata, executed by pupils 
of Bernini. The whole is surmounted by an obelisk, which was ori- 
ginally erected in honour of Domitian in the Circus of Maxentius 
(p. 352). The third fountain, at the S. end of the piazza, is adorned 
with masks, Tritons, and the statue of a Moor by Bernini. 

On the W. side of the Piazza Navona stands the church of 
S. Agnese ; the interior, in the form of a Greek cross , and the 
campanili, are by C. Rinaldi, and the tasteless facade by Borromini. 
The Romans used to maintain that the Nile on the great fountain 
veiled his head in order to avoid seeing this facade. 

8. Maria dell' Anima. ROME. ///. Left Bank. 19 i 

Over the principal door is the monument of Innocent X. by Maini; 
to the left, in the chapel of the transept, is a statue of St. Sebastian, adapted 
from an ancient statue by Maini. Beneath the dome are 8 columns of 'cot- 
tanello'. The old church was in the side-vaults of the Circus where the 
saint suffered martyrdom. Two subterranean chapels with ancient vaulting 
still remain , one of them containing a good relief of the Martyrdom oi 
St. Agnes by Algardi (descent by a stair). 

To the left of the church is the Palazzo Pamphllj, also erected 
by Rinaldi, now the property of Prince Doria. Opposite to it is the 
national church of the Spaniards, S. Oiacomo degli Spagnuoli (PI. II, 
13, 23), erected in 1450, and recently restored. 

On the S. side of the piazza is the Pal. Braschi, with the Pas- 
quino (see p. 201). A little to the E. lie the Pal. Madama and 
the Pantheon (pp. 192, 193). 

The Via di 8. Agnese, to the right of the church, leads to the 
Via deW Anima on the right, where on the left side is situated *S. 
Maria dell' Anima (PI. II, 13 ; open till 87 2 a.m., on holidays till 
noon ; when closed, visitors go round the church by the Vicolo della 
Pace on the right, and ring at the door of the Hospice, opposite 
S. Maria della Pace). The name is derived from a small marble- 
group in the tympanum of the portal : a Madonna invoked by two 
souls in purgatory. This is the German national church and was 
erected in 1500-14. Handsome facade by Giuliano da Sangallo. 
Part of the interior is said to have been designed by Bramante. 

The Interior has lately been thoroughly restored. The central window 
of the entrance- wall formerly contained stained glass by William of Marseilles, 
now modern. The modern frescoes of saints on the ceiling are by L. Seitz 
(1875-82), and the stained-glass window over the chief portal was designed 
by Mm. — Right Aisle. 1st Chapel : "St. Benno receiving from a fisherman the 
keys of the cathedral at Meissen (Saxony), which had been recovered from 
the stomach of a fish, altar-piece by Carlo Saraceni. 2nd Chapel : Holy Fam- 
ily, altar-piece by Gimignani; left, monument and bust of Card. Slusius. 
4th Chapel: altered copy of Michael Angelo's Pieta in St. Peter's, by Nanni 
di Baccio Bigio. — Left Aisle. 1st Chapel : "Martyrdom of St. Lambert, 
C. Saraceni. 3rd Chapel : frescoes from the life of St. Barbara, Mich. Coxcie. 
4th Chapel: altar-piece (Entombment) and frescoes by Salviati. 

Choik. Over the high-altar , *Holy Family with saints , by 67. Romano, 
damaged by inundations; on the right, ''Monument of Hadrian VI. of Utrecht 
(preceptor of Charles V., d.1523), with figures of justice, prudence, strength, 
and temperance, designed by Baldassare Peruzzi , executed by Michelangiolo 
Sanese and Niccolb Tribolo; opposite to it, that of a Duke of Cleve-Jiilich- 
Berg (d. 1575) by Egidius of Riviere and Mcolaus of Arras. A relief in the 
ante-chamber of the sacristy (at the end of the N. aisle) represents the in- 
vestiture of this prince by Gregory XIII. In the church, at the entrance 
to the sacristy, is the tomb of the learned Lucas llolstein of Hamburg, 
librarian of the Vatican (d. 1G61). 

The German Hospice connected with the church was under 
Austrian management from 1815 to 1863. Opposite the hospital 
rises the church of — 

*S. Maria della Pace (PI. II, I, 13, 3), erected by Sixtus IV. 
(1484) and Innocent VIII., restored by Alexander VII., and pro- 
vided by Pietro da Cortona with a facade and semicircular portico, 
The church consists of a domed octagon, with a short nave, 

192 111. Left Bank. HOME. 8. Maria della Pace. 

Over the 1st Chapel on the right are **RaphaeVs Sibyls : to 
the left the Sibyl of Cumae ; on the arch above, the Persian ; then 
the Phrygian , and the aged Sibyl of Tibur , receiving from angels 
and recording revelations regarding the Saviour. They were painted 
in 1514 by order of Agostino Ohigi, -who erected the chapel, and 
skilfully freed from 'restorations' by Palmaroli in 1816 (best light, 
10-11 a.m. ; see also p. lvi). 

'With perfect mastery of the art of utilising the space at his com- 
mand, a talent admirably illustrated in the Stanze, Raphael has here filled 
up the segment of the arch so simply and naturally that the spectator is 
apt to overlook the consummate sinfulness of the grouping. Equally 
characteristic of Raphael are the rhythm of the composition, the display 
of spirited contrasts, and the delicate gradations and judicious denoue- 
ment of passionate emotions ; while the gracefulness of the female forms 
and the sprightly beauty of the angel-boys are specially Raphaelesque. 
Michael Angelo's Sibyls are justly extolled as creations of a sublime 
imagination, striking the spectator with their supernatural majesty; but 
these female figures of Raphael are pre-eminently human and lovable'. 

In the lunette above the Sibyls are the Prophets by Timoteo Viti 
(p. 97) : on the right Jonah and Joshua, on the left Daniel and David. 

At the sides of the 1st Chapel on the left are *Monuments of 
the Ponzetti family, of 1505 and 1509 (which should be compared 
with the heavy decorations of the 2nd chapel on the right, executed 
half-a-century later). *Altar-piece in fresco by Bald. Peruzzi : 
Madonna between St. Brigitta and St. Catharine, in front the donor 
Card. Ponzetti kneeling (1516). The vaulting above contains scenes 
from the Old and New Testament , in three rows , also by Peruzzi. 
— To the left, under the Dome, is the entrance to the sacristy and 
court (see below). Over the first altar on the left, Adoration of the 
Shepherds, by Sermoneta; above it, the Death of Mary , by Mo- 
randa. The second altar, with handsome marble-work, partly 
gilded, is of 1490. The high-altar is adorned with an ancient and 
highly revered Madonna ; on the vaulting are pleasing 'putti' by 
Albani. Over the adjacent altar to the right, Baptism of Christ, by 
Sermoneta. Over the niche , Mary's first visit to the Temple , by 
Bald. Peruzzi (retouched). — Newly-married couples usually at- 
tend their first mass in this church. 

The *Monastery Coukt, constructed by Bramanle (p. li) by 
order of Card. Caraffa in 1504, is interesting. On the ground-floor 
are arcades , above which runs a series of columns. By the right 
wall, the tomb of Bishop Boccaccio (d. 1437). Entrance through the 
church, or by Via Arco della Pace 5. 

From the portal of the church the Via della Pace and the Via in 
Parione lead straight to the busy Via del Qovemo Vecchio (p. 201). 

The Via del Salvatore leads to the E. from the Piazza Navona 
to the Piazza Madama, where, in front of us, rises the facade of 
the Palazzo Madama (PL II, 13), so called from Margaret of Parma, 
daughter of Charles V., by whom it was once occupied. Previously 
and subsequently it belonged to the Medicis, afterwards grand-dukes 

8. Luigi de' Francesi. ROME. HI. Left Bank. 193 

of Tuscany, by whose orders Marocelli altered it to its present form 
in 1642. The Italian Senate now meets in this palace. One en- 
trance is from the Piazza S. Luigi, the other from the Piazza Madama. 
The vestibule, court, and staircase contain antique statues, sarco- 
phagi, reliefs, and busts. The large hall was adorned by Maccari in 
1888 with frescoes representing Appius Claudius Caecus, Regulus, 
Cicero, and Catiline. 

Passing the left side of the palace (to the right to the Piazza S. 
Eustachio, p. 197), we reach the Piazza di S. Luigi de' Francesi, 
to the right in which rises S. Luigi de' Francesi (PI. II, 13), the 
national church of the French , consecrated in 1589, having been 
built on the site of several earlier churches. Facade by Oiac. della 
Porta. It is one of the best buildings of its period, and the interior 
also is judiciously decorated. Some of the pictures are badly lighted. 

Eight Aisle. 1st Chapel : St. John, altar-piece by G. B. Naldini. On the 
opposite pillar is a monument to French soldiers who fell at the siege of 
Rome in 1849. 2nd Chapel: "Frescoes from the life of St. Cecilia, one of the 
most admirable works of Domenichino (p. lix) ; on the right the saint distributes 
clothing to the poor ; in the lunette above, she and her betrothed are crowned 
by an angel ; on the left the saint suffers martyrdom with the blessing of 
the Pope; above, she is urged to participate in a heathen sacrifice; on the 
ceiling, admission of the saint into heaven; altar-piece, a copy of Raphael's 
St. Cecilia (in Bologna) by Guido Reni. 4th Chapel, of St. Remigius: altar- 
piece, the Oath of Clovis,by Oiac. del Conte; frescoes on the right, Campaign 
of Clovis, by Girol. Sicciolanle (da Sermoneta) ; on the left, Baptism of Clovis, 
by Pellegrino da Bologna. 5th Chapel, del Crocifisso: on the left the monument 
of the painter Guerin (d. 1833), on the right that of Agincourt (d. 1814), the 
writer on art. — Over the high-altar : "Assumption, by Franc. Bassano. 

Left Aisle. 1st Chapel: St. Sebastian, altar-piece by Massei; on the right 
and left modern frescoes ; by the first pillar on the right the monument of 
Claude Lorrain, erected in 1836. 3rd Chapel, of St. Louis: altar-piece by 
Plautilla Bricci, who is said to have designed the architecture also ; picture 
on the left by Gimignani. 5th Chapel, of St. Matthew : altar-piece and pic- 
tures on the right and left by Caravaggio, on the left the Evangelist's 
vocation to the apostleship, on the right his death. 

From the Piazza S. Luigi to the N. to the Via della Scrofa and 
S. Agostino, s&e p. 189. In a straight direction we proceed through 
the Via Oiustiniani to the Piazza del Pantheon (PL II, 16). Above 
the large Fountain, erected by Lunghi under Gregory XIII., was 
placed the upper end of a broken obelisk by order of Clement XI. 
This piazza generally presents a busy scene (comp. p. 122). 

On the S. side of the piazza rises the church of S. Maria Rotonda, 
or the **Pantheon, the only ancient edifice at Rome which is still 
in perfect preservation as regards the walls and the vaulting. 
The original statues and architectural decorations have long since 
been replaced by modern and inferior works, but the huge circular 
structure with its vast colonnade still presents a strikingly imposing 
appearance. The walls , constructed of admirable brickwork, 20 ft. 
in thickness, were originally covered with marble and stucco. The 
ground in the environs has gradually been so much raised that the 
pavement of the temple, to which five steps formerly ascended, now 
lies below the level of the piazza. Excavations made in 1875 in 

Baedeker. Italy II. 10th Edition. 13 

194 III. Left Batik. ROME. Pantheon. 

front of the edifice , which led to the discovery of two fine marble 
reliefs, have been filled up again as they interfered with the street 

The Portico (36 yds. wide, 14 yds. deep) is borne by 16 
Corinthian columns of granite, 13 ft. in circumference, and 39 
ft. in height ; the tympanum formerly contained reliefs, and the 
roof was embellished by statues. Eight of the columns are in front; 
the others form three colonnades , originally vaulted over , termi- 
nating in niches, in which stood the colossal statues of Augustus and 
his son-in-law M. Agrippa. The latter, according to the inscription 
on the frieze (M. Agrippa L. F. Cos. tertium fecit) , caused the edi- 
fice to be erected B.C. 27. Pope Urban VIII. (Barberini) removed 
the brazen tubes on which the roof rested, and caused them to be 
converted into columns for the canopy of the high-altar of St. Peter's 
and cannons for the defence of the castle of S. Angelo. This Van- 
dalism gave rise to the epigram of Pasquin , 'Quod non fecerunt 
barbari, fecerunt Barberini . The two campanili, the 'ass's ears', as 
they were derisively termed, erected by Bernini under the same 
pope, were removed in 1883. — The central colonnade leads to the 
Entrance, with its ancient door strongly secured by bronze plates, 
in order to diminish the weight of which the upper portion is re- 
placed by a railing. 

The Interior, lighted by a single aperture in the centre of the 
dome, produces so beautiful an effect that it was currently believed 
at an early period that the temple derived the name of Pantheon, 
which was applied to it as early as A.D. 59, from its resemblance to 
the vault of heaven (comp. p. xxxvi). The height and diameter of 
the dome are equal, being each 140 ft. The diameter of the open- 
ing is 30 ft. The surface of the walls is broken by 7 large niches, 
in which stood the statues of the gods, including, as has been ascer- 
tained, those of MaTs, Venus, and Caesar. The architrave is borne 
by fluted columns of giallo antico or pavonazzetto in couples, the 
shafts being 26 ft. in height. Above the latter, and corresponding 
with the niches, formerly rose a series of round arches, borne by 
Caryatides, but they appeaT to have been removed during a very 
early restoration of the edifice. The white marble, porphyry, and 
serpentine decorations of the Attica or Attic story remained in part 
till 1747 , when they were barbarously covered with whitewash. 
The coffered ceiling of the vault, which consists of concrete, was 
decorated with gold-leaf, and the whole roof was covered with gilded 
bronze tiles, which the Emp. Constans II. removed to Constanti- 
nople in 655. Under Gregory III. these tiles were replaced by lead. The 
building has frequently been restored, as, for example, by Domitian, 
Trajan, Septimius Severus, and Caracalla. The names of the last 
two are recorded by an inscription on the architrave of the portico. 

In 609 the Pantheon was consecrated by Pope Boniface IV. as a 
Christian church, under the name of 8. Maria ad Martyres (p. 358), 

Pantheon. ROME. III. Left Bank. 195 

and in commemoration of the event the festival of All Saints was 
instituted (13th May, hut afterwards celehrated on 1st Nov.). A 
palace , a cathedral-chapter , and a cardinal's title were afterwards 
attached to the church, which is generally known as S. Maria 
Rotonda, or La Rotonda. 

In the second recess to the right of the high-altar is the hurial vault 
of King Vietor Emmanuel II. (d. Jan. 9, 1878). In the first Chapel to the left 
of the high-altar stands the simple monument of Card. Consalvi (buried in 
S. Marcello, p. 157), by Thorvaldsen. 

To the left of the 3rd altar is Raphael's Tomb (b. 6th Apr., 1483; d. 6th 
Apr., 1520). On the wall is the graceful epigram composed by Card. Bembo: — 
Ille hie est Raphael, timuit quo sospile vinci 
Rerum magna parens, et moriente mori. 
The Italian translation runs thus : — 

'Questi e quel Raffaele, cui vivo vinta 
Esser temea Natura, e morto estinta\ 

A lengthy inscription beside it announces that Raphael's remains were 
placed in a new sarcophagus in 1833. The statue of the Madonna on the 
altar, by Lorenzetto, was executed in accordance with Raphael's last will. 

The Pantheon is also the last resting-place of Ann. Carracci , Taddeo 
Zucchero, Bald. Peruzzi, Perino del Vaga, Giov. da Udine, and other 
celebrated artists. The altars and recesses are adorned with paintings 
and sculptures of the 18th century. 

A visit to the interior by ■moonlight is recommended, but for this, as for 
the ascent of the dome, a special permesso must be obtained. 

At the hack of the Pantheon lie the ruins of the Thermae of 
Agrippa, which, however, have no connection with it. A large part of 
these baths was exhumed in 1881 -2; and the rear wall of a large hall, 
with recesses, was brought to light in the Via della Palomhella. A 
fluted column and a finely executed frieze (shells and dolphins) have 
been found and placed in position. Along the E. side of the Pan- 
theon extended a kind of colonnade, of which considerable remains 
are extant. 

From the Piazza of the Pantheon the Via de' Pastini leads towards 
the E. to the Piazza di Pietra (p. 155); or we may turn to the left 
(N.), cross the Piazza Capranica , with the small theatre of that 
name, and reach Monte Citorio (p. 155); or, lastly, we may follow 
the Via del Seminario, also towards the E., to S. Ignazio (p. 155). 

Behind the Pantheon lies the Piazza della Minerva (PI. II, 
16), where the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva lies on the left, 
and the Hotel de la Minerve opposite to us. In the centre of the 
piazza is a marble elephant, on the back of which a small ancient 
Obelisk was placed by Bernini in 1667 (p. 196). 

*S. Maria sopra Minerva, erected on the ruins of a temple of 
Minerva founded by Domitian, the only ancient Gothic church at 
Rome, was probably begun about 1285 by the builders of S. Maria 
Novella at Florence (p. xlviii). It was restored and re-decorated 
with painting in 1848-55, and contains several valuable works of art. 

Interior. By the entrance-wall, on the right, the tomb of the Florentine 
knight Diotisalvi (d. 1482). — Left Aisle. On the left, the tomb of the Floren- 
tine Franc. Tornabuoni, by Mino da Fiesole ; above it the monument of Card. 
Giac. Tebaldi (d. 1466). To the right of the altar in the 3rd Chapel , "St. 
Sebastian, by Mino da Fiesole (?). Over the altar: head of Christ, by Pe- 

196 ///. Left Bank. ROME. S. Maria sopra Minerva. 

rugino. In the 5th Chapel is (r.) the monument of the Princess Lante, by 
Tenerani. — Right Aisle. By the pillar between the 3rd and 4th chapels is an 
egress (generally closed) with an ancient Greek sarcophagus (Hercules taming 
the lion). In the 4th Chapel, the "Annunciation, a picture on a golden ground 
(in the foreground Card. Giov. a Torrecremata recommending three poor girls 
to the Virgin), painted to commemorate the foundation of the charitable in- 
stitution of S. Annunziata and erroneously attributed to Fra Angelica ; on the 
left the tomb of Urban VII. (d. 1590), by Anibr. Buonvicino. The 5th Chapel (Al- 
dobrandini) contains paintings by Alberti; over the altar the Last Supper by 
Baroccio ; monuments of the parents of Clement VIII. by Oiac. delta Porta. 
— Right Transept. A small chapel on the right is first observed, containing 
a wooden crucifix attributed to Giotto; then the *Caraffa Chapel (recently 
restored), with a handsome balustrade , painted by Filippino Lippi ; on the 
right Thomas Aquinas , surrounded by allegorical figures, defending the 
Catholic religion against heretics ; in the lunette, St. Thomas and the 
Miracle of the Cross ; on the wall at the back, the Assumption of the Vir- 
gin; altar-fresco, the Annunciation, with a portrait of the donor Card. 
Caraffa; sibyls on the vaulting by Rafaellino del Garbo; on the left the 
monument of Paul IV. (d. 1559) , designed by Pirro Ligorio , executed by 
Giac. and Tom. Casignola. By the wall, adjacent to the latter, the "Tomb of 
Bishop Guiliel. Durantus (d. 1296), with a Madonna in mosaic by Johannes 
Cosmas, one of the best works of that period. The first chapel by the choir 
contains an altar-piece by C. Maratta. The second is the Cappella del Rosario ; 
altar-piece groundlessly attributed to Fra Angelica ; on the right the tomb of 
Card. Capranica (about 1470). — The Choir contains the large monuments of 
the two Medicis, (1.) Leo X. and (r.) Clement VII., designed by Ant. da San 
Gallo; that of Leo executed by Raffaele da Monte Lupo, that of Clement by 
Giov. di BaccioBigio; on the pavement the tombstone of the celebrated scho- 
lar Pietro Bembo (d. 1547). 

In front of the high-altar, to the left, is Michael Angelo's "Christ with 
the Cross, which was ordered by Metello Vari and P. Castellari in 1514, 
and erected in 1521. Pietro Urbano, an assistant of the great master, was 
entrusted with the touching up of the work after its erection, but as he 
acquitted himself badly of his task, the finishing strokes were given to it 
by Roderigo Frizzi. The nudity of the figure is justified by the master's 
intention to pourtray the Risen Christ, but it is now marred by a bronze 
drapery ; the right foot also is protected against the kisses of the devout 
by a bronze shoe (comp. p. li). 

On the left by the choir is a passage to the Via S. Ignazio; on the wall 
the tombstone (first on the left) of Fra Beato Angelico da Fiesole, who died 
in the neighbouring monastery in 1455, with his portrait and the inscrip- 
tion : Hie jacet Venerabilis pictor Frater Joannes de Floreniia Ordinis prae- 
dicatorum It IF. — In the Left Transept is the Chapel of S. Domenico, 
with 8 black columns, and the monument of Benedict XIII. (d. 1730) by P. 
Bracci. Adjacent, to the right, is the entrance to the sacristy. 

The adjoining Dominican monastery, formerly the residence of 
the chief of the order, now contains the offices of the Minister of 
Education and the Bibliotheca Casanatensis (entrance to the left by 
the church, first door to the right beyond the court; adm. see 
p. 116). The library is the largest in Rome after that of the Vatican, 
consisting of 200,000 vols, and 1000 MSS. 

The space between the Piazza del Collegio Romano and the Piazza 
S. Ignazio was occupied in antiquity by a famous Temple of Isis, 
and the excavations on this site have brought numerous remains 
of antiquity to light. Among these are the lions, sphinxes, and ca- 
nopi in the Capitoline Museum (p. 216), and the obelisks now in the 
Piazza della liotonda (p. 193), the Piazza della Minerva (p. 195), and 
the Piazza Termini (p. 166). 

Gesti. ROME. III. Left Bank. 197 

The Via de' Staderari leads to the right from the Piazza Ma- 
dama (p. 193), passing the palace, to the Piazza S. Etjstachio. 
Here stands the — 

University della Sapieuza (PL II, 13, 25 ; entrance Via della 
Sapienza71), founded in 1303 by Boniface VIII., and after a rapid 
decline re-established by Eugene IV. It attained its greatest pros- 
perity under Leo X., and under Leo XII. and Gregory XVI. possessed 
five faculties, but there are now four only (law, medicine, physical 
science, and philology). It contains several natural history collec- 
tions and the Biblioteca Alessandrina, a library of more than 10,000 
vols., which is open daily (p. 116). The present building was de- 
signed by Qiac. della Porta. The church (S. Ivo), with its grotesque 
spiral tower, was designed by Borromini in the form of a bee, in 
honour of Urban VIII., in whose armorial bearings that insect figures. 

The Via della Palambella leads hence in a straight direction to 
the Pantheon (p. 193) ; the Via della Valle, to the right, leads to 
S. Andrea and the Corso Vittorio Emanuele (see below). 

The wide Corso Vittorio Emanuele (PI. II, 16, 13, 10), re- 
cently constructed through the most closely built quarters of med- 
iaeval Rome, is a continuation of the Via Nazionale, described at pp. 
169, 170, and facilitates communication between the Piazza Ve- 
nezia (p. 162), in the centre of the city, and the Ponte S. Angelo. 
On the left is the main facade of the Pal. di Venezia (p. 162), and 
on the right rise the Palazzi Bonaparte (p. 162), Doria (p. 158) , and 
Orazioli. We next reach the Pal. Altieri, with its extensive facade, 
erected in 1670, bounding the N. side of the small Piazza del 
Gbsu (PL II, 16), which is called after the church of that name. 

*Gesu , the principal church of the Jesuits, is one of the most 
gorgeous in Rome. It was built by Vignola and Oiac. della Porta 
by order of Card. Alessandro Farnese, in 1568-77. Comp. p. lviii. 

In the Nave is a "Ceiling-painting by Baciccio, by whom the dome and 
tribune were also painted, one of the best and most lifelike of the rococo 
works of that period. The walls were covered with valuable marble at 
the cost of the Principe Aless. Torlonia in 1860. On the high - altar, with 
its four columns of giallo antico : Christ in the Temple, by Capalti; on the 
left the monument of Card. Bellarmino with figures of Religion and Faith, 
in relief; on the right the monument of P. Pignatelli, with Love and Hope. 
— In the Teansept, to the left: "Altar of St. Ignatius with a picture by 
Pozzi , tinder which a silver-plated relief, representing St. Ignatius sur- 
rounded by angels, is said to be concealed. The original silver statue of the 
saint, by Le Gros, which was formerly here, is said to have been removed 
on the suppression of the order in the eighteenth century. The columns are 
of lapis lazuli and gilded bronze ; on the architrave above are two statues : 
God the Father, by B. Ludovisi, and Christ, by L. Oltoni, behind which, 
encircled by a halo of rays, is the emblematic Dove. Between these the 
globe of the earth , consisting of a single block of lapis lazuli (said to be 
the largest in existence). Beneath the altar, in a sarcophagus of gilded 
bronze, repose the remains of the saint. On the right and left are groups 
in marble; on the right the Christian Religion, at the sight of which 
heretics shrink, by Le Gros; on the left Faith with the Cup and Host, which 
a heathen king is in the act of adoring, by Thiodon. Opposite, in the tran- 
sept, on the right, the altar of St. Francis Xavier. 

198 III. Left Bank. ROME. S. Andrea della Valle. 

The church presents a most imposing sight on 31st Dec. , on the 
festival of St. Ignatius, on 3ist July, and during the Quarant'ore (two last 
days of the Carnival) , on which occasions it is brilliantly illuminated in 
the evening. During Advent and Lent, and generally at other seasons also, 
sermons are preached here at 11 a. m., often by priests of great ability. 

Adjoining the church is the former Casa Professa of the Jesuits, 
now a barrack , adjacent to which , Via di Aracoeli 1 A , is the en- 
trance to the rooms of St. Ignatius (Mon., Wed., Frid., 9-11). On 
the opposite side of the street is the Palazzo Bolognetti(Pl. I, 16, 3). 

— Passing the monastery, and following the Via di Araeali, we reach 
(5 min.) the Piazza di Aracoeli , at the foot of the Capitol (p. 208). 

— From the opposite angle of the Piazza del Gesil, the Via delOesii 
leads to the right in 5 min. to the Piazza della Minerva (p. 195). 

The lofty dome in front of us in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele be- 
longs to the church of S. Andrea della Valle (see below). A few 
hundred paces to the W. of the Piazza Gesu the Corso is crossed by 
the Via di Tor Argentina, leading on the right to the Pantheon 
(p. 193) and on the left to the new Ponte Garibaldi (p. 202). 

The small Via del Sddario (PI. II, 13), diverging from the Corso to 
the left at this point, first passes the Teatro Argentina on the left, and 
then, at the corner on the right (No. 13), the Palazzo Vidoni, formerly 
Caffarelli and Stoppani, originally designed by Raphael. Charles V. re- 
sided here in 1536 as the guest of the Caffarelli. On the staircase is the 
so-called Abbate Luigi, a Roman figure in a toga, formerly placed at the 
N. angle of the palace, facing S. Andrea della Valle, and used as the 
bearer of lampoons and pasquinades (comp. p. 163). In one of the rooms 
is the Calendariwm Praenestinum of Verrius Flaccus, being five months of 
a Roman calendar found by Card. Stoppani at Palestrina. Admission not 
easily obtained. 

Farther on in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele is the church of *S. 
Andrea della Valle (PI. II, 13), begun by P. Olivieri in 1591 on 
the site of several earlier churches, and completed by C. Maderna. 
Facade designed by Carlo Rainaldi. The interior is well propor- 
tioned, but part of it has been whitewashed. See p. lviii. 

On the right the *2nd Chapel (Stkozzi) contains copies in bronze of the 
Pieta (in St. Peter's) and the Rachel and Leah (in S. Pietro in Vine.) of 
Michael Angelo, by whom this chapel itself was perhaps designed. — On 
the left the 1st Chapel (Barbekini) is adorned with several marble statues 
of the school of Bernini: St. Martha by Mocchi , John the Baptist by 
Pietro Bernini, Mary Magdalene by Stati da Bracciano, and St. John by 
Buonvicino. — At the end of the Nave are the monuments of the two 
popes of the Piccolomini family, brought here from the old church of 
St. Peter; on the left that of Pius II. (d. 1464), by Nic. della Ouardia and 
Pietro Paolo da Todi; on the right that of Pius III. (d. 1503), executed 
somewhat later. — In the Dome: Glory of Paradise , by Lanfranco; be- 
low, the "Evangelists by Domenichino, one of his finest works. By the same 
master, "Paintings on the vaulting of the apse. In front, between the trans- 
verse ribs : John the Baptist, St. John, and St. Andrew pointing to Christ 
(Gospel of St. John, I. 35) ; in the vaulting itself, on the left, the Scourging of 
St. Andrew ; then the Vocation of Peter and Andrew by Christ ; on the right, 
St. Andrew beholds and reveres the cross to which he is about to be affixed ; 
below are six female figures representing the virtues (p. lix). The large 
lower frescoes by Calabrese (martyrdom of the saint) are of no great value. 

Opposite this church opens the small Piazza della Valle , con- 
taining the Palazzo Capranica, which is occupied by the Prussian 

Pal. della Cancelleria. ROME. III. Left Bank. 199 

envoy to the Vatican. The Via deUa Valle leads to the Piazza S. 
Eustachio (p. 197). 

No. 141 in the Oorso Vitt. Emanuele, to the right, is the 
Palazzo Massimi alle Colonne (PI. II, 13, 11), a fine structure 
by Baldassare Peruzzi, who, however, died in 1536 before its com- 
pletion. The arc-shaped facade was skilfully adapted to the curve 
of the originally narrow street, but has lost its effect by the con- 
struction of the wide Corso. The glimpse obtained of the double 
court is strikingly picturesque. On the second floor is the Chapel 
of S. Filippo Neri (open on 16th March)], who is said to have here 
resuscitated a child of the family. 

In 1467, within the buildings connected with this palace, the Germans 
Pannartz and Schweinheim, who during the two previous years had found an 
asylam in the monastery of Subiaco (p. 381), established the first printing- 
office in Rome, from which they issued Cicero's epistles and other works, 
furnished with the name of the printers and the words t In aedibus Petri 
de Maximis'. — The Massimi family claims descent from the ancient Fabii 
Maximi, and their armorial bearings have the motto ^Cunctando restituW. 

Farther on is the small Piazza di S. Pantaleo (PI. II, 13), 
containing (right) the small church of that name, with a fajade 
erected by Valadier in 1806. The Via Ouccagna, to the right, ends 
at the Piazza Navona (p. 190). For the Via di S. Pantaleo, also 
diverging to the right from the Corso, and its continuation the Via 
del Governo Vecchio, see p. 201. 

On the left side of the Corso Vitt. Emanuele, at the point where 
the Via Baullari diverges to the Palazzo Farnese (p. 205), is the 
little Palazzo Linotta or Palazetto Farnese, of which Bald. Peruzzi 
is said to have been the architect. Tasteful but sadly dilapidated 
court and staircase. — The Corso here bends a little to the N.W. 
and discloses a view of the dome of St. Peter's. 

To the left lies the long and narrow Piazza della Cancelleria 
(PI. II, 13), with the palace of that name and the church of S. Lo- 
renzo in Damaso. 

The *Palazzo della Cancelleria (PI. II, 13), an edifice of ma- 
jestic simplicity, designed by Bramante in strict conformity with the 
ancient orders of architecture, is one of the finest palaces in Rome 
(p. li). The elegant Facade is constructed of blocks of travertine 
from the Colosseum. The chief portal, in an inharmonious baroque 
style, was added by Domenico Fontana. It leads into the *Court, 
in two stories, surrounded by arcades. The columns originally be- 
longed to the ancient basilica of S. Lorenzo, from which they were 
removed by Bramante (see p. 200). The graceful capitals are deco- 
rated with roses, a flower which belonged to the armorial bearings 
of the founder Card. Riario. To the right is an archway leading to 
the church of S. Lorenzo. This is the only palace in the interior of 
the city which the Italian government still permits to be occupied 
by the ecclesiastical authorities. 

The N. part of the Cancelleria is occupied by the church of S. Lo- 
renzo in Damaso, which has the above-mentioned facade in common 

200 ///. Left Bank. ROME. Chiesa Nuova. 

with the palace. The handsome portal is by Vignola. The church 
was originally founded by Damasus I. (ca. 370) near the Theatre of 
Pompey, but it was taken down in 1495 at the instance of Card. 
Riario and rebuilt here from a design by Bramante. The internal 
decoration is quite modern, dating from the time of Pius VII. (1820) 
and Pius IX. At the end of the right aisle is the tomb of the papal 
minister Count Rossi, who was assassinated on the staircase of the 
Palazzo della Cancelleria in 1848 (bust by Tenerani). 

From the Cancellaria to the Campo di Fiori, see p. 204. 

We continue to follow the Corso Vitt. Emanuele. At the corner 
of the second street to the right is the Palazzo Sora, formerly erron- 
eously ascribed to Bramante, and frequently altered. — To the right 
stands the — 

Chiesa Nuova (PI. II, 10), or S. Maria in Vallicella, erected by 
S. Filippo Neri (about 1550-1605) for the order of Oratorians found- 
ed by him. Architecture by Oiov. Matteo da Citth di Castello, in- 
terior by Mart. Lunghi the Elder, facade by Bughesi. 

The Interior , which is dark and unfavourable for pictures , is richly 
decorated. The admirable stucco- work is by Cos. Faniello and Ercole 
Ferrala. The ceiling of the Nave, the dome , and the tribune are painted 
by Pietro da C'ortona. — On the right, 1st Chapel, Crucifixion, Scip. Gae- 
tano; 3rd Chapel, deir Ascensione, altar-piece by Muziano. — On the left, 
2nd Chapel, Adoration of the Magi, Ces. Nebbia; 3rd Chapel, Nativity, 
Durante Alberli; 4th Chapel, Visit of Elizabeth, Baroccio. — Left Transept: 
Presentation in the Temple, Baroccio; Peter and Paul, statues in marble, 
by Valsoldo. Here also, adjoining the tribune, is the small and sumptuous 
Chapel of S. Filippo Neei, beneath the altar of which his remains repose. 
Above is the portrait of the saint in mosaic , after the original of Guido 
Reni preserved in the adjoining monastery. — Over the High Altak, with 
its four columns of porta santa, a Madonna by Rubens ; on the right i; SS. Gre- 
gory, Maurus, and Papia, on the left ::: SS. Nereus and Achilleus, also by 
Rubens, who painted these pictures during his second stay in Rome in 1606 
for this church , which was then the most fashionable in the city. — Right 
Transept. On the right , Coronation of Blary, Cav. d' 1 Arpino ; SS. John 
the Baptist and John the Evangelist, statues in marble by Flaminio Vacca. 

The Sacristy (entered from the left transept) was constructed by Maru- 
celli. On the vaulting: Angel with instruments of torture, by Pietro da Cor- 
l,ona. Colossal statue of the saint by Algardi. 

On 26th May, the festival of the saint, and after Ave Maria every 
Sunday from 1st Nov. to Palm Sunday, concerts of sacred music, to which 
men only are admitted, are given in the adjoining Oralorium, which 
derives its name from the oratories fitted up by S. Filippo Neri. The 
saint was fond of music and advocated a cheerful form of divine service. 

The adjoining Monastery, erected by Borromini, is of irregular 
shape, but remarkably massive in its construction. It contains a 
room once occupied by the saint, with various relics. The Corte di 
Appello, the Tribunate Civile e Correzionale, and the Tribunate di 
Commercio are now established here. — The valuable Bibliotheca 
Vallicellana, founded by >S. Filippo Neri, and gradually enriched by 
rare MSS., now belongs to the 'Societa Romana di Storia Patria' 
and is accessible without special permission (p. 116; entr. in the 
court, to the left at the top of the great staircase). 

Farther on, to the left, lies the small Piazza SioazA (PI. II, 10), 

Palazzo Braschi. ROME. III. Left Bank. 201 

with the Bohemian Hospital , the facade of which is adorned with 
sgraffiti. — The Corso Vitt. Emanuele is being continued to S.Gio- 
vanni de' Fiorentini (p. 207). In the meantime we may follow the 
Via de' Banchi Vecchi, to the right, to the Ponte S. Angelo (p. 274). 

From the Piazza S. Pantaleo (p. 199) the Via S. Pantaleo (PI. 
II, 13) runs towards the N.W. No. 9 in this street, on the right, is 
the spacious Palazzo Braschi, erected by Morelli at the end of last 
century, and now occupied by the Minister of the Interior. It con- 
tains a fine marble *Staircase and a few ancient statues. The back 
of the building looks towards the Piazza Navona (p. 190). 

Passing the palace, we reach the Piazza del Pasouino (PI. II, 
13), which derives its name from an ancient group of statuary placed 
at the obtuse angle of the Pal. Braschi. This was an admirable, 
but now sadly mutilated work of a good period of art, and is said 
to have been called Pasquino as early as the end of the 15th cent, 
after a tailor of that name who lived in the vicinity and was 
notorious for his lampooning propensities. It was once the custom 
to affix satires and ebullitions of malice to this statue, the answers 
to which used to be attached to the Marforio (p. 162, 216), and to 
refer them to the slanderous tailor, whose name is perpetuated in 
the word 'pasquinade'. Compositions of this kind have been much 
in vogue at Rome ever since that period, sometimes vying with the 
best satires of antiquity. The group represents Menelaus with the 
body of Patroclus, looking around for succour in the tumult of battle. 
Duplicates of the group are in the Loggia de' Lanzi and the Palazzo 
Pitti at Florence, and there are fragments in the Vatican (p. 309). 

We follow the Via del Governo Vecchio, in which, on the 
right, is the Pal. del Governo Vecchio (PI. II, 13, 20~), which for a 
time was occupied by the law and police courts. No. 124, opposite, 
is an elegant little house in Bramante's style, built in 1500 for the 
papal secretary J. P. Turcius. 

"We next pass the back of the Philippine Convent (now a court- 
house, p. 200) and cross the Piazza dell' Orologio, whence the Via 
Monte Giordano leads to the Palazzo Gabrielli , with a pretty foun- 
tain in its court. [Thence the Via di Panico leads to the Ponte S. 

The Via del Governo Vecchio now takes the name of Via de 
Banchi Nuovi and ends at the Via del Banco di S. Spirito, through 
which we may proceed to the Ponte S. Angelo (p. 274; 12 min. 
from the Piazza S. Pantaleo). 

From the Corso Vitt. Emanuele the important Via di Toe Ar- 
gentina, mentioned at p. 198, leads to the S. to the Tiber. Fol- 
lowing it from the Via Nazionale we reach in 5 min. the piazza and 
church of S. Carlo a' Catinari (PI. II, 14), built by Rosati in 1612 

202 in. Left Bank. ROME. Palazzo Mattel. 

in honour of S. Carlo Borromeo, in the form of a Greek cross, with 
a dome. 

1st Chapel on the right : Annunciation , by Lanfranco. In the spaces 
below the dome are the four cardinal virtues , by Domenichino. In the 
transept to the right, Death of St. Anna, Andrea Sacchi. Over the high- 
altar, Card. Borromeo in the procession of the plague at Milan, P da 
Cortona; tribune decorated by Lanfranco. The other paintings are inferior. 

Through the Via Giubbonari to Pompey't Theatre, see p. 205. 

Beyond S. Carlo a' Catinari the Via di Tor Argentina (hitherto 
here called the Via di Mortella) leads to the S. to the new Ponte 
Qaribaldi (p. 330). Two side-streets lead to the E. to the Pal. 
Cenci-Bolognetti (PI. II, 14, 17) and to the old Ghetto (see p. 203). 
The Pal. Cenci was the home of ill-fated Beatrice Cenci, who was 
executed in 1599 for the murder of her father, a man of execrable 
character. Her portrait in the Pal. Baiberini (p. 171) is frequently 
copied by Roman artists. 

The Via dei Falegnami runs to the E. from S. Carlo a' Catinari 
to the small PrAzzA Tautaruga (PI. II, 17), named after the grace- 
ful *Fontana delle Tartarughe (tortoises), erected by Qiao, delta 
Porta in 1585, and embellished with bronze figures of four youths, 
by the Florentine Taddeo Landini. This is the most charming foun- 
tain in Rome; the design was formerly attributed to Raphael. 

Farther on, to the left, is the Palazzo Mattei (PI. II, 17, L'7), 
originally an aggregate of separate buildings which occupied the block 
between S. Caterina de' Funari and Via Paganica. Of these the 
handsomest is the present so-called palace (principal entrance, Via 
di S. Caterina de' Funari 32; side-entrance, No. 31), erected in 1616 
by Carlo Miderna, and one of his finest productions. 

In the passages of the entrance, in the arcades, and along the 
sides of the Coukt, a great number of ancient reliefs are built into the 
walls. In the court are (r.) Mars with Rhea Silvia, and Apollo with tbe 
Muses; and (1.) the Calydonian hunt and Rape of Proserpine. In the 
portico, Sacrifice of Mithras, Apollo with the Muses, and a Bacchanalian 
procession, all from sarcophagi. The statues in the court and niches on 
the staircase, some of them much modernised, are of no great value. The 
stucco decorations of the ceiling on the staircases are well executed. 

Farther on , in the Via de' Falegnami , we observe on the left, 
within the ancient Circus Flaminius, the church of S. Caterina de' 
Funari (PI. II, 17j, erected in 1564 by Giac. delta Porta, with a 
singular-looking tower. It contains a few unimportant pictures by 
A. Carracci (1st chapel on the right), Nanni, Venusti, Muziano, and 
Agresti. The name of the church is derived from the rope-makers 
who in the middle ages plied their vocation within the circus. The 
adjoining Augustine nunnery contains a girls' school. 

The Via de' Falegnami ends at the Palazzo Biyhetti (Strozzi, PI. 
II, 17, 16), where the Via Delfini leads to the left to the Via di 
Aracoeli (p. 163), while the street to the right leads to the Piazza 
CAMPiTELLr. Here, on the right, is S, Maria in Campitelli (Pl.-II, 
17), erected by Rainaldi under Alexander VII. for the reception of 
a miraculous image of the Virgin, to which the cessation of the plague 

Portico of Octavia ROME. III. Left Bank. 203 

in 1656 was ascribed. A smaller church- of the same name, men- 
tioned in the 13th cent., formerly stood on this site. 

The Interior, with its handsome projecting columns, is effective. — 
Beneath the canopy over the High-Altar is placed the miraculous Ma- 
donna. In the 2nd Chapel on the right, the Gift of Tongues, by Luca Gior- 
dano; in the 1st Chapel on the left, two monuments resting on lions of 
rosso antico. In the S. transept is the tomb of Card. Pacca by Pettrich. 

From the S.E. end of the Piazza Oampitelli the Via di Tor de' 
Specchi, skirting the foot of the Capitol, leads to the left to the 
Piazza Aracceli (p. 209), while the Via Montanara runs to the right 
to the small but busy Piazza Montanara (PI. II, 17), much fre- 
quented by the country-people, especially on Sundays (tramway to 
S. Paolo Fuori, see Appx.). 

In the Piazza Montanara , to the right , stands the Theatre of 
Marcellus (PL II, 17, 5), which was begun by Caesar, and com- 
pleted in B.C. 13 by Augustus, who named it after his nephew, the 
son of Octavia. Twelve arches of the outer wall are now occupied 
by smiths and other artizans as workshops. The lower story, partly 
filled up, is in the Doric, the second in the Ionic style, above which, 
as in the Colosseum, a third probably rose in the Corinthian order. 
It is said to have accommodated 20,000 spectators. The stage lay 
towards the Tiber. In the 11th cent, the theatre was used by Pier- 
leone as a fortress. To his descendants succeeded the Savelli, whose 
palace stands on a lofty mound of debris within the theatre. In 1712 
the palace was purchased by the Orsini, and in 1816-23 was occupied 
by the historian Niebuhr, when Prussian ambassador. — From the 
Piazza Montanara the busy Via Bocca della Verith leads to 8. Maria 
in Cosmedin (p. 249). 

To the W. of the Theatre of Marcellus, extending as far as the 
Pal. Cenci, lay the Ghetto (PI. II, 17), the quarter allotted by 
Paul IV. to the Jews , who in ancient and mediaeval times occupied 
a quarter in Trastevere. The quarter, which was formerly closed 
by gates, was, however, entirely pulled down in 1887. Along the 
N. edge of it runs the Via delta Pescaria, in which, immediately 
to the N.W. of the Pal. Orsini and the Theatre of Marcellus, are the 
interesting remains of the Portico of Octavia (PI. II, 17, iS), erect- 
ed by Augustus on the site of a similar structure of Metellus (B. C. 
149), and dedicated to his sister. Under Titus it was destroyed by 
a fire which raged in this quarter of the city, but it was restored by 
Sept. Severus and Caracalla in 203, as the inscription records. The 
principal entrance consisted of a vestibule with eight Corinthian 
columns, of which two in the inner, and three in the outer row are 
still standing. To the right and left of this were double rows of 14 
columns each, while there were at least 40 columns in a row at the 
sides. The entire colonnade , with its 300 columns, enclosed an 
oblong space , within which stood temples of Jupiter Stator and 
Juno. Columns from this structure are frequently seen built into 
other edifices. It was adorned with many admirable works of art 

204 III. Left Bank. ROME. S. Bartolomeo. 

which formed part of the Macedonian booty, and it was here that 
the Medici Venus was found. In 770 the church of S. Angelo in 
Pescaria was built on the ruins of the colonnade by Stephen III., 
but, having been frequently restored, it has lost its mediaeval char- 
acter. A papal bull, issued in 1584, formerly compelled the Jews 
to hear sermons here on their Sabbath, when the Old Testament 
was expounded to them in accordance with the doctrines of the 

The new street to the S. of the Portico of Octavia and to the "W. 
of the Pal. Orsini leads to the Ponte de' Quattro Capi (PI. II, 17), 
the oldest bridge now in Rome, built in B.C. 62 by L. Fabricius, as 
the inscription records. The name is derived from the four-headed 
figures on the balustrades. It is now, however, sometimes called 
the Ponte Fabricio. Fine view. 

On the island (Isola Tiberina or di 8. Bartolomeo) to which the 
bridge leads is a small piazza, embellished in 1869 with a monument 
to SS. John, Francis, Bartholomew, and Paulinus. Here, perhaps 
on the site of an ancient temple of ^Esculapius, is situated the 
church of — 

S. Bartolomeo (PI. II, 18), erected about the year 1000 by 
the Emp. Otho III. in honour of St. Adalbert of Gnesen, and er- 
roneously named S. Bartolomeo. The emperor had desired the 
Beneventans to send him the relics of St. Bartholomew, but received 
those of St. Paulinus of Nola in their stead. The present church, 
with the exception of the campanile, is modernised and uninterest- 
ing; facade by Lunghi, 1625. 

The Interior contains fourteen ancient columns; in the choir, 
remains of an early mosaic. In the centre of the steps leading to the 
presbyterium is the mouth of a fountain of the 12th cent., on which a 
figure of Christ with a book in his hand, and the heads of two side- 
figures are alone distinguishable. 

In the small Garden of the Monastery (visitors ring at the entrance 
to the right by the church) is seen part of the ancient bulwark of travertine 
which gave the island the appearance of a ship. An obelisk represented 
the mast. The figure of a snake hewn on the bow of the ship is a 
reminiscence of the story that the Romans, when sorely afflicted by the 
plague, sent for ilisculapius from Epidaurus in B.C. 293, and that a 
snake, a reptile sacred to the god, concealed itself in the vessel, and on 
reaching the harbour escaped to this island, which was dedicated to 
iEsculapius in consequence. That the god was worshipped here has been 
proved by the discovery in the island of limbs in terracotta, which were 
presented by sick persons as votive offerings. 

The island was connected with Trastevere by the ancient Pons 
Cestius (Gratiunus ; PI. II, 18), which was built by Augustus, and 
restored by the Emperors Valentinian and Gratian. This bridge is 
now being rebuilt, and the traffic is served by a temporary wooden 
structure at the S. end of the island (p. 331). 

To the S. of the Pal. della Cancelleria (p. 199) lies the Piazza. 
Campo di Fiore (PL II, 13), an important centre of business, espe- 

Palazzo Farnese. ROME. III. Left Bank. 205 

oially since the vegetable-market, with the picturesque country- 
people who frequent it in the morning, was transferred hither from 
the Piazza Navona. Heretics and criminals used to be put to death 
here. Among the former was the celebrated philosopher and free- 
thinker Giordano Bruno, whose death in this square on Feb. 17th, 
1600, is now commemorated by a monument erected in 1889. 

Between the Piazza Campo di Fiore and S. Andrea Valle once lay the 
Theatre of Pompey (PI. II, 13, 14). In this piazza is the Pal. Pio or Righetti 
(entrance, Via del Biscino 95), in the court of which a bronze statue of 
Hercules (p. 306) and substructures of the theatre were discovered in 1864. 
Numerous fragments of the ancient walls are incorporated in the modern 
building. The semicircular bend of the street by S. Maria di Grottapinta 
(PI. II, 13, 5) distinctly shows the form of the ancient theatre. The Via 
de' Giubbonari leads hence to S. Carlo a' Catinari (p. 201). 

From the Campo di Fiore three parallel streets lead to the S."W. 
to the Piazza Farnbse, adorned with two fountains. Here is sit- 
uated the — 

*Palazzo Farnese (PI. II, 14), one of the finest palaces at Rome, 
begun by Card. Alex. Farnese, afterwards Pope Paul III. (1534-45), 
from designs by Ant. da Sangallo the Younger (p. lvii), continued 
after his death (1546) under the direction of Michael Angelo (who 
designed the beautiful cornicing), and completed by the construc- 
tion of the loggia at the back, towards the Tiber, by Oiac. della 
Porta in 1580. The building materials were taken partly from the 
Colosseum, and partly from the Theatre of Marcellus. This palace was 
inherited by the kings of Naples, and from 1862 to 1870 was occu- 
pied by Francis II. It was purchased in 1874 by the French govern- 
ment, whose embassy to the papal court is now established here ; on 
the second floor is the 'Ecole de Rome', or French archaeological in- 
stitution, founded in 1875. The triple *Colonnade of the entrance 
and the two halls of the court were designed by Sangallo , in imi- 
tation of the Theatre of Marcellus. The court contains two ancient 
sarcophagi (that to the right from the tomb of Csecilia Metella, 
p. 349). The celebrated antiquities once in this palace (Farnese Bull, 
Hercules, Flora) are now in the Museum of Naples. 

A room on the 1st floor (no admission) contains Tbescoes by Annibale 
Carracci , his finest work, consisting of mythological scenes with rich ar- 
chitectural painting, executed in eight years by him, his brother Lodovico, 
Domenichino , and other masters. — The old banquet-hall has a "Ceiling 
in carved wood, designed by Michael Angelo. 

From the Piazza Farnese a line of streets , called the Via di 
Monserrato and Via de' Banchi Vecchi, leads to the N.W. to the 
Ponte S. Angelo (p. 274). On the left is S. Maria di Monserrato 
(PI. II, 10, 3), the national Spanish church, with a hospice. It was 
erected in 1495 by Ant. da Sangallo the Elder, and afterwards restored . 
The altar-piece of the first chapel on the right is by Ann. Carracci. 

To the S.E. of the Piazza Farnese the Vicolo de' Venti leads to 
the Piazza di Capo di Ferro. Here, on the right, rises the — 

Palazzo Spada alia Regola (PI. II, 14), erected in the ponti- 
ficate of Paul III. about 1540 by Card. Capodiferro, in imitation of a 

206 III. Left Bank. ROME. Pal. Spada alia Begola. 

house built by Raphael for himself. Since 1640 the palace has 
belonged to the Spada family. It contains an interesting collection 
of antiquities and pictures, but is now inaccessible to all except those 
provided with an influential introduction. 

The most important Antiquities are collected in a 'Museo'. Opposite 
the entrance-wall: sitting "Statue of Aristotle, a copy of a celebrated Greek 
work ; right arm and left leg modern. Then eight fine "Reliefs, found in 1620 
in S. Agnese Fuori le Mura, where they formed part of the pavement, with 
their faces downwards. Beyond the Aristotle, to the left, 65. Daedalus and 
Pasiphae; right, 72. Paris as a cowherd. Window-wall i 66. Wounded Ado- 
nis ; 67. Ulysses and Diomedes carrying off the Palladium. Entrance-wall : 
Endymion ; Perseus and Andromeda , casts from the originals in the Capi- 
toline museum. Left wall : 68. Paris taking leave of CEnone ; 69. Hypsipyle 
finds Opheltes, who had been entrusted to her, killed by a snake; 70. Am- 
phion and Zethus ; 71. Bellerophon watering Pegasus. Also several busts, 
small statues, etc. 

From the court a staircase to the right ascends to the Uppek Flook. 
In the Ante -Chamber is a Colossal Statue of Pompey, found in the ponti- 
ficate of Julius III. (1550) in digging the foundations of a house in the Vi- 
colo de' Leutari. The body was in the ground of one proprietor, and the 
legs in that of another. As both parties claimed the statue, the judge or- 
dered it to be divided ; but the pope prevented this by purchasing it for 
500 scudi , and presented it to Cardinal Capodiferro. The head , though 
of a separate block, belongs to the original statue. The workmanship is 

We now traverse a room adorned with unimportant frescoes to the 
Picture Gallery. I. Room, beginning opposite the entrance : 3. Bolognese School, 
Madonna; 7, 12. French School, Portraits; 10. Camuccini, Card. Patrizi ; 22. Ca- 
ravaggio, Portrait ; 40. Scipio Oaelano, Julius III. — II. Room : 1. Seb. del 
Piombo, Astronomer; 6. Baudin, Still-life; 9. Brueghel, Landscape; 10. Quido 
Reni, Judith ; 12. G. Poussin, Landscape ; 16. And. del Sario, Visitation of 
Elizabeth (seriously damaged) ; 43. Leonardo da Vinci (a copy of the original 
in England), Christ and the scribes. — III. Room : 2. Caravaggio, St. Anna and 
the Virgin ; 4. Raphael, John the Baptist, a copy ; 15. Brueghel, Landscape ; 24. 
Guercino, Dido's death ; 26. Baciccio, Design of the ceiling-painting in Gesii 
(p. 197); 29. Salvator Rosa, Landscape; 31. Titian, Portrait; *40. Moroni, Por- 
trait; 48, *49. Marco Palmezzano, God the Father, and Bearing the Cross; 51. 
Titiantl), Card. Paolo Spada; 60,70. Salv. Rosa, Landscapes; 63. Gtiido Reni, 
Abduction of Helen; 67. Borgognone, Cavalry-skirmish. — IV. Room: 4. 
Guido Reni (ascribed to Giulio Romano), Card. Bernardo Spada.; 9. After 
Titian, Paul III. ; 10. German School, Portrait (1511); 15. Caravaggio, Laugh- 
ing angel's head ; 18. German School, Portrait ; 26. Ger. Honthorst, Christ 
in the garden; 30. Caravaggio , St. Cecilia; 31. Maratta , Card. Fabricius 
Spada; 44. Andr. del SartoQ), Madonna; 54. French School, Portrait. 

Pursuing the same direction beyond the Piazza Capo di Ferro, 
we next reach the small Piazza de' Pelleghini. On the left is the 
back of the Pal. Santacroce, now a Monte di Pieta (PI. II, 14), or 
pawn-office, founded in 1539, and established here in 1604. (Some 
of the numerous pictures pledged here are of considerable value.) On 
the right is the church of S. Trinita. de' Pellegrini, erected in 1614; 
the high-altar is adorned with a Trinity, by Guido Reni. The neigh- 
bouring hospital for convalescents and pilgrims contains 488 beds, 
and can provide dinner for 944 persons at one time. Italian pil- 
grims are entertained here at Easter for three days, and foreigners 
for four. 

The Via de' Pettinari (PI. II, 14) leads from the Piazza de 
Pellegrini to the Ponte Sisto (see p. 327). 

Geograpl An.stalt -rmi'Fiorentini. ROME. III. Left Bank. 207 

From the Ponte Sisto towards the N.W., parallel with the river, 
runs the Via del Fontanone, prolonged by the Via Gitjlia (PI. II, 
14, 10), which was built by Julius II., leading in 12 min. to the 
Ponte S. Angelo. To the left in the Via del Fontanone, is the Pal. 
Falconieri , built by Borromini , with hermae on the fagade in a ba- 
roque style, terminating in colossal falcons' heads ; the court affords 
a good view of the opposite bank of the Tiber, the Villa Farnesina, 
and theJaniculum. In the Vicolo dellaLunetta, the next cross-street 
to the left, is the church of S. Eligio degli Orefici, a graceful little 
circular structure, built in 1509 from a design by Raphael and re- 
newed in 1601. Farther on in the ViaGiulia, on the same side, the 
Carceri Nuovi, a prison founded by Innocent X. ; then No. 66, the 
Pal. Sacchetti (PI. II, 10), originally erected by Antonio da San- 
gallo the Younger as his private residence. The courses of rough^ 
rustica masonry in the lower stories of the houses on the left side 
of the street, formed the beginning of a large court of justice, pro- 
jected by Julius II. and designed by Bramante, but never carried out. 

At the end of the street, on the left, is S. Giovanni de' Fioren- 
tini (PI. II, 10), the handsome national church of the Florentines. 
The building was begun, by desire of LeoX., from a design by Jac. 
Sansovino (which was preferred to competing plans of Raphael, 
Sangallo the Younger, and Peruzzi); and the difficult task of com- 
pleting the substructures on the river was executed by Sangallo. 
Michael Angelo, and on his death, Oiac. della Porta were afterwards 
engaged in the work , and the facade was added by Aless. Galilei 
in 1725. The only object of interest in the church is a picture by 
Salv. Rosa in the chapel of the right transept (SS. Cosmas and 
Damianus at the stake). 

Near the church a Chain Bridge (1 soldo), constructed in 1863, 
crosses the river to the Lungara (p. 322). The Via Paola leads from 
the church to the Ponte S. Angelo (p. 274). 

IV. Ancient Rome. 

Thispart of our description of Rome embraces the southern portion 
of the city, beginning with the Capitol, and extending eastwards as far 
as the Lateran: i. e. the hills of the Capitoline, Palatine, Aventine, Cffilius, 
and the S. slope of the Esquiline. This was the most important quarter 
of the Republican and Imperial city, but lay waste and deserted from the 
early part of the middle ages down to onr own times. Recently it has 
lost much of its characteristic aspect owing to the construction of new 
quarters, consisting mainly of tenement houses of the most Philistine 
appearance. A considerable part of it, however, extending from the Forum 
Romanum and the Fora of the Emperors to the Cirrus Maximus , the 
Thermae of Caracalla, and the Porta S. Sebastiano, is to he protected, 
under the name of Passeggiata Archeologica, from the hand of the modern 
restorer. A number of ancient churches, which are extremely interesting 
to students of Christian architecture, as well as the imposing collections 
of the Capitol and Lateran, also attract numerous visitors. 

208 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

The Capitol. 

This is the smallest , but historically the most important of the 
hills of Rome. It was originally merely the S. spur of the Quirinal, 
from which it was separated by a slight depression, but this hollow 
was greatly enlarged in consequence of the building operations of 
Trajan. The Capitol consists of three distinct parts : (1) the N. 
summit with the church and monastery of Aracoeli (164 ft.); (2) the 
depression in the middle with the piazza of the Capitol (98 ft.); 
and (3) the S.W. point with the Pal. Caffarelli (156 ft.). It was on 
this piazza, the Area Capitolina, that Romulus is said to have found- 
ed his asylum ; it was here that popular assemblies were after- 
wards held; and it was here, in the year B. C. 133, on the occasion 
of the suppression of the revolt of Tiberius Gracchus, that the blood 
of the citizens flowed for the first time in civil warfare. One of the 
peaks of the hill was occupied by the Arx , or citadel, with the 
temple of Juno Moneta , while the other was the site of the great 
Temple of Jupiter. The temple was built by Tarquinius Superbus, 
the last of the kings, and consecrated in B.C. 509, the first year of 
the Republic. It was 800 ft. in circumference, and possessed a 
triple colonnade and three cellae, that of Jupiter being in the middle, 
and one for Juno and Minerva on each side. In the year B.C. 83, 
during the civil war, the temple was burned down, and the same 
fate overtook it in A.D. 69, on the occasion of the struggle between 
Vespasian and Vitellius. This most sacred shrine of ancient Rome 
was magnificently restored by Domitian , and was preserved down 
to the year 455 , when it was plundered by the Vandals and rob- 
bed of its gilded bronze tiles. After that period there is no trace 
of it in history. 

For nearly 500 years after the time of Cassiodorus, the min- 
ister and chronicler of Theodoric the Great (6th cent.), there is 
no mention of the Capitol in the annals of Rome. The hill was 
in the possession of the monastery of Aracoeli , and the name of 
Monte Caprino, or hill of goats, which was applied to the S.E. 
height, bears testimony to its desertion. The glorious traditions, 
however , which attached to this spot, gave rise to a renewal of 
its importance on the revival of a spirit of municipal indepen- 
dence at Rome. In the 11th century it again became the centre 
of the civic administration. The prefect of the city resided here ; 
among the ruins of the venerable citadel the nobility and the citi- 
zens held their public assemblies ; and in 1341 Petrarch was crown- 
ed as a poet in the great senate-hall here. The hill could originally 
be approached from the Forum only, the N.W. side being precipi- 
tous and inaccessible, but in 1348 the latter side was connected for 
the first time with the new quarter of the city by the construction 
of the flight of steps of Aracoeli, which was almost the only public 
work executed at Rome during the exile of the papal court at Avig- 
non. About 1389 Boniface IX. converted the palace of the senate 

The Capitol. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 209 

into a kind of fortress, but its present form dates from the 16th cen- 
tury. Two new approaches from the city having been constructed 
in 1536, the Capitol has since formed a kind of termination of the 
modern part of the city in the direction of the ruins of ancient Rome. 

From the Piazza Aracceli (PI. II, 17) three approaches lead to 
the Capitoline Hill, that in the centre being the principal ascent for 
pedestrians. On the left a lofty Flight op Steps (124), constructed 
in 1348, ascends to the principal entrance of the church of S. Maria 
in Aracoeli (generally closed , see below). — On the right the Via 
dbllb Trb Pile, recently converted into a handsome drive (on which 
occasion remains of the ancient Servian wall , enclosing the hill in 
the direction of the Campus Martius, and now seen behind the rail- 
ings to the left, were brought to light), leads past the entrance of 
the Pal. Caffarelli, which was erected in the 16th cent, by Ascanio 
Caffarelli, a former page of Charles V., and is now the residence of 
the German ambassador. The principal approach and the Via delle 
Tre Pile lead to the Piazza del Campidoglio, see p. 210. 

*S. Maria in Aracoeli (PI. II, 20), a very ancient church, is men- 
tioned in the 9th cent, as S. Maria de Capitolio. The present name, 
derived from a well-known legend (see p. 210), dates from the 14th 
century. The church, of which the Roman senate formerly enjoyed 
the patronage, has given a title to a cardinal since the time of Leo X. 
The facade is unfinished. 

Visitors generally approach the church from the Piazza of the Capitol 
by the staircase to the left, at the back of the Capitoline Museum, and 
on the first landing turn to the left. Over the door an ancient mosaic, 
the Madonna between two angels. 

The Interior is disfigured by modern additions. The nave is borne by 
22 ancient columns, chiefly of granite, varying greatly in style and dimen- 
sions. The 3rd on the left bears the inscription '■A cubiculo Augustorum\ The 
rich ceiling was executed to commemorate the victory of Lepanto in 1571. 

By the wall of the principal Entkance , to the left, is the tomb of 
the astronomer Lodovico Grato (1531), with a figure of Christ by Andrea 
Sansovino ; on the right the :: Monument of Card. Librettus or De Alibrettis 
(a member of the celebrated French family of d'Albret; 1465), with partly- 
preserved painting. Right Aisle, 1st Cbapel : -Frescoes from the life of 
St. Bernardino of Siena, by Pinturicchio, restored by Camuccini. Frescoes 
on the ceiling attributed to Franc, da Citta di Castello and L. Signorelli. 
The 5th Chapel (of St. Matthew) contains good pictures by Muziano. — Left 
Aisle. In the 2nd Chapel a manger (presepe) is fitted up at Christmas, 
i.e., a gorgeous representation of the Nativity in life-size, with the richly 
decorated image of II Santo Bambino, or Holy Child, which forms the 
principal treasure of the church. This image is believed to protect per- 
sons in imminent danger, is frequently invoked and revered, and is some- 
times conveyed to the houses of the sick, on which occasions passers-by kneel 
on its approach. During the week after Christmas, from 3 to 4 o'clock 
daily, a number of children from 5 to 10 years of age address their pe- 
titions to the bambino. At the end of the left aisle a tomb-relief of Msgr. 
Crivelli by Donalello (much damaged). 

Transept. On the right and left, by the pillars of the nave, are two 
'Ambones from the old choir, by Laurentius and Jacobus Cosmas. The Chapel 
on the right belongs to the Savelli; on the right and left (the latter origi- 
nally an ancient sarcophagus) are monuments of the family , of the 13lh 
cent, (of the parents and a brother of Honorius IV.). The left transept 
contains a rectangular canopy , borne by 8 columns of alabaster , called 

Bardf.ker. Italy II. 10th Edition. 14 

210 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

the Cappella Santa, or di S. Elena. Beneath the altar, which was 
destroyed during the French Revolution, but was restored in 1835, the 
remains of S. Helena are said to repose in an ancient sarcophagus of 
porphyry. The present altar also encloses an ancient altar, hearing the 
inscription Ara Primogeniti Dei, which is said to have been erected by 
Augustus. According to a legend of the 12th cent., this was the spot 
where the Sibyl of Tibur appeared to the emperor, whom the senate 
proposed to elevate to the rank of a god, and revealed to him a vision 
of the Virgin and her Son. Hence the name , 'Church of the Altar of 
Heaven'. At the end of the N. transept is the monument of Matthseus of 
Aquasparta (d. 1302), the general of the Franciscans, mentioned by Dante. 

Choir. To the left, the 'Tomb of Giov. Batt. Savelli (d. 1498). From 
1512 to 1565 the high-altar was adorned with the Madonna of Foligno by 
Raphael, ordered for this church, afterwards at Foligno (p. 79), and now in 
the Vatican. The donor, Sigismondo Conti da Foligno, is interred here. The 
present altar-piece is an ancient picture of the Madonna, ascribed to St. Luke. 

The Franciscan monastery belonging to the church was pulled 
down in 1888 to make room for the large Monument of Victor Emma- 
nuel II., which occupies the N. end of the Capitol. 

The Central Approach, ascending in low steps paved with 
asphalte ('la cordonnata'), leads to the Piazza del Campidoglio. At 
the foot of the steps are copies of the Egyptian Lions mentioned at 
p. 216, and at the top a group of the horse-taming Dioscuri (Castor 
and Pollux), which are said once to have adorned the theatre of 
Pompey. In the pleasure-grounds to the left is a bronze statue of 
Cola di Eienzi, by Masini. The pedestal, formed of ancient archi- 
tectural and inscribed fragments , is intended to suggest Rienzi's 
antiquarian studies. 

The design of the present *Piazza del Campidoglio, or Square 
of the Capitol (PI. II, 20), is due to Michael Angelo, and its execu- 
tion was begun in 1536 by Paul III. (comp. p. 224). The palaces 
of the Conservatori and Senators were already in existence , but 
their facades were altered. Michael Angelo caused the open space 
towards the slope of the hill to be widened, so as to impart to the 
piazza an appearance of greater size. — On the balustrade in front, 
at the sides of the Dioscuri, are the so-called Trophies of Marius, 
from the water-tower of that name of the Aqua Julia (p. 179), 
and the statues of the Emp. Constantine and his son Constans from 
the Thermae of Constantine (p. 174), on the Quirinal. On the right 
is the first ancient milestone of the Via Appia, and on the left the 
seventh milestone of the same road, found at Torricola in 1660. 

In the centre of the piazza rises the admirable *Equestrian Statue 
of Marcus Aurelius (161-181), in bronze, once gilded, and originally 
placed in the forum near the arch of Sept. Severus. In 1187 it was 
erected near the Lateran, and, as the inscription records, transferred 
hither in 1538. It owes its excellent preservation to the popular 
belief that it was a statue of Constantine, the first Christian emperor 
(see pp. 133, xxxviii). The pedestal is said to have been designed 
by Michael Angelo. Owing to its moderate height , the head of the 
statue is distinctly visible , whereas modern figures of the kind are 
often perched so high as to be almost indistinguishable. 

The Capitol. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 211 

Beyond this monument rises the Palazzo del Senators (PI. II, 
20, 2), which was re-erected by Boniface IX. in 1389 on the site 
of the ancient Tabularium, and provided with its handsome flight 
of steps by Michael Angelo, under whose directions it is probable 
that the facade was constructed by Oiac. della Porta. The river- 
gods which adorn it are the Tiber (right) and Nile (left). In the 
centre a fountain, above which is a sitting statue of Rome from 
Cori (comp. p. 386). The palace contains a spacious senate-hall, 
the offices of the civic administration, and an observatory. The Cam- 
panile was erected by Gregory XIII. in 1572, to replace an older 
one, probably belonging (like the four corner-towers, one of which 
towards the Forum, on the left, is still recognisable) to the edifice of 
Boniface. The roof of the tower, which is adorned with a standing 
figure of Roma, commands an extensive view (entrance, see p. 221). 

The two palaces at the sides were erected in the 17th cent, by 
Oiacomo del Duca, with some deviations from the plans of Michael 
Angelo. On the right is the Palace of the Conservatori (PI. i), 
or town-council, with its collections (see below ; a fire-engine station 
on the ground-floor), and opposite is the Capitoline Museum (PI. 12 ; 
p. 216). — The flights of steps and colonnades on the E. side of 
these palaces were erected by Vignola (ca. 1550) ; that to the left by 
the museum leads to the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli (p. 209); 
that to the right, on the opposite side, to Monte Caprino (p. 221). 

On the right of the Palace of the Senators runs the Via del 
Campidoglio, and on the left the Via dell' Arco di Settimio Severo 
(p. 237), both descending to the Forum. 

Collections of the Capitol. 
These are contained in the two side-palaces just mentioned, 
and are open daily, under the conditions mentioned at p. 123. 

A. *Palace of the Conservatori. 

(Comp. Plan, p. 216). 
The prinoipal door leads from the Piazza del Campidoglio into 
the Court. By the right wall of the court are the hands and limbs 
of a colossal figure in marble. In the middle is the cinerary urn of 
Agrippina, wife of Germanicus, which in the middle ages was em- 
ployed as a measure for corn ; inscription , Ossa Agrippinae M. 
Agrippae f. divi Augusti neptis uxoris Oermanici Caesaris Matris 
C. Caesaris Aug. Oermanici principis. By the left wall are alto- 
reliefs of Roman provinces, interspersed with barbaric trophies and 
weapons , which once adorned the lower part of the Temple of 
Neptune mentioned at p. 155; also a colossal head, perhaps of 
Domitian. — In the centre of the colonnade opposite the entrance, 
a statue of Roma; at the sides statues of barbarians in grey marble. 
To the left, in the corner, a colossal bronze head ; right an antique 


2 1 2 IV. Ancient Borne. ROME. The Capitol. 

group, *Horse torn by a lion, said to have been restored by Michael 

In the Entrance-Hall farther on , opposite the staircase, 30. 
Modern 'columna rostrata', with the genuine fragment of an in- 
scription in honour of C. Duilius, the victor of Mylas, B.C. 260, 
placed here in the reign of Claudius and composed in a purposely 
antiquated style. Below the window is a statue of Charles of An- 
jou, King of Sicily (formerly in the large Hall of the Capitol), who 
was Senator of Rome in 1263-66, 1268-78, and 1281-84. On each 
side of the Staircase are Roman inscriptions built into the wall, 
most of which were found on the Esquiline. — On the landing of 
the staircase is a list of streets in the 1st, 10th, 12th, 13th, and 
14th regions of ancient Rome, dating from 136 A.D. Built into the 
walls are four *Reliefs from a triumphal arch of M. Aurelius, found 
near S. Martina in the Forum : on the right, 44. Sacrifice in front 
of the Capitoline temple; on the long wall, 43. Entry of the em- 
peror ; 42. Pardon of conquered enemies; 41. His reception by 
Roma at the triumphal gate. On the walls are ancient inscriptions. 
— On the left, above the second landing, No. 43. Relief, Curtius 
on horseback leaping into the gulf (15th or 16th cent.). Opposite, 
inscription referring to Frederick II.'s victory over the Milanese. — 
In the passage above, two reliefs from the triumphal arch of M. Aur- 
elius (p. 153), which was removed in 1653 by order of Alexan- 
der VII., representing an oration of Marcus Aurelius and the apo- 
theosis of Faustina. On the left is the entrance to the Collections 
described below. 

We traverse two Rooms with modern lists of Roman magistrates, 
and enter a long Corridor containing the so-called Protomoteca, 
founded by Pius VII., a collection of busts of celebrated Italians, 
including poets (such as Dante, Petrarch, and Ariosto), scholars, 
painters, architects, and sculptors. At the end of the corridor is a 
monument to Canova. Several eminent foreigners have also been 
admitted: (1.) Winckelmann, (r.) Poussin and Raphael Mengs. On 
the walls are several old plans and views of Rome. — The second 
door to the right in this passage is the entrance to the New Capi- 
toline Museum (see below), while the last door but two leads to 
the picture-gallery (p. 214), and the last but one leads up two steps 
to the 7th, 6th, and 5th rooms of the New Capitoline Museum. 

The *New Capitoline Collection contains chiefly the bronzes 
and the yield of recent excavations. 

I. Room op thb Bronze Utensils. Bronze Chariot, with repre- 
sentations in relief ; *Bronze Seat, with a footstool, adorned with 
inlaid silver work, found at the ancient Amiternum ; Litter, partly 
inlaid with silver. Along the walls are smaller bronzes, including 
a Hermaphrodite, from whose back springs an arabesque, designed 
as a bearer. The door in front of us leads to the — 

The Capitol. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 213 

II. Room, which contains the Collection of Coins. — The door 
to the left leads into the large octagonal — 

III. Dome Saloon, lighted from above, and constructed of iron 
and wood in the Pompeian style, by Vespignani. In the Vestibule, 
to the right: 2. Tombstone of Q. Sulpicius Maximus, a boy of 11 V2 
years , who , according to the Latin inscription , worked himself to 
death after having gained the prize over 52 competitors for extem- 
porising in Greek verses, quotations from which are inscribed on 
each side of the statuette of the youthful poet. To the left : 8. Sit- 
ting figure of Terra Mater (Mother Earth), in a small temple with in- 
scription. — Opposite the entrance is a beautiful fountain-spout 
in the form of a drinking-horn, found in the garden of Maecenas 
(p. 182). 18. Youthful athlete pouring oil into Ms left hand; 14, 
16. Tritons, forming part of the following group. *15. Half-figure 
of the Emperor Commodus, with the attributes of Hercules ; the 
marble still displays its fine original polish ; the pedestal is formed 
by two Amazons (one only preserved) bearing a shield enclosed by 
cornucopias, below which is a celestial globe. 19. Figure of Bonus 
Eventus, with a cornucopia. 21. Large Sarcophagus fromVicovaro 
(p. 380), with hunting scenes. 24. Terpsichore; 25, 27. Well-pre- 
served youthful portrait-heads, found together on the Esquiline; 
*26. Venus in the act of loosening her hair (both arms missing). 
Then, two interesting statues of a post-Constantine period, each 
holding aloft a cloth in the right hand as the signal for starting in 
the chariot-race. Graceful seated figure of a young girl. 33. Statue 
of Claudia Justa, with attributes of Fortune ; Replica of the so- 
called Eros of Praxiteles (Vatican Gallery, p. 308), wrongly re- 
stored as a lyre-player; in a niche behind it, to the right, interest- 
ing *Relief , representing Vulcan and three Cyclopes making the 
shield of Achilles ; *36. Head of a Centaur (probably Chiron) ; 38, 
42. Athletes; *46. Marsyas bound to a tree (the tree, hands, and 
feet modern restorations). Opposite, *59. Head of an Amazon. In 
the middle, between the pillars : 62-65. Caryatides in the archaic 
style ; two large vases, the one with spirited Bacchic represen- 
tations particularly fine. 35. Infant Hercules with the lion's skin, 
club, and quiver, in his left hand the apples of the Hesperides ; 
10. Old woman carrying off a lamb. 

IV. Gallery. To the right : 46. Colossal bust of Maecenas ; 
*75, Fighting Hercules, with a portrait-head; several fine ancient 
Greek tombstones with female figures ; 70. Colossal foot in marble, 
with a Tyrrhenian sandal adorned with a pleasing composition of 
Tritons, Cupids, and Dolphins. On the walls of the Corridob. : 
Priest's boy with a sucking-pig for sacrifice. 125. Boy (restored as 
Mercury) playing with a tortoise (fountain-figure) ,• 124. Marble 
vase, richly adorned with acanthus leaves; 123. Boy with a small 
dog. On the sarcophagus to the right are several heads; that of 
Atthis (under glass) shows traces of painting and gilding. Bust of 

214 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

Anacreon, the poet, found in the gardens of Caesar, outside the 
Porta Portese. Adjacent, a torso of Athena, modelled after the Par- 
thenos of Phidias ; fragment of a marble shield with battle-scenes. 
To the left, 130. Silenus in a crouching attitude, a fountain-figure. 
We traverse the corridor of the Protomoteca (passing the monu- 
ment of Canova on the right), and enter the — 

V. Room of the Terracottas, chiefly common domestic utensils 
(pitchers, lamps, jars, etc.) and terracotta reliefs used as mural de- 
corations. In the corner to the left is a seated female figure. Reliefs 
■with landscapes (views of the Nile) and mythological scenes (Her- 
cules and Telephus), showing traces of colouring. Near the exit are 
an ivory diptych and a stilus, 

VI. Room of the Bronzes. At the entrance, *Priest's Boy (Ga- 
millus) ; Ephesian Diana, on a trilateral altar. By the window, the 
so-called *Capitoline Wolf, with Romulus and Remus; possibly 
the same which the aediles Cneius and Quintus Ogulnius erected in 
B. 0. 296, though more probahly of an early mediseval origin. An 
injury on the right hind-leg is supposed to have heen caused hy 
lightning, hy which , according to Cicero, the figure was struck in 
B.C. 65, in the consulate of Manlius and Cotta ; the twins are mod- 
ern. This work, with other bronzes, stood near the Lateran as early 
as the 9th century. 36. Small three-bodied Hecate. The * Thorn 
Extractor, a boy removing a thorn from his foot. Gilded Statue of 
Hercules. A Horse, sadly mutilated, but of excellent workmanship, 
found in 1849, together with the fragments of a Bull. Then a Co- 
lossal Hand and a Colossal Foot, found near the Pyramid of Cestius 
(comp. p. 252). To the left of the exit, an expressive *Brome 
Head, said to be that of C. Junius Brutus, who expelled the kings 
and became the first consul; eyes of coloured stone. Vase, found near 
Anzio, presented by King Mithridates to a gymnasium (foot and 
handles modern). 

VII. Room of the Etruscan Terracottas, or the so-called 
Museo Italico, a collection of vases, terracottas (including two sar- 
cophagi with figures on the lids), bronzes, and various anticaglias 
from Etruria and Latium. Under glass : Silver cover of a cist with 
archaic figures of animals, found at Palestrina. 

On quitting this collection we pass through the first door on the 
right in the corridor and ascend to the — 

Picture Gallery ('Pinacoteca'), founded by Benedict XIV. In 
a straight direction we enter the first saloon. The names of the 
artists and the subjects are attached to the pictures. 

I. First Saloon. Entrance-wall, to the right of the door: *89. Rubens, 
Romulus and Remus. Right wall: 145. Giorgione, Holy 1'amily ; 6. Roma- 
nelli, St. Cecilia; 7. Pietro da Cortona, Triumph of Dionysus ; 65. Oarofalo, 
Madonna and saints; 127. Lorenzo di Credi, Madonna and Child; 13. Ouer- 
cino, John the Baptist; 14. N. Poussin, Flora (copy of the picture in the 
Louvre); 16. Ouido Rent, M. Magdalene; 20. Domenichino, Cumsean Sibyl. 
Narrow wall : 142. Albani, Nativity of the Virgin ; 26. Tintoretto, M. Mag- 
dalene ; 210. Gaud. Ferrari, Madonna : 27. Fra JJartolommeo (?), Presentation 

The Capitol. ROME. IV. Ancient Borne. 215 

in the Temple ; 30. Garofalo , Holy Family ; 34. Guercino , Persian Sibyl ; 
70. Paolo Veronese , Madonna and saints (copy) ; above, Lo Spagna, Two 
saints (fresco). Left window-wall: 9. Albani, Magdalene; 52. S. Botticelli, 
Madonna and saints ; 55. Ag. Carracci, Holy Family ; 196. Cola delV Ama- 
trice, Assumption; 51. School of Raphael, Holy Family; 195. Paolo Vero- 
nese, Ascension; 54. Garofalo, Coronation of St. Catharine; 2. Guido Reni, 
A glorified spirit (unfinished). Entrance-wall : 91. G. Reni, Sketch for No. 2 ; 
76. P. Caravaggio, Meleager; 78.' Fr. Francia, Madonna (1513). On the right 
window-wall , above : Ten frescoes attributed to Lo Spagna, representing 
Apollo and the Muses, formerly at La Magliana (p. 393). 

II. Saloon. Entrance-wall: Pietro da Gortona, 58. Sacrifice of Iphi- 
geneia, 190. Alexander and Darius. Right wall: 47. P. da Cortona, 
Rape of the Sabine women; 116. Guido Reni, St. Sebastian; 117. Guercino, 
Cleopatra and Octavian; 119. Lod. Carracci, St. Sebastian; 128. Caravaggio, 
Fortune-telling gipsy. Short wall : "'143. Guercino, St. Petronella raised from 
her tomb and shown to her bridegroom. Left wall : 154. Paolo Veronese, 
Magdalene; 41. JV. Poussin, Orpheus; 169. Gignani, Madonna; 164. Garo- 
falo, Madonna ; 180. Titian, Christ and the adulteress ; *224. Paolo Veronese, 
Rape of Europa. 

III. Room. "132. Giov. Bellini, Portrait; 87. St. Nicholas, by the 
same ; 124. Paris Bordone (catalogued as Titian), Baptism of Christ ; 136. 
Gentile Bellini (?), Petrarch; 129. Giov. Bellini, Portrait; 49. Domenichino, 
Landscape with Hercules; 103. Domenichino, St. Barbara; 66. Bronzino, 
Portrait of a lady ; 137. Domenichino , Landscape with St. Sebastian ; 98. 
School of Bellini, Holy Family. Right wall: 222. Bassano, Christ in the 
house of the Pharisee; also a few good landscapes. 

IV. Room. 80. Velazquez, Portrait ; ,! 100. Van Dyck, Portraits of Thos. 
Killegrew and Henry Carew ; -134. Portrait of Michael Angelo, probably 
by himself; "iQfo. Van Dyck, Two portraits; "61. Guido Reni, Portrait of 
himself; Garofalo, 161. Annunciation, 201. Transfiguration, 204. Ador- 
ation of the Magi ; 223. Paolo Veronese, Madonna with angels. 

The Sale dei Conservatori (i.e. of the town-councillors) contain 
frescoes and other works of art. chiefly of the end of the 16th century. 

We pass through a Corridor, containing a collection of porcelain pre- 
sented by Conte Cini, and the old Chapel, containing an altar-piece (Ma- 
donna) by Agostino d'Ingegno , formerly ascribed to Pinturicchio. We 
then reach the I. Room, the walls of which are frescoed by Sodoma with 
scenes from the Punic Wars. — II. Room (to the right) : Frescoes by Lau- 
reti; statues of the generals Marcantonio Colonna, Alexander Farnese, Ro- 
spigliosi, Aldobrandini, and Barberini. — Large Saloon, with frescoes by 
the Cavaliere d~Arpino, representing the Combat of the Horatii and the 
Curiatii, and other scenes from the period of the Kings ; it also contains a 
bronze statue of Innocent X. by Algardi, and a marble statue of Urban 
VIII. by Bernini. — We now return through R. II. into the IV. Room. 
Scenes from the Cimbrian war, and several antique busts. — V. Room: 
Fragments of the "Fasti Consulares, or lists of Roman consuls, found in the 
16th cent, (and smaller fragments in 1818 and 1872), between the temples 
of Castor and Faustina. They were originally exhibited in the Regia, or 
official residence of the Pontifex Maximus (p. 231). The busts of B. Bor- 
gheii (by Tadolini) and W. Henzen (by Kopf), two scholars who explained 
the Fasti, were placed here in 1888. The ancient hermee with modern in- 
scriptions are unimportant. — VI. Room. Several antiques : jug in the 
form of a female head in bronze ; two ducks ; head of Medusa, by Bernini. 
— VII. Room, a small room, with relics of Garibaldi, weapons, garlands, 
banners, letters, etc. — VIII. Room, formerly the assembly-hall of the 
Senate. The frieze, representing scenes from the life of Scipio Africanus, is 
attributed to Ann. Carracci. On the walls is tapestry woven at S. Michele. 
Bust of Michael Angelo, attributed to himself. Also busts in marble of 
Victor Emmanuel, Cavour, and Mazzini. 

216 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

B. **Capitoline Museum. 

This museum was founded by Innocent X., and extended by 
Clement XII., Benedict XIV., Clement XIII., and Pius VI. The 
works carried off by the French were restored with few exceptions 
to Pius VII. The collection is much smaller than that of the Vatican, 
but is rich in admirable works. Catalogue, prepared for the Com- 
missione Archeologica Municipale in 1882, sold at the entrance (3 fr.). 

a. Ground Floor. 

Court (Cortile). Above the fountain in the centre is the 
*Marforio, a colossal river- god holding a shell, probably repre- 
senting the Rhine or Danube, erected in the middle ages in the 
Via di Marforio opposite the Career Mamertinus, where it was em- 
ployed as a vehicle for the sarcastic answers to the interrogatories 
of Pasquino (see p. 201). Among the other sculptures, most of 
which are unimportant, are the two*Egyptian Lions of basalt ( form- 
erly at the foot of the steps of the Capitol), two Granite Columns 
with reliefs, and two large Canopi (dog-faced baboons), all from the 
Temple of Isis (p. 195). 

Corridor (PI. 4), to the left of the entrance: 3. Colossal 
Minerva ; 5. Bacchante ; below, Sarcophagus with Bacchanalian re- 
presentation , purposely mutilated. — On the left, at the end, is 
the entrance to the — 

I. Room (PI. 1). Sarcophagus with a lion-hunt. In the centre 
is an altar with a sacrificial relief, erected by the superintendents 
of a Roman district (Vicus jEsculati), found in 1888 near the Ponte 
Garibaldi. On the walls are several ancient mosaics, one of which 
(No. 27) seems to represent a vessel leaving port (found on the 
Quirinal in 1878). Above the door of the 2nd room : 20. Cupids 
binding a lion, with Hercules in female attire spinning in the back- 
ground. By the door, under glass, is a mosaic representing the ris- 
ing of the Nile. — The two following rooms (PI. 2, 3) contain in- 
scriptions, sarcophagi, etc., of little general interest. 

We return to the Corridor (PI. 4). To the left : several med- 
iocre female draped statues. ■ — To the right of the principal en- 
trance : (right) 25. Diana; 24. Hercules; 23. Lima; 21. Mercury; 
(left) 14. Cyclopean Polyphemus with one of his victims (erroneously 
restored); (left) 15. Hadrian as apriest; (right) 20. Jupiter; below, 
Sarcophagus with the Calydonian Hunt; (right) 19. Colossal Mars 
(legs modern) ; 17. Hercules with the Hydra, found in the 16th cent, 
near S. Agnese in the Via Nomentana and restored by Algardi (the 
parts originally missing, the Hydra and leg of Hercules, were after- 
wards discovered and are now exhibited beside the restored group). 
— Adjacent, to the right, is the entrance to three rooms containing 
inscriptions and several interesting sarcophagi. 

I. Room (PI. 5). In the centre : Ara, which stood in the market- 



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(it- i>vn~ a P^ Anstajt von 

Waf^npT * Dt'bea. L<*ipzig- 

The Capitol. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 217 

place of Albano till 1743, with archaic representation of the ex- 
ploits of Hercules. Also a few insignificant busts. — II. Room 
(PI. b). *5. Sarcophagus with battle between the Romans and 
Gauls ; the commander of the latter commits suicide (perhaps Ane- 
rocstus, defeated B.C. 225 near Pisa); (left) 11. Cippus of T. Sta- 
tilius Aper, the architect ('mensor aedificiorum'), with a wild boar 
(aper) at his feet and a measuring wand and other instruments at 
the sides. On the walls are inscriptions. — III. Room (PI. 7). 
Large *Sarcophagus (formerly supposed to be that of Alex. Severus 
and his mother Mammrea) , with scenes from the life of Achilles. 
Achilles among the daughters of Lycomedes, (left) farewell of Dei- 
damia, (right) arming of Achilles; at the back, Priam begging for 
the body of Hector (found in 1594 with the Portland Vase of the 
British Museum on the Mte. del Grano , near the Porta Furba, 
p. 347). Left of the door : 15. Sitting statue of Pluto. — We now 
return to the hall, and ascend the staircase to the — 

b. First Floor. 

Staircase (PL 8). Into the walls are built the fragments of 
the marble Plan of Rome, an important topographic relic, executed 
under Sept. Severus, found in the 16th cent, near SS. Cosma e Da- 
miano (p. 231). Portions of the pieces found have been lost, but 
supplemented from the extant drawings (these parts are indicated 
by asterisks). On the landing of the stair are two female statues, 
groundlessly designated as Pudicitia and Juno Lanuvina. 

I. Room op the Dying Gladiator. In the centre: 1. **Dying 
Gladiator, found at Rome in the 16th cent, and originally preserved 
in the Villa Ludovisi. The trifling restorations (right arm and part 
of the base) are said to have been made by Michael Angelo. 

The dying warrior, recognized as a Gaul by his twisted collar, short 
hair, and mustache, is sitting on his shield, while the blood pours from 
his wounded breast ; he has evidently inflicted the fatal blow himself, 
having previously broken the crooked horn which lies on his shield. He 
has preferred death to captivity, and exhibits the same dignity of char- 
acter as the Barbarian in the group now in the Villa Ludovisi (p. 173), 
which was probably found at the same time (comp. p. xxxiv). The visitor 
will readily recall the exquisite lines by Byron : Childe Harold, Canto iv., 140. 

7. (right of the door) Apollo with lyre. Right wall : *5. Head of 
Dionysus, erroneously taken for a woman's (Ariadne's); 4. Ama- 
zon; 3. Alexander the Great; 2. Demeter. Wall opposite the en- 
trance: 16. Head of M. Jun. Brutus, the 'tu quoque Brute' of Cae- 
sar; 15. Priestess of Isis ; 14. Flora from the villa of Hadrian. Left 
wall : *12. Antinous from Hadrian's villa (p. xxxvii); below, Tomb- 
stone erected by a freedman of Tiberius to his wife, with elegant 
Greek and Latin verses and tasteful ornamentation. *10. Satyr of 
Praxiteles, the best of the extant copies (p. xxxii). 

This is the figure which suggested the title of Nathaniel Hawthorne's 
romance, The Marble Faun (see p. 128), in the opening pages of which oc- 
curs a fine description of the statue. 

218 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

9. Girl protecting a dove; instead of the modern snake, there was 
probably a dog , or some other animal in the original. Entrance- 
wall: 8. Zeno, found in 1701 in a villa of Antoninus Pius at CiviU 

II. Stanza del Fauno. On the walls reliefs, inscriptions, etc., 
among them the Lex Regia of Vespasian (black tablet of bronze on 
the entrance- wall), whence Cola di Rienzi, 'the last of the Tribunes', 
once demonstrated to the people the might and liberty of ancient 
Rome. In the centre, 1. Satyr (Fauno) in rosso antico, raising a 
bunch of grapes to his mouth , from Hadrian's villa , placed on a 
remarkable altar, dedicated to Serapis. Window-wall: 26. Colossal 
head of Bacchus, on a circular arawith a rostrum, and the inscription 
ara tranquillitatis , found together with the Ara Ventorum and the 
Ara Neptuni at the harbour of Anzio (p. 397), where they were em- 
ployed by sailors for offering sacrifices. Wall of egress : 4. Head 
of Mercury (?) ; 3. Sarcophagus with relief of Diana and Endymion ; 
*6. Head of Juno Sospita ; 8. Boy with mask of Silenus. Right wall : 
10. Minerva; 12. Mars. Entrance-wall: 15. Bust of Hercules ; 16. 
Boy struggling with a goose, copy of a statue by Boethos, excavated 
near the Lateran in 1741 ; *18. Sarcophagus with battle of Ama- 
zons, and, on its left corner, 21. Head of Ariadne crowned with ivy. 

III. Large Saloon. In the centre: 1. JEsculapius, in nero an- 
tico, on an altar representing a sacrifice. *2, 4. Two Centaurs in 
bigio morato, by Aristeas and Papias, found in Hadrian's villa in 
1736 ; 3. Colossal basaltic statue of the youthful Hercules, found 
on the Aventine ; it stands on a beautiful altar of Jupiter , embel- 
lished with representations of his birth, education, etc. ; 5. Ju- 
piter, in nero antico, or black marble, found at Anzio, on an 
altar adorned with Mercury, Apollo , and Diana , in the archaic 
style. — Window-wall to the left of the entrance : 29. Portrait- 
statue restored as Hygieia; 31. Apollo with lyre; 32. M. Aurelius ; 
33. Amazon ; 34. Mars and Venus , with portrait-features ; 36. 
Athena. — Wall of egress : 6. Satyr ; 7. Apollo ; 8. Minerva ; 9. Co- 
lossal bust of Trajan with civic crown. — Right wall : 13. Hadrian 
as Mars, found nearCeprano. In the niche : *17. Athena, archaistic 
statue. 19. Amazon; 20. Apollo; 21. Mercury; 22. Old nurse, 
probably from a group of the Children of Niobe ; 24. Ceres (?). — 
Entrance-wall: 25. Colossal bust of Antoninus Pius ; 27. Hunter 
with a hare; 28. Harpocrates, god of silence, from Hadrian's Villa. 

IV. Room of the Philosophers. On the wall valuable *Reliefs, 
six from the frieze of a temple of Neptune, with sacrificial imple- 
ments and parts of ships (Nos. 99, 100 1C2, 104, 105, 107). —In the 
centre (No. 98) the sitting consular *Statue of Marcus Claudius Mar- 
cellus (?), conqueror of Syracuse, B. C. 212, from the Giustiniani 
collection , formerly in the Museo Chiaramonti. Also 93 *Busts of 
Celebrated Characters of Antiquity, to some of which arbitrary names 
are affixed. 1. Virgil (?); 4, *5, 6. Socrates; 9. Aristides the ora- 

The Capitol. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 219 

tor; 10. Seneca (?) ; 13. Lysias(?); 16. Marcus Agtippa ; 19. Theo- 
phrastus ; 20. Marcus Aurelius ; 21 . Diogenes the Cynic ; 22. So- 
phocles (not Archimedes) ; 23. Thales ; 24. Asclepiades ; 25. Theon ; 
27. Pythagoras; 28. Alexander the Great (?) ; 30. Aristophanes (?) ; 
31. Demosthenes; 33, 34. Sophocles; 35. Alcihiades (? certainly 
notPersius); 37. Hippocrates; 38. Aratus(?); 39, 40. Democritus 
of Abdera ; 41, 42, 43. Euripides ; 44, 45, *46. Homer ; 47. Epimen- 
ides; 48. On. Domitius Cortmlo, general under Claudius and Nero; 
*49. Scipio Africanus , recognisable by the wound on his head 
which he received when a youth at the battle of Ticinus, whilst 
saving his father's life ; 52. Cato of Utica (?) ; 54. Minerva ; 55. Cleo- 
patra (?); *59. Arminius(?), erroneously named Cecrops; 60. Thu- 
cydides(?); 61. ^Eschines ; 62. Metrodorus ; 63. Epicurus and Me- 
trodorus ; 64. Epicurus ; 68, 69. Masinissa ; 70. Antisthenes ; 72, 
73. Julian the Apostate ; 75. Cicero ; 76. Terence , according to 
others C. Asinius Pollio ; *82. ^Eschylus (?). The names of the 
busts by the window-wall are unknown. 

V. Room of the Busts op thb Emperors. Reliefs by the 
entrance-wall : *92. Endymion asleep , beside him the watchful 
dog ; *89. Perseus liberates Andromeda (these two belong to the 
eight reliefs in the Pal. Spada, p. 206). Above the window are 
other sarcophagus -reliefs. — The collection of the emperors' 
busts is one of the most complete in existence ; the names are 
for the most part verified by coins (comp. p. xxxv). In the centre : 
*84. Sitting female statue, believed to be Agrippina, daughter of M. 
Agrippa, wife of Germanicus and mother of Caligula. The number- 
ing of the busts commences in the upper tow, to the left of the 
entrance-door. 1. Julius Caesar; 2. Augustus; 3. Marcellus, nephew 
of the latter (?) ; 4, 5. Tiberius; 6. Drusus the elder; 7. Drusus, 
son of Tiberius ; 8. Antonia, wife of the elder Drusus , mother of 
Germanicus and Claudius ; 9. Germanicus ; 10. Agrippina, his wife ; 
*11. Caligula, in basalt; 12. Claudius, son of Drusus; 13. Messa- 
lina , fifth wife of Claudius ; 14. Agrippina the younger, daughter 
of Germanicus, mother of Nero; 15. Nero; 17. Poppsea, Nero's sec- 
ond wife ; 18. Galba; 19. Otho ; 20. Vitellius (?) ; 21. Vespasian; 
22. Titus; 23. Julia, Ms daughter; 24. Domitian; 26. Nerva (mod- 
ern?); 27. Trajan; 28. Plotina, his wife; 29. Martiana, his sister; 
30. Matidia, her daughter; 31, 32. Hadrian; 33. Sabina, his wife; 
34. jElius Caesar, his adopted son; 35. Antoninus Pius; 36. 
Faustina the elder, his wife ; 37. M. Aurelius as a boy ; 38. M. 
Aurelius, more advanced in life ; 39. Faustina the younger, daugh- 
ter of Antoninus, wife of Aurelius; 41. Lucius Verus; 43. Corn- 
modus; 45. Pertinax; 50, 51. Septim. Severus; 53. Caracalla; 57. 
Heliogabalus ; 60. Alex. Severus ; *62. Maximin ; 63. Maximus, 
son of Maximin ; 64. Gordian Afr. ; 65. Gordian ; 76. Gallienus; 
80. Diocletian (?) ; 82. Julian the Apostate (probably a Greek 
philosopher; the inscription is mediaeval). We next enter the — 

220 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

VI. Corridor. At the left end : Beautiful marble vase on an 
archaistic *Puteal with the 12 gods : Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, Her- 
cules , Apollo, Diana, Mars, Venus, Vesta, Mercury, Neptune, 
and Vulcan. By the window to the left: *33. Bust of Caligula; 
Then, the back of the visitor being turned to the window : (1.) 
30. Trajan; (1.) *29. Pallas, found at Velletri, exactly corres- 
ponding to the statue (No. 114) in the Braccio Nuovo of the Va- 
tican ; (1.) 28. M. Aurelius, as a boy; (l.)*35. Head of Silenus; 
(1.) 26. Augustus ; (1.) 25. Jupiter, on a cippus with relief : Claudia 
Quinta drawing a boat containing the image of the Magna Mater up 
the Tiber; (r.) 38. Venus; (r.) 42. Female draped statue. (The 
door opposite leads to the Venus room.) Left, 21. Head of Apollo ; 
(r.) 43. Antinous; (l.)20. Psyche; (r.) 46. Selene; below, *Sar- 
cophagus with representation of the birth and education of Bac- 
chus. Here and in the following compartments, on the right, are 
immured the inscriptions from the columbarium of the freedmen of 
Livia (found in 1726 near the church of Domine Quo Vadis). Right : 
48. Child of Niobe ; (1. ) 15. Venus ; (r.) 49. Juno ; (1.) 14. Marble 
vessel with Bacchanalian scenes ; (r.) 50. Copy of the discus- 
thrower of Myron (Pal. Lancelotti, p. 190), incorrectly restored as 
a warrior; (1.) 12. Flute-playing Satyr; (r.) 52. Muse; (1.) 10. 
Octagonal cinerary urn with Cupids in the attitudes of celebrated 
statues ; 54. Venus , with portrait-head ; below, (r. ) Sarcophagus 
with the rape of Proserpine and the child Hercules with the 
snakes; (1.) Archaistic relief, a lute-player (?); (1.) 8. Old woman 
intoxicated ; (r.) 58. Sitting draped statue. Opposite the entrance 
to the Room of the Doves-: (1.) *5. Cupid bending his bow (after 
Lysippus); (r.) 60. Flute-plnying Satyr; (1.) 3. Recumbent lion ; 
(r.) 61. Silenus; (r.) 62. Septimius Serverus ; (1.) by the window, 
63. Roman matron (perhaps the elder Faustina) ; 64. M. Aurelius. 

VII. Room op the Dotes , so called from the *Mosaic on the 
right wall : Doves on a Fountain-basin , found in Hadrian's Villa 
near Tibur (p. 375), copy of a celebrated work by Sosus of Perga- 
mum, mentioned by Pliny. Below it, a sarcophagus : 13. Prome- 
theus forming man , whom Minerva inspires with life, in a style 
showing the transition to the Christian period of art. Farther on, 
by the right wall, a mosaic with several masks. Under them : *37. 
Sarcophagus with Selene and Endymion. On the narrow wall are 
several fine Roman portrait-busts. By the left wall, in the 2nd 
window, 83. the Ilian Tablet, a small relief in palombino, a soft 
kind of marble, with the destruction of Troy and flight of .(Eneas 
in the centre , and many other incidents from the legends of the 
Trojan war, explained by Greek inscriptions, probably designed 
for purposes of instruction, found near Bovillae. 83a. Fragment of 
a representation of the shield of Achilles , inscribed on the back 
as the work of Theodoros, found in 1882 near S. Maria della Vit- 
toria on the Esquiline ; on the broad margin of the marble are 

The Capitol. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 221 

seve ty-five lines from Homer's description of the shield in Book 
XVIII. of the Iliad. 83b. Fragment of another representation of the 
same subject. 

VIII. Room of Venus. Adjoining the gallery is the Venus 
Room, -which contains the ** Capitoline Venus, unquestionably the 
workmanship of a Greek chisel , and the most admirable of all the 
existing copies of the Aphrodite of Cnidus by Praxiteles (p. xxxii), 
the perfect type of feminine grace. The statue was found almost 
uninjured in a carefully walled-up niche between the Viminal and 
Quirinal. — Left , Leda with the swan , a mediocre work ; right, 
*Cupid and Psyche, found on the Aventine. 

On the S. height of the Capitol, called the Monte Caprino 
(to which a flight of steps ascends to the right at the back of the 
Palace of the Conservatory comp. p. 211), stands the so-called 
Casa Tarpeia with the Protestant hospital and the new German 
Archaeological Institute , erected in 1874-76 by Laspeyres , at the 
cost of the German government. In the garden (custodian, Monte 
Caprino 25) is shown the Bupe Tarpeia, or Tarpeian Rock. If 
this really be the rock from which the condemned used to be thrown 
by the ancient Romans, its height and abruptness must have been 
greatly diminished since that period; and as, moreover, it is by no 
means certain that it was situated here, a visit to the spot may well 
be omitted. Ancient substructures of solid stone, which were dis- 
covered in the garden of the Pal. Caffarelli (p. 209) in 1866, be- 
long to the temple of the Capitoline Jupiter (p. 208). 

The imposing ruins on which the Senatorial Palace has been 
erected (entrance by the gate in the Via del Campidoglio , comp. 
p. 211 ; we then enter the door to the right with the superscription 
'Tabulario e Torre Capitolina' ; fee 50 pf. ; rules as to admission the 
same as in the case of the Capitoline collections, p. 212) belonged to 
the *Tabularium, erected in B.C. 78 by the consul Q. Lutatius 
Catulus for the reception of the state archives, and resting on the 
massive substructures which surround the hill. " It consisted of a 
fivefold series of vaults, the last of which opened towards the 
Forum in the form of a colonnade with half-columns in the Doric 
style, which are still visible. The vaults were used in the middle 
ages as a public salt magazine, and the stones have been much 
corroded by the action of the salt. From this point there is a beauti- 
ful *View of the Forum. The rooms contain architectural fragments 
from the neighbouring temples and other buildings, and a valuable 
collection of amphora? (lower floor) found on the Bsquiline within 
the last few years. An ancient flight of steps, now partly restored, 
descended hence to the Forum, where, to the left of the temple of 
Vespasian, the archway where it issued is observed. From the colon- 
nade we may ascend to the left through the door marked 'Torre 

222 IV. Ancient Borne. ROME. Forum Romanum. 

Capitolina' to the top (2G1 steps) of the Campanile of the Palazzo 
del Senatore (p. 211). 

The Forum Romanum. 

(Cornp. Sketch- Plan.) 

In the most ancient times the Capitol and Palatine were sep- 
arated hy a deep and marshy valley. The pavement hy the col- 
umn of Phocas lies 38 ft. above the level of the sea, and 22 ft. 
above the level of the Tiber, but was nevertheless frequently in- 
vaded by inundations. In consequence of the lowness of this 
valley , it was , as may well be supposed , a difficult and tedious 
task to raise the level and drain the marsh. For this purpose Tar- 
quinius Priscus, the fifth of the kings, is said to have constructed 
the Cloaca Maxima, which still renders good service (p. 248) ; and 
several canalicolae , or tributary drains which fell into the main 
channel, have recently been discovered. Tradition makes this hol- 
low the scene of the conflict of the Romans under Romulus against 
the Sabines under Titus Tatius after the rape of the Sabine women. 
After the hostile tribes were amalgamated into a single state, they 
chose the Forum as its centre , and it was here that some of the 
most famous scenes in the history of the Roman Republic were 
enacted. On the N. side (S. Adriano) lay the Curia Hostilia, or 
council-hall , which is said to have been erected by King Tullus 
Hostilius ; while on the S. side, at the foot of the Palatine, rose the 
Temple of Vesta (S. Maria Liberatrice) , with its eternal fire , and 
the Regia, or dwelling of the Pontifex Maximus , the president of 
the Roman hierarchy. The Comitium, or open space in the centre, 
was the place where popular assemblies were wont to be held. The 
Forum was bounded by streets , the most important of which was 
the Sacra Via ascending to the Capitol. In the Forum and its en- 
virons building operations and various changes have been taking 
place at intervals for upwards of two thousand years, and it is there- 
fore not to be wondered at that a number of topographical questions 
regarding it are still unsolved, and that the imagination of scholars 
has indulged in the most extravagant flights with regard to this 
spot more than any other in Rome. It is , however , ascertained 
that the Forum extended from the foot of the Capitol , sloping 
downwards towards the E. , although it has sometimes been erron- 
eously supposed that it extended from N. to S. The Basilica 
Julia marks the S. boundary of the Republican Forum, and the 
E. boundary was probably near the prolongation of the Via di San 
Lorenzo, as private houses only have been discovered beyond. Along 
the sides of the Forum were ranged the tabernae veteres and novae or 
shops, which were originally occupied by butchers and other crafts- 
men, and afterwards by money-changers and goldsmiths. In the 
course of time a number of temples, public buildings, and monuments 


M N S 


ft'agner frDcbes Leipzig 

Forum Romanum. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 223 

were erected here. Of those still existing the most ancient is the 
Career Mamertinus (p. 237), or well-house, situated on the slope of 
the Capitol, the foundation of which reaches back to the period of the 
kings. Soon after the temple of the Capitoline Jupiter (p. 208), were 
founded the Temples of Saturn (B.C. 491) and Castor and Pollux 
(484). The Temple of Concord (366) commemorates the termination 
of the protracted struggle between the patricians and the plebeians. 
At the period of the Samnite War , which resulted in the exten- 
sion of Rome's supremacy over the whole of Italy, we are informed 
that the Forum underwent many embellishments. At last, how- 
ever, as it was only 150 yds. in length, its area became too confined 
for the important and multifarious business transacted within its 
precincts ; for it was not used for political and commercial pur- 
poses only, but for the celebration of the funerals of the nobility, 
for the gladiator combats which were introduced about the year 
204, and on other public occasions. The first expedient for gaming 
space was the erection of basilicas , or quadrangular courts sur- 
rounded by colonnades, adjoining the Forum, with a view to draw 
off a portion of the traffic. In 184 Cato erected the Basilica Porcia 
on the N. side; in 179 followed the Basilica Aimilia, and in 169 
the Basilica Sempronia. The task was prosecuted with the utmost 
energy by Cesar , who extended the Forum by the addition of the 
Forum Julium (pp. 237, 239), and appears to have projected a cut- 
ting through the hill which connected the Capitol with the Qui- 
rinal in order to facilitate communication with the new quarter 
which was rapidly springing up in the Campus Martius. He also 
restored the Curia Hostilia, and erected the spacious Basilica Julia 
on the S. side of the Forum. Augustus proceeded to carry out the 
plans of his uncle, and to that emperor is chiefly due the arrange- 
ment of the Forum which the present excavations are bringing to 
light. All the edifices of the Republic were restored by him and 
his successors , whose energetic building operations extended over 
the first four centuries of the Christian era. They thus endeav- 
oured, as it would appear, to compensate their subjects by ex- 
ternal magnificence for the loss of liberty they had sustained. 
Five new fora , constructed between the time of Caesar and that of 
Trajan, adjoined each other on the N. side of the old Forum, thus 
connecting the central point of the original city with the palatial 
buildings of the Campus Martius. By these new fora the Forum of 
the Republic would have been well nigh eclipsed, but for the glor- 
ious traditions connected with it , to commemorate which it was 
profusely adorned with gilded bronzes and rare marbles , with 
columns , triumphal arches , statues , and works of art , while its 
history was recorded by innumerable inscriptions. 

These ancient buildings were restored for the last time in the reign 
of King Theodoric, in the first half of the 6th century, and the last new 
monument erected in the Forum was the Column of Phocas , dating from 
608, but the rudeness of the architecture distinctly betrays the degraded 

224 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Forum Romanum. 

taste of the period. As early indeed as the first half of the Gth cent, had begun 
tne war of extermination waged by the Middle Ages against paganism. An- 
cient temples were transformed into churches, such as those of S. Giuseppe, 
S. Luca, S. Adriano, S. Lorenzo, SS. Cosma e Damiano, S. Francesca, and 
S. Maria Liberatrice. These were afterwards frequently altered and restored, 
while others of the, same class have entirely disappeared. Interspersed with 
these churches were the towers and castles of the Roman nobility, erected 
among the ruins of the ancient buildings in the style best adapted for 
the prosecution of their perpetual feuds. In most cases, the dimensions 
of the monuments of antiquity, were far too vast to admit of their being 
used for mediaeval purposes, but another mode of utilising these immense 
masses of building materials readily suggested itself. Throughout a 
thousand years the edifices of ancient Rome were employed as quarries, 
from which churches and secular buildings alike derived their columns, 
their blocks of solid stone, and, owing to a still more destructive pro- 
ceeding, their supplies of lime also from the burning of marble. The fact 
that in the Basilica Julia alone there have been discovered lime-kilns and 
stone-masons' yards at three different places will convey an idea of the vast 
quantity of marble, bearing valuable inscriptions and artistic enrichments, 
which must have been destroyed in this way; and it need hardly be observed 
that the bronzes of antiquity were still more eagerly appropriated in an 
age when metal of every kind was scarce. This accounts for the miser- 
ably small number of statues and inscriptions which modern excavations 
have yielded. After the systematic destruction of the Forum, its remains 
were gradually buried beneath the rubbish and debris of some four 
centuries, so that the ancient pavement is at places 4U ft. below the present 
level of the ground. Down to the 8th cent, the ancient level was unal- 
tered. In the 11th and 12th centuries the Forum was thickly covered 
with towers and fortress walls, which closed up the old streets, and when 
these were demolished about the year 1221, the ground appears for the 
first time to have been covered with an accumulation of rubbish. Fresh 
deposits were afterwards made when the new buildings on the neigh- 
bouring heights were in course of erection. This was particularly the 
case in 1536, when Paul III. constructed a triumphal street from the Porta 
S. Sebastiano through the arches of Constantine and Titus, and around 
the N. side of the Capitol (on which occasion the new approaches to 
the latter were formed, p. 208). He caused 200 houses between the 
arches of Titus and Severus to be demolished, and he constructed on 
their site the piazza as it stood until recently. The large buildings erect- 
ed by Sixtus V. probably also contributed to the raising of the level of 
the ground. 

In the middle ages, and down to the present day, the Forum was 
popularly known as the Campo Vacclno. Its desolate area was covered 
with the teams of buffaloes and oxen of the peasantry, and smiths and 
carpenters established their workshops around it, while a few isolated 
columns, protruding from the rubbish, alone formed a reminiscence of its 
departed glory. And thus it remained until the 19th century. As early 
as 1519 Raphael had indeed formed a plan for restoring the ancient city, 
and especially the Forum, by means of extensive excavations; and during 
his lifetime, and subsequently, particularly in 1540-47, the work was 
begun in the neighbourhood of the temple of Castor and Faustina. The 
object in view, however, being merely the discovery of monuments and 
works of art, the excavations were soon filled up again, and in the 17th 
and 18th centuries were entirely discontinued. At length, during the present 
century, the plan was revived by the modern spirit of investigation. In 
1803 the arch of Severus, in 1813 the column of Phocas, and in 1816-19 
the Clivus Capitolinns with its temples, were disinterred under the super- 
intendence of Carlo Fea. In 1835, and during the republic in 1848, part 
of the Basilica Julia was excavated by Canina, but from that year down 
to 1871 the work was discontinued. The Italian government resumed the 
excavations again with considerable energy; and by these last operations 
the Basilica, the temples of Castor, Csesar, and Vesta, the Atrium Vestae, 
and a great part of the neighbouring streets have been brought to light, 

Forum Romanum. ROME. IV. Ancient Borne. 225 

and an admirable clue to the arrangements of the whole locality has thus 
been obtained. The excavations are carried on under the superintendence 
of Senator Fiorelli, but serious obstacles are presented to the work by the 
growing requirements of modern business. When the demolition of the 
houses between S. Adriano and S. Lorenzo is effected, the undertaking, 
which was planned and begun when the Renaissance was at its zenith and 
has since been so frequently resumed, will be finally and satisfactorily 
completed, and the most memorable spot in the history of Europe will 
at length be fully brought to light and purged of the unseemly accumu- 
lations of rubbish heaped upon it by the neglect of centuries. 

The Entrance to the excavations (open in summer 6-12 and 3-7, in 
winter from 8 till dusk ; no fee) adjoins the Temple of Castor , near 
S. Maria Liberatrice (comp. the Plan). The part of the Forum next the 
Capitol, containing the Colonnade of the Twelve Gods and the temples 
of Vespasian and Concordia , is now enclosed by a railing and is best 
viewed from above. The street uniting the Via Bonella and Via della Con- 
solazione is generally the scene of a busy traffic. 

Descending from the piazza of the Capitol through the Via del 
Campidoglio to the right, past the Senatorial Palace (comp. p. 211), 
we enjoy from the lower end another good *Subvey op the Forum. 
To the left, below us, lie the temple of Saturn , to which the eight 
unfluted columns belong, the three columns of the temple of Vespa- 
sian, and the arch of Septimius Severus. Farther off, partly hidden 
by the columns of the temple of Saturn, are the column of Phocas, 
the great Basilica, the three columns of the temple of Castor, and 
the bare walls of the temples of Vesta and Caesar. Beyond these, 
to the left, are the temple of Faustina, now converted into a church, 
and the circular temple of Romulus with the church of SS. Cosma 
e Damiano, opposite which are the remains of numerous brick shops 
and houses; then the huge arches of the basilica of Constantine, the 
Colosseum , the arch of Titus , and to the right the ruins and gar- 
dens of the Palatine. 

The first building below the Tabularium fp. 221), in the angle 
formed with it by the street , is the Colonnade of the Twelve Gods 
(deorum consentium) , whose images were erected here in A.D. 367 
by Vettius Agorius Praetextatus, the praefectus urbis, and one of the 
principal champions of expiring paganism. In 1858 the ruin was 
much modernised. The chambers in the colonnade on the side next 
the Temple of Vespasian are generally but erroneously called the 
Schola Xantha (a meeting-place of scribes and notaries). 

To the right of the Colonnade of the Twelve Gods the Tabula- 
rium is adjoined by the Ruin of the Three Columns, or * Temple of 
Vespasian, erected under Domitian, and restored by Septimius 
Severus. The inscription ran thus: l Divo Vespasiano Augusto Se- 
natus populusque Romanus ; imperatores Caesares Severus et Antoni- 
nus Pii Felices Augusti restituer(unt)/ A part of the last word only 
is preserved. The columns and entablature display excellent work- 
manship. In front the temple had 6 columns, 49 ft. high, and 4*/2 ft- 
thick at the base. An egress of the Tabularium (p. 221) through 
the back of the cella has evidently been built up. 

Farther on, to the right, and with its back to the Tabularium, 

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226 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Forum Romarmm. 

is the Temple of Concordia, founded in B.C. 366 by M. Furius 
Camillus, and rebuilt on a larger scale by Tiberius, B.C. 7. It was 
dedicated to Concord to commemorate the termination of the pro- 
tracted struggle between the patricians and plebeians. The Cella of 
this temple differed from the usual type in having its longer axis 
(130 ft.) at right angles to the longer axis of the temple ; it is 82 ft. 
■wide. The N. part of the cella is concealed by the ascent to Aracoeli. 
A broad flight of steps ascended to the Pronaos , which lay 20 ft. 
above the level of the street and was 88 ft. long and 46 ft. wide. 
The interior of the temple was frequently used in early times for 
meetings of the Senate, and after the restoration of Tiberius it seems 
to have served chiefly for the exhibition of works of art. 

The Sacra Via, or 'Holy Way', forming the chief line of com- 
munication between the Capitol and the Forum , passed in front of 
the buildings just named. The ancient pavement is still well pre- 
served neaT the Temple of Saturn (see p. 227) and at some other points. 

In order to continue our examination of the Forum we now pro- 
ceed to the entrance at S. Maria Liberatrice (p. 225), where a flight 
of wooden steps descends to the Temple of Castor. The view from 
this point, reinforced by a reference to the Plan, will help the visitor 
to understand the arrangement of the Forum. 

The *Temple of Castor and Pollux, generally called the Temple 
of Castor (JE&es Castoris or Castorum), was dedicated to the twin 
gods out of gratitude for the aid which enabled the Romans to defeat 
the Latins at the battle of Lake Regillus in B.C. 496, and in- 
augurated in 484. It was afterwards rebuilt by Tiberius and re- 
consecrated in A.D. 6. This was one of the most famous temples of 
the Republic, and was often used for meetings of the senate. The 
remains consist of the basement and a piece of the stylobate on the 
E. side , with three splendid columns of Parian marble. 

The basement of the cella rises to a height of 22 ft., and was ap- 
proached hy a flight of 18 steps, with two lateral flights, of which that 
on the S.E. side only is preserved. The building was mainly constructed 
of concrete, which was faced with blocks of tufa, and around these were 
placed the blocks of travertine which supported the enclosing colonnade. 
These blocks, however, as well as the steps on the W. side, have entirely 
disappeared (although the impression made by them on the concrete is 
still visible), and the width of the building has thus been diminished by 
about one half. On the E. side stands a fragment of the Stylobate, with 
three columns of Parian marble, which are among the finest of the kind 
now existing (height 46 ft., diameter 5 ft.). The Corinthian capitals and 
the architrave are both in a very superior style of workmanship. The 
temple had eight columns in front and probably thirteen on each side. 
Remains of the mosaic pavement of the Cella are still to be seen, lying 
about 3 ft. below the level of the portico and the surrounding colonnade. 
This peculiarity was probably occasioned by the alterations made by 

Between the Temple of the Dioscuri and the Basilica Julia runs 
the Vicus Tuscua, a busy street leading to the Velabrum and the 
cattle-market on the river (p. 248). 

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Forum Romanum. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 227 

the Forum; it was inaugurated in B.C. 46, after the battle of Thap- 
sus, though still unfinished. Augustus extended it, but did not 
witness its completion, as it was destroyed by a fire. The building 
was again twice injured by fire towards the end of the 3rd century. 
It was restored several times, the last being in A. D. 377. The 
building is mentioned in history for the last time in the 7th cent., 
and it was probably destroyed in the 8th. After several partial ex- 
cavations, it was entirely extricated in 1871 and 1882-83. 

The Gbound Plak of the basilica is a rectangle, about 111 yds. long 
and 53 yds. wide. A flight of six, and at places nine, steps ascended to 
the basilica from the street. Along the four sides were double aisles 
which enclosed a Centkal Space, about 90 yds. by 17 yds., paved with 
variegated African and Phrygian marble, and separated from the aisles 
by iron railings. The greater part of the pavement has been restored, 
a few fragments of the original only having been preserved. The sittings 
of the tribunal of the Centumviri, in four different sections, took place 
here. The Aisles were paved with white marble, on which are still seen 
a number of circles, and occasionally writing, scratched on the surface 
by visitors. These were used in playing a game resembling draughts, to 
which the ancient Romans were as devoted as the modern. The aisles 
were separated by a triple row of Columns , of which nothing but the 
bases remain ; the blocks of which they consisted were used in building 
the Pal. Giraud in the Borgo (p. 276) and others. The brick pillars have 
been reconstructed, partly with the original materials. On the W. side 
the remains are somewhat more important, owing to the fact that a 
mediseval church was built in this part of the basilica. Here, on the side 
next the street , still stand marble pillars adorned with Doric pilasters, 
while at the back, facing the Consolazione, are lofty walls of tuffstone 
and travertine. Steps ascended here to the upper story. 

The main arm of the Cloaca Maxima, discovered in 1872, runs 
under the E. end of the Basilica Julia. 

The Vicus Jugarius (street of the yoke-makers) led between the 
Temple of Saturn and the Basilica to the Tiber. Between the Rostra 
and the Basilica the Sacra Via was spanned by the Triumphal Arch 
of Tiberius , erected in A.D. 16 to commemorate the defeat of the 
Germanic tribes and the recovery of the Roman insignia lost at the 
battle of the Teutoburgian Forest. Its remains were scattered in 
1850 on the construction of a modern street, which, however, has 
since been itself demolished. 

The *Temple of Saturn, of which eight granite columns are still 
standing on a high basement, was consecrated by the consuls Sem- 
pronius and Minucius, B. C. 497, and restored by Munatius Plancus 
(B.C. 44?). From the earliest times it was the seat of the JErarium 
Publicum, or public treasury. The inscription, Senatus populusque 
Romanus incendio consumptum restituit, refers to a later restoration, 
undertaken hastily and without taste. Of the lofty flight of steps by 
which the portico was approached there are now but scanty traces. 

In front of the Temple of Saturn is a piece of excellent road- 
paving, contrasting markedly with the rest of the paving in the Fo- 
rum, which is carelessly laid and of a late period. On the Clivus 
Capitolinus, or road ascending to the Capitol, near the Arch of 
Severus, are the remains of the Umbilicus Vrbis Romae, or ideal 


228 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Forum Romanum. 

centre of the city and empire. Traces have also heen found of the 
Milliarium Aureum, 01 central milestone of the roads radiating 
from Rome, erected by Augustus in B.C. 28. 

Over the Sacra Via rises the * Triumphal Arch of Septimius 
Severus, 75 ft. in height, 82 ft. in breadth, with three passages over 
the N. branch of the Sacra Via. It was erected in honour of the em- 
peror and his sons Caracalla and Geta in A.D. 203, to commemorate 
their victories over the Parthians, Arabians, and Adiabeni, and was 
surmounted by a brazen chariot with six horses, on which stood Seve- 
rus, crowned by Victory. Caracalla afterwards erased the name of 
his brother Geta, whom he had murdered. The gap thus made was 
filled by an addition to the titles of Caracalla and his father. 

Above the arches are figures of Victory; at the sides, crowded scenes 
from the wars of the emperor. Side next the Forum : (1.), Raising of the 
siege of Nisibis in the Parthian war; (i\), Treaty with Armenia, Siege of 
Atra. Side next the Capitol: (r.), Siege and capture of Babylon; (1.), 
Crossing of the Euphrates and Tigris, Conquest of Ctesiphon and Seleucia. 
On the bases of the columns, Captive barbarians. All these figures are 
in the degraded style of the sculpture of that period. In the middle ages 
the arch was temporarily converted by the ruling powers into a kind of 
castle , and was deeply imbedded in rubbish , but it was unearthed by 
Pins VII. in 1803. 

Passing through the arch and turning to the right, we see be- 
fore us the massive stone remains of the Rostra, or orators' tribune, 
erected by Julius Csesar. This tribune consisted of an extensive 
raised platform, about 80 ft. long and 40 ft. wide, adorned with 
statues and tablets, and giving the orator room to walk up and down 
during his speech. It has been aptly compared to the preaching 
stages in some of the Roman and Neapolitan churches. 

The original tribune derived the name of Rostra from the iron prows 
of the war-ships of Antium with which it was adorned after the capture 
of that town in B.C. 338. Its position cannot now be definitely fixed, 
but was certainly nearer the Cnria (S. Adriano). Cfcsar transferred it to 
the end of the Forum in the course of his extensive building operations. 
The holes in which the iron prows were fastened are still visible in the 
massive blocks of hewn stone. 

The Rostra naturally faced the Forum proper, the space reserved 
for public assemblies. Most of this area is still covered with houses, 
but the S.W. comer, paved with slabs of limestone, is open to view. 
Anciently it extended to the church of S. Adriano (p. 238), occu- 
pying the site of the Curia, or hall of the Senate. Between S. 
Adriano and the temple of Faustina lay the Basilica JEmilia, the 
site of which is also covered with modern houses. 

Opposite the Rostra , on a rude substructure of blocks of tufa, 
occupying part of the place used by the popular meetings, rises the 
latest monument of antiquity in the Forum, the :i: Column of Phocas, 
54 ft. in height, which was erected in 608 in honour of the tyrant 
Phocas of the Eastern Empire, by the exarch Smaragdus, having 
been taken by him from some older building. Itwas formerly crowned 
with a gilded statue of Phocas. This column, which long formed 
the distinctive mark of the Forum (Byron's 'nameless column with 

Forum Romanum. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 229 

a buried base'), was at length disinterred in 1813 at the cost of the 
Duchess of Devonshire. 

Among the monuments now standing on the pavement of the 
Forum, the first place in point of artistic execution and preservation 
is taken by a marble railing adorned with two admirable re- 
liefs ^AnaglyphcC). These were found in 1872 incorporated in 
the foundations of a mediaeval building. They probably formed 
part of the decoration of the balustrade of the steps ascending to 
the Rostra. They represent events that took place in the Forum it- 
self, and their architectural backgrounds are of great assistance in 
determining its appearance in antiquity. 

The First Relief (next the Capitol) alludes to Trajan's 'Alimenta', or 
institution for poor children : on the right is the emperor, in front of 
him is Italy, holding a child by the hand (destroyed) , and another in 
her arms to which Trajan hands a 'tessera 1 , or ticket; on the left is a 
magistrate with his lictors, proclaiming his edict from the rostra. In the 
background are a Triumphal Arch (perhaps that of Augustus, which stood 
down to the 9th cent, near the church of S. Martina), the Curia (with its 
five Corinthian columns), the Basilica ..Emilia, the Ficus Ruminalis (or 
fig-tree under which the she-wolf reposed) , and the statue of Marsyas 
(which stood at the lower end of the Forum, near the Temple of Castor). 
All these were in or near the N.E. part of the Forum. — The Second 
Relief represents the remission of arrears of taxes , the records of 
which are being set on fire in Trajan's presence. In the background 
are the buildings on the N. and W. sides of the Forum: the Temple of 
Concordia (with eight Corinthian columns) , an arch (perhaps of the Ta- 
bularium), the Temple of Saturn (with eight Ionic columns), and the Ba- 
silica Julia. Marsyas and the fig-tree also again occur. On the inner 
sides are a wild boar, a ram, and a bull, the victims sacrificed at the 
public celebration of the Suovetaurilia. 

The subjoined Views of the N. and W. Sides of the Fokdbi are 
taken, from a point in front of the Anaglypha. At the top are reconstruc- 
tions of the ancient, appearance of the Forum , and below its present ap- 
pearance. In the former the {lutings of the columns have been omitted 
for the sake of clearness. 

In the middle of the square are the remains of a large pedestal, 
probably of the equestrian statue of an emperor. The eight square 
pedestals of brick, which adjoin the Forum on the side next the S. 
branch of the Sacra Via, were formerly lined with marble and pro- 
bably bore granite columns (fragments of which lie scattered about) 
surmounted with statues. The hasty construction points to a late 
origin, perhaps in the reign of Constantine. 

On the E. side of the Forum, and facing the Capitol, is situated 
the Temple of Caesar, near which Caesar had erected a new orator- 
ical tribune. It was from this tribune, at the funeral of the 
murdered dictator on 19th or 20th March, B.C. 44, that Mark An- 
tony pronounced the celebrated oration which wrought so power- 
fully on the passions of the excited populace. A funeral pyre was 
hastily improvised, and the unparalleled honour accorded to the 
illustrious deceased of being burned in view of the most sacred 
shrines of the city. A column with the inscription 'parenti patriae' 
was afterwards erected here to commemorate the event. Augustus 
erected this temple in honour of 'Divus Julius', his deified uncle 

230 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Atrium Vesta. 

and adoptive father, and dedicated it to him in B.C. 29, after the 
battle of Actium. At the same time he adorned the tribune with the 
prows of the captured Egyptian vessels. 

The foundation of the substructures of the temple , consisting of 
concrete, were discovered in 1872, but their covering of solid stone has 
been removed. In front of the temple there are the remains of a plat- 
form, still partly paved with slabs of stone, which is believed to have 
been the above-mentioned tribune or Rostra ad Divi Julii. Its present 
form appears to have resulted from subsequent alterations. 

Between the Temple of Caesar and the Temple of Castor and 
Pollux the remains of a Triumphal Arch of Augustus were recently 
found. This arch spanned the Sacra Via and formed the architectural 
termination of the Forum. 

Farther on, to the S.E. of the Temple of Castor, near the slopes 
of the Palatine, lies a group of buildings connected with one of the 
most venerable cults of Rome, that of Vesta. The circular erection 
of tufa belonged to the celebrated Temple of Vesta , in which 
the sacred tire was kept alight by the Vestal Virgins. Numerous 
fragments of its marble ornamentation strew the ground. The work- 
manship of these is somewhat careless , dating apparently from the 
restoration of the temple in the 3rd century of our era. — A small 
and well-preserved jSdicula, or shrine for the image of a god, 
erected according to the inscription by the Senate and People of 
Rome, was found behind the temple in 1882. 

Adjoining the ^Edicula are a few steps and a side-entrance leading 
to the *Atrium Vestee, or Palace of the Vestal Virgins, excavated 
in 1883-84. The extant ruins are of carefully constructed brick- 
work, which, however, has almost entirely lost its marble facing. 
They date from the imperial period, probably from the 2nd cent, 
of our era. The whole building falls into three divisions : a rect- 
angular colonnaded court, corresponding to the Atrium in private 
houses ; the dwelling-rooms of the Vestals, grouped round a lofty 
square apartment, resembling the ordinary Tablinum ; and the 
kitchen and offices to the right, behind the Atrium. 

The Cocet, 224 ft. long and 75 ft. wide, is the most extensive part 
of the building. It was surrounded by a two-storied arcade, with columns 
of veined green cipollino marble below and red breccia corallina above. 
The middle of the court was probably occupied by fountains and flower- 
beds, in order to make it as pleasant as possible for the Vestals, who were 
confined to their palace like the inmates of a nunnery. The court was 
also adorned with statues of the Head Vestals (Virgines Vestales Maximae), 
of which eleven are still preserved in whole or in part, some showing 
excellent workmanship. The intervention of the Vestal Virgins was often 
very effective in procuring appointments to official and even military 
posts, and the inscriptions on the bases of some of the statues show that 
they were erected by grateful relatives ;ind other recipients of such favours. 
The names (Numisia Maximilla, Terentia Flavola, Flavia Publicia, Coelia 
Claudiana, Terentia Rulilla) belong to the 3rd and 4th cent. (201-364 A. D.). 
At the inner end of the court is a marble-lined cistern for the reception 
of rain-water, as a venerable precept of their cult forbade the priestesses 
to use water conveyed through artificial channels. 

The second division of the palace consists of the Dwelling Booms. 
In the middle is a lofty square room approached by steps. On each side 

SS. Cosma e Damiano. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 231 

of it are three doors giving access to what are supposed to be the cells 
of the six priestesses. There were other apartments in the upper floor, 
of which, however, a part only, including several bath-rooms, has been 
preserved. A wooden staircase ascends from one of the apartments on the 
S. side. Here also is an exit leading to the Nova Via, which diverged 
from the Sacra Via at the Arch of Titus (p. 244). 

The third group of rooms, behind the Atrium, to the right, were 
used for Domestic Purposes. A mill, a kitchen, and several storerooms 
may be here observed. 

We now return to the Temple of Vesta and continue our walk 
along the Sacra Via. 

Between the temples of Vesta and Faustina are a few fragments 
of the marble walls of the Regia, or official quarters of the Pontifex 
Maximus. The Fasti preserved in the Capitol (see p. 215) were 
found here. At the Regia the Sacra Via was spanned by the Arch of 
the Fabii, erected in B.C. 120 by Q.Fabius Maximus, the conqueror 
of the Allobrogi , and forming the S.E. boundary of the Forum. A 
few scattered fragments of its stone-facing and vaulting have been 
discovered, and may now be seen opposite SS. Cosma e Damiano. 
The exact site of the arch cannot be identified. 

Farther on in the Sacra Via , on a base 16 ft. above the street 
and formerly reached by a flight of steps, is the *Temple of Faustina, 
of which the portico (with ten columns, six of which form the facade) 
and part of the cella are still standing. It was dedicated by An- 
toninus in 141 to his wife, the elder Faustina, and re-dedicated to 
that emperor himself after his death. The first line of the inscrip- 
tion , Divo Antonino et divae Faustinas ex 8.C., was then added. 
In the interior of the temple is the church of <S. Lorenzo in Miranda. 

The portico was excavated in 1807 and 1810. The columns are of 
cipollino, or marble of Eubcea, and are 46 ft. in height. The cella is of 
peperine, the marble incrustation of which has entirely disappeared. — The 
year of the foundation of the church is unknown, and the earliest record 
of it dates from 1377. The facade was erected in 1602. The entrance is 
at present in the Via di S. Lorenzo in Miranda, on the S.E. side. 

A hill, named the Velia in ancient times, connects the Palatine 
and Esquiline, its highest point being marked by the Arch of Titus 
(97 ft.; p. 233). The Sacra Via ascends gradually towards the 
S.E., and soon reaches — 

*SS. Cosma e Damiano (PI. II, 20, 5: entrance in the Via di 
Miranda) , built by Felix IV. (526-30) , having been incorporated 
with an ancient circular temple erected, by the Emp. Maxentius to 
his son Romulus, and sometimes erroneously called a temple of the 
Penates. Owing to the dampness of the soil, Urban VIII. raised 
the level of the pavement so much in 1633 , that an upper and a 
lower church were formed. 

The Lower Church, which retains its old bronze doors with their an- 
tique lock, contains the tomb of SS. Cosmas, Damianus, and Felix, an an- 
cient altar, remains of an ancient pavement, and somewhat lower a spring, 
said to have been called forth by St. Felix. 

Upper Church. On the arch of the choir and in the tribune are inter- 
esting "Mosaics of the 6th cent., the period of the founder, perhaps the most 

232 IV. Ancient Rame. ROME. Basilica of Constantine. 

beautiful of their kind at Borne (gee p. xlvi), but freely restored about 1GG0 
(best light towards evening). Those on the arch, which has been shortened 
during a restoration, represent the Lamb with the Book with seven seals, 
according to Revelations iv. ; adjoining these the seven candlesticks , four 
angels, and two of the symbols (angel and eagle) of the Evangelists. The 
arms with wreaths, below, belonged to two prophets. In the tribune: 
Christ , to whom the saints Cosmas and Damianus are conducted by Peter 
and Paul ; on the left side St. Felix with the church (new) , on the right 
St. Theodorus. Beneath , Christ as the Lamb , towards whom the twelve 
lambs (Apostles) turn. 

At the back of the church were found the remains of an ancient 
plan of Rome, other fragments of which were discovered in 1867-68 and in 
1882 (see p. 217). The ancient wall to which the plan was affixed belonged 
to the Templum Sacrae Urbis, an edifice erected by Vespasian in A.D. 
78 and restored by Septimius Severus, which seems to have been used 
as a repository for the archives of the censor, municipal plans, registra- 
tion lists, etc. 

We next reach, on the left, the three colossal arches of the *Ba- 
silica of Constantine (PI. II, 20, 23), erected by Maxentius, but 
afterwards altered by his conqueror Constantine. The entrance ori- 
ginally faced the Colosseum, but afterwards the Sacra Via. It was 
a basilica of three halls, with vaulting of vast span, which has served 
as a model to modern architects, as in the case of St. Peter's, where 
the nave-vaulting is of the same width. 

The Ground Plan is rectangular in form , about 100 yds. long and 
88 yds. wide. The principal apse, opposite the entrance from the Colos- 
seum, has lately been extricated from rubbish, but is only partly preserved. 
After the opening of the second entrance on the side next the Palatine, 
a second apse was added. The tunnel vaulting of the S. aisle has been 
preserved; width 66 ft., depth 54 ft., height 78 ft. The span of the nave 
was about 80 ft. ; its height 112 ft., and its width 66 ft. In front of the 
central pillars stood eight huge Corinthian columns of white marble; the 
only one now existing stands in front of S. Maria Maggiore (p. 176). The 
entrance facing the .Sacra Via was formerly adorned with columns of red 
porphyry, some of the shafts of which have been re-erected. 

The traveller should not omit to ascend to the summit for the sake 
of the magnificent '"-Panorama of ancient Rome which it commands. As, 
however, the Via in Miranda is row inaccessible from the Forum, we must 
make a detour to reach the roof; perhaps the best plan is to ascend on 
the way back from the Colosseum. Those who wish also to visit the 
interior follow the road between the side of S. Francesca Romana and the 
high garden-wall , and opposite the Colosseum turn sharply to the left 
and descend the Via del Colosseo. At the corner here is No. 61, a home 
for poor girls (visitors ring; l /2 fr.), from the garden of which we ascend a 
light of steps. A window adjoining the stairs affords the best view of 
Colosseum, to the left of which are the Thermae of Titus on the Es- 
quiline; to the right the circular S. Stefano; nearer, SS. Giovanni e Paolo 
with the new dome, both on the Cselius. Beyond the Colosseum the 
Alban, and to the left the Sabine Mts. To the S. the Palatine with the 
ruins of the imperial palaces and two monasteries, and the opposite bank 
of the Tiber with the Villa Pamphilj. Towards the W. the Capitol; to 
the right of it, between the domes of two churches, Trajan's Column is 
visible; above the latter Monte Mario; farther to the right the Torre di 
Kerone and the (Juirinal. 

Adjoining the basilica of Constantine, and partly occupying the 
site of a temple of Venus and Roma (see p. 233j, is the church of — 

S. Francesca Romana (PI. II, 23), containing the tomb oi Fran- 
cesca de' Ponziani, who died in 1440 and was canonised in 1G08 

.Arch of Titus. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 233 

(festival, 9th Mairh). It occupies the site of a much older church, 
mentioned as S. Maria Antiqua as early as the 8th cent., which -was 
afterwards repeatedly altered. The most extensive restoration was 
carried out by Honorius III. ahout 1216, after a lire. In the later 
middle ages it was called S. Maria Nova. The facade, by Carlo 
Lombardo, was added ahout 1612. 

Interior. On the right, 2nd Chapel: (r.) Monument of Card. Vulcani 
(d. 1322) and that of the papal commandant and general Antonio Rido (d. 1475). 
3rd Chapel: Miracles of St. Benedict, altar-piece by Subleyras. In the 
Tribune mosaics of the 12th cent, (lately restored) : in the centre Madonna, 
(1.) SS. John and James, (r.) Peter and Andrew. Over the high-altar an 
ancient Madonna, traditionally attributed to St. Luke, which is said alone 
to have escaped destruction in the conflagration. To the right of the apse : 
monument of Gregory XI., who transferred the papal residence from Avignon 
to Rome (d. 1378), with a relief by Olivieri. Here on the right, built into 
the wall, are two stones on which Peter and Paul are said to have knelt 
when they prayed for the punishment of Simon Magus. In the Confessio a 
group of the saints with an angel, by Meli. Under the tribune (closed) is 
the tomb of the saint, and over the altar a marble relief by Bernini. ■ — 
Sackistt. On the left wall a Madonna with four saints , by Sinibaldo Hi, 
a pupil of Perugino, 1524. 

Adjoining the church, on the summit of the Velia (p. 231) and 
at the foot of the Palatine, rises the *Triumphal Arch, of Titus, 
commemorating the defeat of the Jews (A.D. 70), and dedicated to 
him under his successor Domitian in 81, as the inscription on the 
side next the Colosseum records : Senatus populusque Romanus divo 
Tito divi Vespasiani filio Vespasiano Augusto. The arch is embel- 
lished with fine *Reliefs (p. xxxvii). 

Outside : On the same side as the inscription is a sacrificial procession 
on the frieze. Inside : Titus crowned by Victory in a quadriga driven by 
Roma; opposite, the triumphal procession with the captive Jews, table 
with the show-bread, and candlestick with seven branches. — In the 
middle ages the arch was used as a fortress by the Frangipani, and 
strengthened with baitlements and new walls. When these were removed 
in 1822 under Pius VII., the arch lost its support, and had to be recon- 
structed, as stated by the inscription on the other side. The central part, 
in marble, is therefore alone ancient ; the restored parts are of travertine. 

The street descends past the remains of private houses to the 
Colosseum. [To the right diverges the Via S. Bonaventura, with 
the convent oiS. Bonaventura; the convent-garden, open to gentle- 
men, contains a fine palm and commands a beautiful view.] On 
the left is the double apse of the Temple of Venus and Roma (PI. 
II, 20), erected by Hadrian from a plan by himself inA.D. 135, and 
restored after a fire by Maxentius in 307. This was one of the most 
superb temples in Rome. The gilded bronze tiles were removed to 
St. Peter's by Honorius I. in 626. 

There were evidently two temples under the same roof, entered from 
the sides next the Colosseum and next the Capitol. The cellse were 
adjacent, so that there was a niche on each side of the central wall for 
the image of a god. The older portion, with a well-preserved :: Apse, is 
.built into the monastery of S. Francesca Roinana (p. 232), which is now 
occupied by the Directors of the Excavations ; the other half towards the 
Colosseum is open. The vestibules of the cellse had each four columns 
in front. Around each ran a colonnade of ten columns at the ends, and 
twenty at the sides (length 120yds., width 58 yds.). This colonnade was 

234 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Colosseum. 

enclosed by a second, of about 200 columns, 180 yds. long, and 110 yds. 
wide, and projecting as far as the street, where it was supported by 
massive substructures. To this colonnade belonged the granite shafts 
scattered about here. The cellse were encrusted with the rarest marbles. 

Descending hence towards the Colosseum, we reach the so-called 
Meta Sudans, the partly restored brick interior of a magnificent 
fountain erected here by Domitian. To the right we see the Arch 
of Constantine (p. 236). To the lefr (N. ) we observe the remains 
of an extensive square Basis of masonry. Here once stood the gilded 
bronze Colossal Statue of Nero, as god of the sun, surrounded with 
rays, and about 117 ft. in height, executed by Zenodorus by order of 
the emperor himself, to grace the golden palace which he erected with 
lavish splendour after the burning of Rome in A.D. 64. The palace 
fell to decay soon after Nero's death in 68 (p. 133), and the statue 
was removed by Hadrian to this pedestal. In the space occupied by 
an artificial lake in the gardens of Nero , Vespasian founded the — 

** Colosseum (PI. II, 24), originally called the Amphitheatrum 
Flavium, the largest theatre, and one of the most imposing struc- 
tures in the world , completed by Titus in A. D. 80. It was in- 
augurated by gladiatorial combats , continued during 100 days, in 
which 5000 wild animals were killed, and naval contests were ex- 
hibited; and it contained seats for 87,000 spectators. The building 
has been known since the 8th cent, under its present name, derived 
probably from the colossal statue of Nero which once adorned it. 

Having been injured by fire in the reign of Macrinus, it was restored 
by Alexander Severus. In 248 the Emp. Philip here celebrated the 1000th 
anniversary of the foundation of Rome with magnificent games. In 405 
gladiator-combats were abolished by Honorius as inconsistent with the pre- 
cepts of Christianity, but wil'l-beast fights were continued till the time of 
Theodoric the Great. In the Middle Ages the Colosseum was used by the 
Roman barons, especially the Frangipani, as a fortress. In 1312 the Anni- 
baldi were obliged to surrender it to Emp. Henry VII., who presented it 
to the Roman senate and people. In 1332 the Roman nobility again intro- 
duced bull-fights. After this period, however, the destruction of the Colos- 
seum began, and the stupendous pile began to be regarded as a kind of 
quarry. In the 15th cent. Paul II. here procured materials for the con- 
struction of the Pal. di H. Marco (di Veuezia) , Card. Riario for the Can- 
celleria, and Paul III. (1534-49) for the Palazzo Farnese. Sixtus V. pro- 
posed to establish a cloth-factory here, and Clement XI. actually used the 
building for the manufacture of saltpetre. Benedict XIV. (1740-58) was 
the first to protect the edifice from farther demolition by consecrating the 
interior to the Passion of Christ, referring to the frequency with which the 
blood of martyrs had flowed there ; and he erected small chapels within 
it , which were removed in 1874. The following popes , particularly 
Pius VII. and Leo X1L, have averted the imminent danger of the fall of 
the ruins by the erection of huge buttresses. The steps in the interior were 
restored by Pius IX. 

The Colosseum is constructed of blocks of travertine, originally 
held together by iron cramps, and tufa and bricks have also been 
used in the interior. The numerous holes were bored in the middle 
ages, for the purpose of extracting the then very valuable iron. 
According to the most trustworthy statistics the external circum- 
ference of the elliptical structuie measures 576 yds., or nearly one- 
third of a mile, the long diameter 205 yds., the shorter 170 yds., 

The Colosseum. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 235 

the arena 93 yds. by 58 yds., and the height 156 ft. Above the 
arena rise the tiers of seats, intersected by steps and passages most 
of which are now in ruins and only partly accessible. 

The exterior of the still preserved N.E. portion, on the side 
next the Esquiline , consists of four stories, the three first being 
formed by arcades, the pillars of which are adorned with half-columns 
of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian order in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd 
stories respectively. A wall with windows between Corinthian 
pilasters forms the 4th story. Statues were placed in the arcades of 
the 2nd and 3rd stories , as appears from the representations on 
ancient coins. At the ends of the diameters are the four triple 
Principal Entrances, those next to the Esquiline and Cslius 
being destined for the emperor, the others for the solemn proces- 
sion before the beginning of the games, and for the introduction 
of the animals and machinery. On the side next the Esquiline are 
seen traces of the stucco-decorations, which were used as models by 
Giovanni daUdine, the pupil of Raphael. The arcades of the lowest 
story served as entrances for the spectators, and were furnished with 
numbers up to lxxvi (Nos. xxiii to liv still exist), in order to in- 
dicate the staircases to the different seats. Below, on the exterior 
are two rows of arcades ; inside a massive substructure for the seats'. 
Every fourth arch contains a staircase. 

Part of the Tiers op Seats is still distinguishable ; the foremost, 
called the Podium, was destined for the emperor, the senators, and 
the Vestal Virgins. The emperor occupied a raised seat, called the 
Pulvinar, and the others had seats of honour. Above the Podium 
rose three other classes of seats, the first of which was allotted to the 
knights. The humbler spectators occupied the last division , in a 
colonnade , on the roof of which were stationed sailors of the im- 
perial fleet for the purpose of stretching sail-cloth over the whole 
amphitheatre to exclude the glare of sun. Apertures are still seen 
in the external coping, with corbels below them , for the support of 
the masts to which the necessary ropes were attached. 

Under the Arena, and adjacent to the foundations of the inner 
wall , were chambers and dens for the wild beasts. More towards 
the centre were found a number of walls, pillars, and arches, partly 
required for the support of the arena , and partly connected with 
the theatrical apparatus employed in some of the performances. 
Since 1874 one half of the arena has been disclosed by excavations. 
The precise uses of the various chambers are not yet ascertained. 
Although one-third only of the gigantic structure remains, the 
ruins are still stupendously impressive. An architect of last century 
estimated the value of the materials still existing at iy 2 million 
scudi, which according to the present value of money would be equi- 
valent to at least half a million pounds sterling. The Colosseum has 
ever been a symbol of the greatness of Rome, and gave rise in the 
8th cent, to a prophetic saying of the pilgrims : — 

236 1 V. Ancient Rome. ROME. Arch of Constantine. 

'While stands the Colosseum, Rome shall stand, 

When falls the Colosseum, Rome shall fall, 

And when Rome falls, with it shall fall the World !' 

The Upper Stories should be visited by those who desire to obtain 
a distinct idea of the character of the structure (custodian found at the 
entrance next to the Palatine; gratuities forbidden). We ascend a new 
stone staircase to the first story. Of the three arcades here we follow the 
innermost, which affords a survey of the interior. Over the entrance from 
the Palatine a modern staircase of 48 steps ascends to the 2nd, and then 
to the left to a projection in the 3rd story. The "View from the restored 
balustrade to the right in the 4th story, to which 55 more steps ascend, 
is still more extensive. It embraces the Cielius with S. Stefano Rotondo 
and SS. Giovanni e Paolo; farther off, the Aventine with S. Balbina, in 
the background S. Paolo Fuori; nearer, to the right, the Pyramid of 
Cestius; to the right the Palatine, with the arches of the Aqua Claudia. 

The Colosseum is profoundly impressive by Moonlight, or when 
illuminated (e.g., by Bengal lights; comp. p. 122). The traveller should 
avail himself of a fine moonlight night for the purpose. Visitors may 
enter the arena at any hour of the night, but a special permesso of the 
Ministry is necessary for access to the tiers of seats. The Flora found 
among the ruins of the Colosseum once comprised 420 species, which were 
collected by an English botanist, but most of them have disappeared. 

To the S.W. of the Colosseum, between the Caelius and Pala- 
tine, spanning the Via Triumphalis which here joined the Sacra 
Via, stands the — 

* Triumphal Arch of Constantine (PL II, 24), the best-preserved 
structure of the kind in Rome, erected after the victory over Maxen- 
tius at Saxa Rubra, near the Ponte Molle, in 311, when Constantine 
declared himself in favour of Christianity. The inscription runs thus : 
Imp. Cues. Fl. Constantino Maximo pio felici Augusto Senatus Po- 
pulusque Bomanus , quod instinctu divinitatis mentis magnitudine 
cum exercitu suo tarn de tyranno quam de omni ejus factions uno 
tempore justis rem publicum ultus est armis arcum triumphis insignem 
dicavit. The arch has three passages. The greater part of the orna- 
mentation and the admirable *Sculpturbs were brought from an arch 
of Trajan which stood at the entrance to Trajan's Forum, contrast- 
ing strongly with the rude additions of the time of Constantine. 

From the Arch of Trajan : Above, the captive Dacians (ancient; but 
one of them, and the heads and hands of the others, are new). Reliefs 
(facing the Colosseum, to the left): 1. Trajan's entry into Rome; to the 
right of it, 2. Prolongation of the Via Appia; 3. Trajan causing poor 
children to be educated; 4. Trajan condemning a barbarian. On the 
other side, to the left: 5. Trajan crowning the Parthian king Parthamas- 
pates ; 6. Soldiers bringing two barbarians before Trajan; 7. Trajan 
addressing the army; 8. Trajan sacrificing. The eight Medallions below 
these reliefs represent sacrifices and hunting-scenes; on the narrow sides 
two battles with the Dacians; below the central arch, the vanquished 
imploring pardon, and Trajan crowned by Victory. — The marked con- 
trast between the two different periods of art is exhibited by the smaller 
reliefs inserted between the medallions, representing the achievements of 
Constantine in war and in peace. In 1804 Pius VII. caused the arch to 
be thoroughly excavated. In the 10th cent, it was converted into a castle, 
and afterwards belonged to the Frangipani. 

On the opposite side , a few hundred paces to the N.E. of the 
Colosseum, in the Via Labicana, lirst gate to the left (whence the 

Thermae of Titus. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 237 

Via della Polveriera ascends to the left bet-ween walls in 5 min. to 
S. Pietro in Vincoli, p. 182), are situated on the Esquiline the — 

Thermae of Titus (PL II, 26 ; adm., see p. 124) ; visitors should 
be careful not to enter these ruins in a heated condition. Maecenas 
once had a villa here, which was afterwards incorporated with the 
golden palace of Nero. On the site of the latter, in A.D. 80, Titus 
hastily erected his sumptuous Thermae, which were altered and 
enlarged by Domitian, Trajan, and others. The Thermae themselves, 
though still nearly entire in the 16th cent., have now almost vanish- 
ed; some fragments of them are scattered over the vineyards be- 
tween the Via Labicana and the Via S. Pietro in Vincoli. The 
small part now accessible, excavated in 1813, belongs almost wholly 
to Nero's building. 

The nine long vaulted parallel passages first entered belong to the 
building of Titus and formed, together the substructure of a large semi- 
circular Exedra, such as is found at the Thermee of Diocletian, Caracalla 
(p. 255), and others. Nero's buildings form an angle of 45° with the axis 
of the Thermee. A suite of seven rooms is first entered here; to the left, 
near that in the centre, are remains of a spring. The special purpose of 
these rooms, which seem to have had no connection with the Thermae, 
cannot be definitely settled. Their chief interest lies in the beautiful 
mural paintings, which served as models for Giovanni da Udine and Ra- 
phael in the decoration of the loggie. The custodian points out the spot 
where the Laocoon is said to have been found, but this famous group 
was really found at the Sette Sale (p. 181). 

Fora of the Emperors. Academy of St. Luke. 

In the plain to the N.E. of the Forum of the Republic lay the 
Fora of the Emperors, which were erected rather as monuments to 
their founders and ornaments to the city than for political purposes, 
and were chiefly used for judicial proceedings. The chief edifice 
in these fora was always a temple. The Forum Julium , the first 
of the kind, was begun by Cassar and completed by Augustus; the 
second was built by Augustus. A third, in front of the Templum 
Macrae Urbis (p. 232), was constructed by Vespasian. Between 
this forum and the first two lay the Forum Transitorium (see 
p. 239), to the N. of which was that of Trajan (p. 240), the most 
magnificent of all. 

We begin our inspection at theN. corner of the Forum Romanum, 
where the Via dell' Arco di Settimio Severo (p. 211), descending 
from the Capitol, unites witli the Via di Marforio (p. 163). 

Here, in the Via di Marforio, lies the small church of S. Giu- 
seppe de' Faleynami (PI. II, 20, 3), which is built over the Career 
Mamertinus, one of the most ancient structures in Rome (entr. from 
the church ; light supplied by the sacristan, 1 / i fr.). This was ori- 
ginally built over a well, named Tullianum, and thence traditionally 
attributed to Servius Tullius, and it was afterwards used as a prison. 

It consists of two chambers, one below the other, of very ancient 
construction. The upper is an irregular quadrilateral, which was probably 
once adjoined by other similar chambers. An inscription on the front 
records a restoration , probably at the beginning of the Imperial period. 

238 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Accademia di 8. Luca. 

The lower chamber, which was originally accessible only through a hole 
in the ceiling, is 19 ft. long, 10 ft. wide, and 6y 2 ft. high. The vaulting 
is formed by the gradual projection of the side-walls until they meet. It 
contains a spring, which, according to the legend, St. Peter, who was 
imprisoned here under Nero , miraculously caused to flow in order to 
baptise his jailors. The building has therefore been named S. Pietro in 
Carcere since the 15th century. In this dungeon perished Jugurtha (after 
having been deprived of food for six days), Vercingetorix, and other con- 
quered enemies. Sallust, in recording the execution of Catiline's confede- 
rates, describes the prison thus: — 'Est in carcere locus, quod Tullianum 
appellatur, circiter duodecim pedes humi depressus. Eum miniunt undique 
parietes atque insuper camera lapideis fornicibus vincta; sed incultu te- 
nebris odore foeda atque terribilis ejus facies est.' (In the prison is a 
chamber named the Tullianum, about 12 ft. below the surface of the 
ground. This is surrounded by walls and covered by a vaulted stone roof ; 
but its appearance is repulsive and terrible on